Food technologyIssues → № 1 (355), 2017

Table of contents for # 1 (355), 2017

Scientific Review

6

Prospects for flaxseed oil as an ingredient of cosmetic products

T.V. Pelipenko, S.K. Mustafaev, E.A. Kalienko
Annotation

The thematic review of the works considering flaxseed oil as ingredient of cosmetics is presented. It is noted that various vegetable oils are used in cosmetic products, but one of the most perspective of them is flaxseed oil. However, its use is constrained by high oxidability which is caused by high content of polyunsaturated linoleic acid u-6 and especially a-linolenic acid ?-3. It is shown that one of the most acceptable ways to reduce oxidability in flaxseed oil is to use a blend of flaxseeds made of those varieties which have low and high content of linolenic acid. In this case it is possible to get the ratio between ?-6 and ?-3 fatty acids which is optimal for vegetable oils used as ingredients on cosmetic products. It was suggested using the technology of pressing the blend of flaxseed oils made of varieties with low and high content of linolenic acid which allows to produce high quality oil with low content of acids. It has been observed that chemical composition, viscosity, surface tension, pourability and sensor characteristics should be taken into consideration when the introduction of flaxseed oil with optimal ratio of ?-6 and ?-3 fatty acids into the formulation of a cosmetic product, as physical-chemical and consumer properties.

Keywords: flaxseed oil, fatty and acid composition, cosmetic ingredient, pourabiliuty, viscosity, surface tension, sensor evaluation.
9

Use of processing products of lupine seeds in the food industry

YU.N. Nikonovich, N.A. Tarasenko, D.YU. Bolgova
Annotation

A review of studies of the chemical composition of lupine seeds, energy value, moisture, iliovasilema and emulsifying abilities of processing products of this crop is presented. A list of products with the use of this protein fortifier is given. Advantages and disadvantages of the use of lupine in food production are considered. It is noted that the existing limitations on the number of introduction of food proteins from lupine seeds containing alkaloids, make the necessary pilot studies to develop optimum formulation of new food products using this legume. The use of lupine seeds in the food industry for the production of therapeutic-prophylactic, dietetic and functional purposes with specified protein content and a balanced chemical composition is a promising. This can give several advantages in comparison with traditional technologies of food production: for example, to increase the content of vitamins, mineral substances, reduce energy and increase biological value of the product.

Keywords: lupine, lupine seeds, protein, non-traditional plant raw materials, enrichment of the product.

Raw Material

13

Justification of the feasibility use of non-traditional plant materials in the technology of flour products

A.S. Khamitsaeva, F.L. Kudzieva, A.S. Tsarueva, M.S. Gazzaeva, I.B. Kisieva, M.T. Muzaeva, F.I. Dzusova
Annotation

Non-traditional plant materials (PM) for the use of its products for the enrichment of flour products were investigated. Perennial plants: burdock (Arntium lappa L., family Compositae Asteraceaa), hops ordinary (Humulus lupulus, family Cannabaceae), garden burnet (Sanguisorba glanduloza Kom., family Rosaceaa-Sanguisorba officinalis L.) are chosen as research objects. The safety indicators of raw materials, which allow to characterize it as a environmentally friendly, determined. The chemical composition of the samples of the PM was studied. The composition of macro – and microelements and biologically active substances of plant raw materials was investigated. The content of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, mono- and disaccharides, as well as alkaloids, flavonoids, and vitamins C and B in the samples investigated PM are higher than in the flour of 1-st grade. The mineral composition of PM includes calcium and phosphorus, the content of which in the samples is close to optimal for the treatment and prevention products. The content of selenium, copper and cobalt in the investigated samples of PM is in the range of therapeutic doses. Found that the addition-products of PM in flour products can increase the biological value of the finished product and contribute to the general improvement of an organism.

Keywords: non-traditional vegetable raw materials, hops ordinary, burdock, garden burnet, product enrichment, functional flour products, biologically active substances.
17

Quality assessment of raw zucchini grown in the Novosibirsk region

S.YU. Glebova
Annotation

Assessment of the quality of mix of grades of zucchini grown in the Novosibirsk region is given. Evaluation of fruit quality performed according to the quality requirements of GOST 31822-2012 “Zucchini raw, sold in retail trade. Technical conditions”. It is established that the studied zucchini correspond to the characteristics and regulations of this standard the requirements of the
2nd grade. It is established that major nutrients characterizing the chemical composition of the investigated zucchini, correspond to average data. Study of organoleptic indicators of the quality of zucchini (9.66 points on a 10-point scale) was conducted. They show that the studied products can be sold in retail network and used for processing food without any restrictions.

Keywords: zucchini raw, quality assessment of the product, compliance of the product requirements of the standard.

Chemistry of Food Products & Materials

20

Influence of ripeness level sunflower seeds on hydrotability of phospholipids in the extracted vegetable oils

L.A. Mkhitaryants, E.A. Verbitskaya, G.A. Mkhitaryants
Annotation

The influence of immature – physiological and harvesting ripeness level – of sunflower seeds production in mixtures for quantitative extraction of phospholipids and their hydrotability has been researched. Seeds of sunflower varieties Berezanskiy ware the object of research. It is established that the processes of accumulation of lipid and protein substances are almost completed to the stage of physiological ripeness level and the quantitative indicators of their mass fraction at the stage of physiological, harvesting and full maturity differ slightly. It is proved that the ripeness level of sunflower seeds affects the content of phospholipids in the extracted oils.With increasing ripeness level of seeds the total transition of the phospholipids in the oil is reduced. The content of phospholipids in the oils obtained from full maturity on a root the seeds, 0,25% versus 0,55% in the oils from seeds of physiological ripeness level. Oil obtained from unripe seeds in mild conditions, an exhaustive extraction with diethyl ether, characterized by a high degree of hydrotability of extracted phospholipids. Acid and peroxide value of oils on the ripening of seeds is reduced.

Keywords: sunflower seeds, ripeness level of seed, phospholipids, hydrotability phospholipids, properties of oils.
22

Change in the protein complex of sesame seeds at thermal treatment

A.D. Minakova, I.V. Surukhanova, L.A. Mkhitaryants
Annotation

The change in the protein complex of sesame seeds grade “Kubanets 55” in modes of temperature drying of 40, 60 and 90°C was examined. The dependence of all groups proteins from of the intensity of the temperature effects is shown. When exposed to a temperature of 90°C the content of albumins decreases twice in comparison with the control, accumulation of glutelins happens. Globulins undergo the most complex changes. At the heating temperature of the seeds above 60°C the ratio between the nitrogen of the albumin, globulin and glutelin changes: before drying, it was 5 : 13 : 4, the temperature increase leads to deep denaturation changes and the ratio of the respective groups of proteins becomes 2 : 10 : 9. The ratio between water-, salt- and dilacerations non-protein nitrogen before drying in sesame seeds was 4 : 6 : 2, after drying at 90°C – 3 : 6 : 7. It was found that after thermal treatment at 40°C proteins of sesame seeds as accessible as possible to the action of the complex enzymes of the gastrointestinal tract. At a higher temperature – 60°N – availability of protein globules is reduced, and at 90°N it is minimal. Electrophoretic study of the proteins of sesame seeds that had undergone drying under different temperature modes shows that the anodic heterogeneous proteins undergo the greatest change: their range at a temperature of 90°C presented seven of electrophoretic fractions characterized by a relatively small mobility. Cathodic proteins are also modified, but they are more resistant to temperature than proteins acidic in nature. Thus, low-temperature drying promotes improvement of indicators of quality proteins. Therefore, to improve functional properties and enhance the digestibility of proteins from sesame seeds, used in the formulation of culinary and confectionery products, processing of wet sesame seeds at a temperature not above 40°C is recommended.

Keywords: thermal drying, sesame seeds, protein complex, electrophoretic composition of proteins, proteolytic enzymes, digestibility of protein.
25

Influence of priority water contaminants on the stability on the vitamins in juice-based of fruit-whey drinks

T.A. Krasnova, I.V. Timoshnhuk, YU.S. Shulzhenko
Annotation

The vitality of vitamins in samples of juice-basis of black currant, raspberry, cherry, used in the production of fruit whey drinks, in the presence of priority organic pollutants such as phenol, chlorophenol and chloroform, formed during chlorination of water used for the production of juice bases, in the water treatment process was investigated. The concentration of organic contaminants in the samples amounted to 10 MPC. The contents of vitamins B1, B3, B5, B6, B9 and C in the samples of juice-bases, cooked with water without organic impurities, is determined. It is revealed that the vitality of vitamins in juice-based is not changed in the presence of chloroform. It is established that the joint presence of phenol and chlorophenol in water to prepare juice-bases the contents of vitamins B1, B3, B5, B6 and C in all samples is reduced by 15–90%. The mechanism of interaction of vitamins with phenol and chlorophenol theoretically is justified. To prevent poor quality fruit-whey drinks recommended water used for their production, is first subjected to additional purification from organic substances.

Keywords: phenol, chlorophenol, chloroform, water tap, fruit-whey drinks, vitamins, juice-base.
28

Decrease of intensity accumulation of oxidation products in the fatty phase of butter cream with the addition of concentrated juice fruits and berries at storage in different conditions

M.S. Voronina, N.V. Makarova
Annotation

The influence of additives concentrated juice of fruits and berries in butter cream on the contents of the primary and secondary products of oxidation of fats in the fatty phase of the cream when the product is stored in conditions of exposure to precipitating factors is investigated. Butter cream, prepared according to traditional recipes without additives (control sample), and samples with the addition of concentrated juice of cherry, black currant, Aronia, blueberries in an amount of 3–5% by weight of the finished prefabricated finishing were the objects of study. Each sample was stored for 5 days under different conditions: under the influence of precipitating factors – high humidity 90%, temperature fluctuations from 0 to 20°C, constant light source and vacuum .acking. The results of the determination according to standard methods of acid, peroxide, anisidine and thiobarbituric (acid reactive assay) numbers of the samples of cream were used as indicators of the degree of oxidation of fat fraction of the cream. Found that by introducing additives in the form of concentrated juice of fruits and berries in butter cream stored under the influence of precipitating factors, the content of primary and secondary oxidation products in it is significantly reduced. Samples of cream by the addition of concentrated juice from berries of black currant and blueberry showed the best antioxidant properties in the determination of all the indicators of the degree of oxidation of fat fraction of the cream. High levels of safety of the product in the control sample without additives in vacuum packing in all methods of research, but the introduction of supplements of concentrated juice of fruits and berries improve these indicators.

Keywords: product safety, fat-containing product, primary and secondary products of fat oxidation, antioxidant properties, cherry juice, black currant juice, the juice of Aronia, blueberry juice, vacuum packing.
32

Comparative analysis of the chemical compound of the fruits cherry and sweet cherry of different varieties grown in the Samara region

T.O. Bykova , S.A. Aleksashina, A.V. Demidova, N.V. Makarova, L.G. Demenina
Annotation

Chemical compound and indices of antioxidant activity (AOA) of varietal cherry and sweet cherry that is grown on the territory of the Samara region are investigated. Varieties of the cherry “Desertnaya volzhskaya”, “Mayak”, “Elita 1-6-4”, “Krupnoplodnaya volzhskaya”, “Zhukovskaya”, “Zastenchivaya”, “Molodezhnaya”, “Saratovskaya malyshka”, “Samarskaya desertnaya”, “Malinovka” and varieties of the sweet cherry “Fatezh” and “Tyutchevka” by collection of Institute of horticulture and drugl plants “Zhigulevskie sady” harvest 2016 were the objects of study. The following indicators are determined: the titratable acidity, mass fraction of soluble solids, total sugar content, total content of phenolic compounds using the reagent Folin–Ciocalteau, total content of flavonoids and anthocyanins photocolorimetric method, reducing power by FRAP method, the antioxidant activity in the linoleic acid system, antioxidant activity by DPPH method. It is established that the minimum amount of acid contained in varieties cherry “Zastenchivaya”and “Krupnoplodnaya volzhskaya”, most of the acid contained in the cherry varieties “Elita 1-6-4”and “Mayak”. The least amount of soluble solids contained in the cherry varieties “Mayak” and a maximum in the variety cherry “Samarskaya desertnaya”. Varieties of sweet cherries contain intermediate concentration of acid and soluble solids. Sweet cherries compared to cherries contain small amounts of phenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins, as well as poorly shows various antioxidant properties. Varieties of cherry “Krupnoplodnaya volzhskaya”and “Zastenchivaya”large amounts of phenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins, it has high rates of antioxidant properties, so these varieties are recommended for the creation of food products of functional purpose. Varieties of cherry “Saratovskaya malyshka”, “Elita 1-6-4”and “Desertnaya volzhskaya”, as well as varieties sweet cherry “Fatezh” and “Tyutchevka”, which have high level of nutritive value, require breeding refinement with the aim of increasing the biological value of the fruit.

Keywords: chemical compound, antioxidant activity, fruits cherry, fruits sweet cherry, variety of cherry, variety of sweet cherry.

Technology

36

New technology post-harvest processing of coriander

T.V. Pelipenko, S.K. Mustafaev, A.P. Usov, E.A. Kalienko
Annotation

Technology post-harvest processing of raw coriander, including stage-by-stage purification from impurities by fractionation on whole and the split seeds and their further separate processing, has been developed. The object of the study was the composite sample of industrial raw materials coriander, when received at the processing plant OOO “Fort” (Ust-Labinsk) in 2014. The
fractional composition of industrial mix of coriander is studied and sizes of its components by the arithmetic mean value of their thickness and the RMS deviation of the analyzed values for each component are defined. Found that whole seeds can be separated from the split on the sieve with rectangular holes of size 2?20 mm. The degree of allocation of whole seeds for normalized
functions of the Laplace defined. The coefficient of completeness of separation calculated. For the industrial mix of coriander by shadowey fractions whole seeds he made 0,9472. In laboratory conditions on the stand separator sieving with a rectilinear inclined vibration of the sieves (the oscillation frequency of 400 count/min, amplitude 8 mm, the angle of inclination of the sieve 8 degrees, the thickness of raw material layer of 5mm) for raw coriander humidity of not more than 12% the figures of purification and fractionation were obtained. Structural scheme of new technology post-harvest processing of raw coriander to increase the efficiency of cleaning of raw coriander from impurities with 36–51% by traditional technology to 91,8% in the whole raw material fractionation, and fraction of split the seeds to 61,4%; significantly reduce the loss of essential oil in production; to obtain from the faction split of the of essential oil with high ratio linalool/camphor and linalool/hydrocarbons, are presented.

Keywords: coriander, industrial raw material, fractionation, cleaning, whole seeds, split seeds, essential oil.
39

Application of whey powder in technology of bread from wheat flour

I.M. Zharkova, K.K. Polyanskiy, YU.F. Roslyakov, V.A. Komarova
Annotation

The possibility of application in the technology of bread from wheat flour of the whey powder, curd and cheese, manufactured by OJSC «Bogucharsky» (Boguchar) was investigated. There has been experimentally proved the feasibility of the applications of cheese whey powder as a formula ingredient in the manufacture bread of the 1st grade flour at a dosage of 5-10% by flour weight. It was noted that adding cheese whey powder to formulated samples of bread allows to receive products with organoleptic properties which are more attractive to consumers: color of a crumb gets a yellow shade which is typical for rich products, the smell and taste of a crumb become more pronounced and pleasant. It is established that at a dosage of whey powder of more than 5% to the mass of flour there is increased adhesion of the dough to the working surfaces of equipment. The possibility of introduction in the bread recipe of food glycerin in a dosage of 0,5?0,7% to the mass of flour for improvement of rheological behavior of the test with 10% of cheese whey powder to the mass of flour and decrease in its adhesion properties was investigated. With increase in glycerin dosage into samples of bread the adhesion of the test considerably decreased, porosity was improved and the volume of finished products increased. Nutritional value of bread from 10% of dry cheese whey is characterized by increase in contents in a product of proteins, calcium, a potassium, phosphorus, vitamin B2 in comparison with samples of bread without whey.

Keywords: whey powder, food glycerin, bread from wheat flour, nutritional value, quality of bread.
42

Modeling alternative technologies semi-continuous crystallization of sucrose

V.I. Tuzhilkin, M.B. Moyseyak, D.A. Klemeshov, V.A. Kovalenok
Annotation

Alternative technology of boiling of the massecuite presents. In the environment of visual-block program complex was modeled alternative technology of semi-continuous crystallization of sucrose, the essence of which is to eliminate the stage of thickening boiling of the product to the labile state or transfer it to a separate stage of evaporation, the introduction of a vacuum apparatus prepared crystalline mass of artificial massecuite equal to the original set boiling of the product and creation of conditions of crystal growth in the metastable zone of the increase of crystals until ready to descend during a full cycle of a batch crystallization in a vacuum apparatus under the condition of continuous feed of syrup or run-off and the periodic discharge of the finished massecuite. The result of the application of this technology reduces the total time of the boiling of the massecuite in all stages of crystallization, reduced steam consumption for the boiling of the massecuite by eliminating stages of thickening syrup to a winding crystals, purification yellow sugar stabilization steam extraction of the evaporator, a much larger sugar crystals 1, 2 and 3rd stages of crystallization, thus reducing the duration of the centrifugation reduces the mass of the recycled not sugars and thermo-chemical losses of sugar, increases the performance of the food department of the plant. Total for all grocery department change the following indicators: reducing consumption of steam consumption by 32,03%, reduced the time of boiling by 26,29%, increases the size of the crystal on 40,04%, reduces the weight of the crystallized sugar by 18,22%, decreases the mass of the added syrup (swallowed) on boiling down by 12,57%, improves the performance of the food department by 9,89% (by reducing the total time of boiling).

Keywords: mathematical modeling of the process, the technology of semi-continuous crystallization of sucrose, enhanced performance of sugar-plant.
48

Change in the content of pectin and ascorbic acid in the tubers of jerusalem artichoke during cooking in the traditional methods and sous-vide

N.T. Shamkova, V.YU. Tokarev, A.V. Dobrovolskaya
Annotation

Changes in the content of ascorbic acid and pectin substances when cooking peeled tubers of Jerusalem artichoke by traditional methods in foodware stove and the combi oven and sous-vide investigated. Device Sous Vide Center Caso SV 1000 used for the heat treatment of sous-vide. The content of pectin was determined by the method of S. J. Raik, volumetric method and GOST
29059–91 “Products of fruit and vegetables processing. Titration method for pectic substances determination”; the mass fraction of vitamin C – iodometric method. The mechanism of destruction of ascorbic acid and the breakdown of pectin substances in tubers of Jerusalem artichoke by traditional methods of cooking are analyzed. It is established that the greatest losses of ascorbic acid (77%) occur when cooking in the combi oven. The decrease in the content of pectic substances is characteristic when cooking in the traditional method in foodware stove and combi oven – to 35 and 21%, respectively. When cooked sous-vide loss of ascorbic acid and pectin minimum – 11 and 10%, respectively. It is established that in the result of heat treatment of sous-vide the tubers of Jerusalem artichoke are becoming more intense taste and smell compared to raw materials, while preserving the structural-mechanical properties close to the properties of the crude product. The feasibility of using the technology of sous-vide in food production functional and specialized purposes on the basis of Jerusalem artichoke tubers is confirmed.

Keywords: tubers of Jerusalem artichoke, ascorbic acid, pectin, boiling, sous-vide, a method of heat treatment.
51

Study of the adsorption of melanoidin on carbon sorbents

T.A. Krasnova, K.V. Zhulina, N.S. Golubeva
Annotation

The adsorption of melanoidin from water solutions using activated carbons (AC) grades AG-OV-1 and Purolat-Standard, differentiated by the characteristics of their porous structure and the chemical state of their surface, has been studied in order to estimate the efficiency of application of adsorption technologies in the process of enriched beer drinks for the purpose of improving its organoleptic properties. Melanoidin concentration was determined by photocolorimetric method at a wavelength of 400 nm and a layer thickness 10 mm. It has been found that in the area of equilibrium concentrations up to 200 mg/dm3 the adsorption isotherms are similar in their forms, despite the differences in the characteristics of activated carbons. It presupposes a similar mechanism of melanoidin adsorption at the formation of a monolayer onto the adsorbent surface, which includes strong specific interaction with surface active centers as well as molecular reorientation and/or association at nearly equal values of equilibrium concentrations. The adsorption behavior of melanoidin molecules in the area of high-value equilibrium concentration is determined by the texture of carbon sorbents. The adsorption parameters have been calculated using Langmuir’s equation. It has been found that capacity of monolayer and molecular orientation on the activated carbon surface depends on the porous structure of the adsorbents. Adsorption capacity of the monolayer relative to melanoidin AC AG-OV-1 is higher by almost 2 times than Purolat-Standard. The effect of the chemical state of the surface takes the form of high adsorption energy, comparable to the energy of a strong hydrogen bond. The results, which indicate high melanoidin adsorption on the activated carbons and allow making the assumption that using of carbon sorbents in order to improve the quality of beer by the removal of melanoidin is highly perspective, have been shown.

Keywords: melanoidin, adsorption, activated carbons, enriched beer drinks.
54

Development of dessert formulation enriched with dietary fibers

E.V. Barashkina, M.I. Kostenko, E.V. Agafonova
Annotation

Technology of desserts on the base fruit and berry raw materials with the use of yogurt and apple pectin as structure-former is developed. It is found that model a sample of yogurt–Apple pectin for the mass concentration of pectin 4% reaches the required density, the value of which 0,5 g/cm3. On the basis of organoleptic characteristics and calculations in the simulation program MathCad 14.0 chemical composition of the desserts and the optimal proportion of the ingredients included in the formulation of puddings, enriched with soluble dietary fiber, were defined. The indicator of the balance of the mixtures ranged from 98,461 to 98,765. It is established that the use of one portion of the developed desserts enriched with alimentary fibers allows to satisfy from45 to 51%of daily need of a human body for alimentary fibers, from12,5 to 55,56%of need of a human body for vitamin C.

Keywords: dessert, dietary fiber, pectin, functional properties, structure-former, product enrichment.

Processes & Apparatus

58

Determination of the optimal shape of the holes of plate of the screening device at the bend

R.F. Kasumov
Annotation

Effective research methodology of the stress field of a plate, weakened by a doubly periodic system of the same circular holes, and a calculation model to determine the optimal shapes of holes formed sieves, designed for the separation of grain products, were developed. The systems of algebraic equations were calculated. The values of the complex potential representations of equations to determine the optimal shape of the hole of the plate under bending were found.

Keywords: stress-strain state, screening device, punched sieve, bend, the optimum shape of the hole.
61

Process and equipment of basic blend strips packing and stem lines

I.I. Tatarchenko
Annotation

Tobacco leaves are packed into boxes for export as BBS (Basic Blend Strips) at BBS BOX line. Basic Blend Strips include Virginia tobaccos (21–27%), Burley tobaccos (56–79%) and reconstituted tobacco (0–17,7%). Regular batch is from 7000 to 9000 kilos of tobacco, average moisture – 13%, weight of 1 box – 165 kilos. Key BBS BOX equipment includes box filling station, calibration press, static scales for packed product, box label applicator, strapping machine, and box stacker. 3 options of tobacco treatment technology are described: Lamina – for batches with BBS lots; Component – for batches without BBS, Burley tobaccos in blend require special treatment technology; Component NT – for batches without BBS, Burley tobaccos in blend do not require special treatment technology.

Keywords: BBS tobacco, stem, blend, tobacco treatment technologies, equipment for tobacco packing.

Technological of Equipment & Automation

65

Upgraded machine for applying labels on glass containers

O.I. Nikonov, S.B. Berezhnoy, V.G. Davydyants, N.N. Belina
Annotation

Machine for applying labels on glass containers improved. The proposed design comprises a stationary feeler mounted on the machine frame between the feeder bottles on the central disc of the carousel, and unit labels. Around the perimeter of the central disc carousel includes rotary platen with the device for orientation of bottles. The authors developed the device for orientation of the bottle allows you to apply the label accurately in a predetermined position of the surface of glass containers. This device can be used in food production to any container having a guiding groove on the bottom, for example, for bottling still wines, cognac, champagne, mineral water. Manufactured a pilot batch of devices has been successfully tested on machines of Italian production, not designed to work with bottles requiring precise orientation in place.

Keywords: bottle orientation machine, label, rotary platen, polarizing slot.
67

Determination of rational parameters of axial electric machine of electric drives installations for the processing industry

I.N. Avtaykin, A.M. Kvon, A.V. Kosolapov
Annotation

The optimal ratio of the outer Dout and internal Dint diameters of the magnetic circuit of the axial electrical machine (AI) for electric drive installations used in various industries, including food processing, depend on technical and economic indicators of AM, is calculated. The optimal ratio of Dout/Dint is found by calculating the magnetostatic field AM taking into account of nonlinearity of magnetization of materials. Using the capabilities of Excel, when a predetermined volume of steel of the magnetic circuit was calculated outer Dout and internal Dint diameters of cores for several ratios of Dout/Dint. The calculation of the average length of the air gap, the volume of the yoke and the square of its cross section was carried out at the same time. After parametric calculations in Maxwell-3D MDF of the windings providing the required induction has been updated. It was found that for axial machinery electric installations is an optimal ratio of the outer and internal diameters of the magnetic circuit.

Keywords: axial machine, the nonlinearity of the magnetization of steel, calculation of optimal parameters of the magnetic circuit.

Methods of Investigation & Production Control

71

Improving methods of analysis and mathematical modeling of the growth and development of biological systems

M.N. Skiba, V.V. Mitin
Annotation

Problems of mathematical modeling of the development biological systems are considered. The system function describing the dynamics of the evolution of biological populations and includes a number of parameters: mass, density, energy, and their rate of increment (accumulation, loss), the number of structural elements of the system and time, with the gap at the point of phase transition the system from continually increasing to decreasing growth rate of the generalized parameter is proposed. Mathematical models of dependences of change of biomass and growth rate of yeast and lactic acid microorganisms grown on hydrocarbons in the fermenter batch action presented. The obtained dependences allow to predict the development of different types
of microbial populations, to determine the time of transition from the integrated phase of development of biological systems to exponential, when significant change in the growth rate of microorganisms and their metabolic products occurs. The research results can be used in food industries, where the basis of technological processes is the growth and development of microbial populations, to significant, 20–30%, reduce the time of production of the product.

Keywords: mathematical modeling, biological system, the yeast, lactic organisms, prediction of development of biological populations.
74

Ultrasonic express-method of determination of phospholipids content in vegetable oils

V.I. Martovshchuk, A.P. Gyulushanyan, A.A. Lobanov, E.V. Martovshchuk, O.S. Kruglaya
Annotation

For efficient organization of the control technology of vegetable oils refining is necessary to consider the surface tension at the interface liquid phase. Traditionally, the surface tension is determined stalagmometric method or by the method of capillary rise, which have several disadvantages, the main of which – high duration. The kinetics of the formation of drops at the interface of phases of the vegetable oil–water stalagmometer is experimentally investigated. It is shown that the magnitude of the interfacial tension correlates with the mass fraction of the hydrophilic accompanying substances, in particular phospholipids. The dependence of the effect of time on the value of the constant stalagmometric and ultrasound devices in the determination of interfacial tension is investigated. The values of the interfacial tension at the interface oil–water stalagmometric method and proposed ultrasonic method for unrefined, refined, hydrated and deodorized sunflower oils are determined. It is shown that the developed ultrasonic technique not only reduces the time of determining interfacial tension, but also has a smaller relative error. Using the calibration dependence of ultrasonic power required for the destruction of the interfacial layer, a known concentration of phospholipids in the oils can be used for rapid determination of phospholipids content in the samples of oils.

Keywords: interfacial tension, phase interface, stalagmometer, ultrasound, phospholipids.
76

Microstructural features of dry milk products

V.V. Litvyak, YU.F. Roslyakov, I.V. Melsitova, V.V. Gonchar
Annotation

It is established that microstructural features available on the Russian and Belarusian markets dry milk products both imported and domestic production does not fully correspond to the characteristics stated by manufacturers. Researched products on the basis of microparticulated proteins consist from protein particles larger than 10 microns which in size and form differ from the protein particles of natural milk, that leads to the weakening of the creamy taste and possible sedimentation of protein particles that lead to delamination of the finished product. When purchasing components for the production of functional dairy and other food products it should along with the methods for determining densities greater use of scanning electron microscopy, which will allow for more reliable identification of the claimed by the manufacturer of the properties of dry milk products.

Keywords: microstructure, dry milk products, concentrated, microparticulated proteins.
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