Differential and thermal and thermogravimetric methods of the analysis carried out an assessment of a condition of water in a triticale flour, availability of water of various degree of coherence in it is studied. Five steps of dehydration of a triticale flour in the conditions of constant speed of increase in temperature are designated. Temperature zones which correspond to moisture removal with a various form and energy of communication are established.Keywords: triticale flour, thermolysis, dehydration steps.
Table of contents for # 4 (328), 2012
To the 100-th Anniversary of Voronezh State Agricultural University of Emperor Peter I
Possibility of application of enzymatic preparation ?-fructofuranosidase is investigated at hydrolysis of beet puree to produce semi-finished dietary purposes for its use as a multifunctional additive that gives the products of dietary or functional properties. Developed sugar cookie recipe is recommended for use in the dietary of people who are predisposed to diseases of diabetes, in order to normalize nutritional status.Keywords: beet puree, enzymatic hydrolysis of sucrose, sugar cookies.
Researches results of toxicity and biological safety of the new food composition containing minor carbohydrates fucose are presented. The studied sample is received from cheese whey with application of methods of biochemical and chemical transformation of the main carbohydrates of lactose.Keywords: toxicity, assessment of toxicological safety, cheese whey, fucose.
Prescription and component decisions and modes of receiving the biopolymeric dispersed compositions from the modified collagen-containing raw materials, on physical and chemical properties applicable for production of capsulated forms of food additives are offered. Research and a comparative assessment of a complex of indicators of quality of forming disperse systems with the analogs presented in the modern domestic market of encapsulated products, testifies to introduction possibility in production of collagenic bases for receiving food additives in the form of capsules.Keywords: capsulated foodstuffs, collagen, protein modification, biopolymer films, powdery semi-finished products.
The results of the research on the study of collagen dispersive systems structural features by roentgen-phase analysis methods and SDS electrophoresis are presented. The basic objects wastes of beef preparation – veins, sinews are used. Characteristic diffraction lines for collagenic substances after various options of preliminary processing: peroxid-alkaline, fermental hydrolysis with «Collagenase Food», and their combinations are identified. For processing of waste of beef preparation relative electrophoretic mobility, molecular weight and mass fraction of albuminous fractions are defined. The results of the roentgen-phase analysis and the known mechanism of action of a collagenase allow to discuss low-molecular fractions of collagen which keep the ordered areas and the ability to structurization, on the one hand, and on the other – ability to different types of interaction with biologically active connections in realization of sorption processes.Keywords: collagen, bioupdating, roentgen-phase analysis, diffusion, animal secondary products.
Quality management of functional meat food on basis of structure modification methods and sensory technologies
Use possibility in structure of new meat product of the biomodified secondary meat raw materials is investigated. The approach to forecasting of quality indicators of meat products with use of quality function structuring and sensory technologies is presented.Keywords: meat systems, quality management, quality function deployment, biomodified meat raw materials.
Application of multivariate statistical analysis for evaluating consumer properties of bakery products
Improved scale of organoleptic evaluation of bread from a mixture of rye and wheat flour. The method of cluster analysis, the gradation of bakery products, presented at the regional consumer market into groups according to levels of quality. The method of analysis discriminating tested the hypothesis graduation bakery products into groups according to their organoleptic characteristics. On the classification function defined membership of corn bread from triticale to a better level of quality group.Keywords: bakery products from a mixture of rye and wheat flour, consumer properties, level of quality, methods of multivariate statistical analysis.
Possibility of extracts of a Chinese magnolia vine use in production of kvass of fermentation on the basis of concentrates of a kvass wort is investigated. The prototype of kvass possesses organoleptic characteristics traditional for drink and the increased biological value.Keywords: kvass of fermentation, plant extracts, functional drinks, biological value.
Chemistry of Food Products & Materials
The investigation results of obtaining protein concentrates from white and red (brown) rice using amylolytic and xylanase enzymes are presented. The optimum conditions of extraction of rice proteins were selected in acid solution, the influence of amylase and xylanase treatment of rice flour on the yield of proteins with isoelectric point precipitation in the presence of salt was studied.Keywords: rice flour, proteins, enzymes, solubility, precipitation, yield of protein.
Data on food value of new zoned grades of rape seeds, features of proteins composition containing in them, lipids, carbohydrates are presented. The comparative assessment of biological efficiency of non-erucic rapeseed oil and sunflower oil is given.Keywords: rape seeds, thioglycosides, proteins, lipids, fat acids, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, food value.
It is established that freezing of apricots and cherry fruits plum at temperatures –12, –18 and –30°С and the subsequent 3, 6 and 9-month’s their storage at temperature –18°С assist decrease in number of microorganisms on fruits within the limits of 78–90%.Keywords: microorganisms, frozen apricots and cherry plum, long low-temperature storage, microbiological safety.
Results of biochemical indicators researches of fruits of the apple-trees growing in Krasnodar territory, summer, autumn and winter terms of maturing are presented. Grades with the raised content of biologically active substances for the purpose of their various use and processing are allocated.Keywords: apples, chemical composition of fruits, biologically active substances, vitamins, polyphenols.
The ionization constants of the pectin’s major functional groups (free and amidated carboxyl groups, free hydroxyl groups) involved in the sorption properties formation have been investigated. A mathematical model the interrelation between ionization constants has been discovered. It has been found that a common approach to the study of pectin substances in aqueous media should be implemented not just as a two-component, but as a multicomponent system, taking into account some uncertainty appearing due to this state.Keywords: pectin, sorption of cations, dissociation, ionization constant, mathematical model.
Influence of preliminary processing way of oak wood on chemical composition and organoleptic indicators of cognac distillates
Researches results of influence of preliminary processing way of oak wood on chemical composition and organoleptic indicators of cognac distillates are presented. The combination thermally processed oak chips and the usual scheme of processing in a various ratio is investigated.Keywords: oak chips, heat treatment, chemical composition of cognac distillates.
The results of the study on the use of flour made from whole-grain buckwheat to complex bread baking improver are represented. The optimal doses of buckwheat flour that improve baking properties of wheat flour and bread quality are determined. The complex improver “Tribo Premium” designed for wheat, wheat and rye kinds of bread is worked out on the basis of buckwheat flour.Keywords: buckwheat, lipoxygenase, bread quality, gluten, complex bread baking improver.
Influence of expansion duration of the whole rye grain in the environment with lactic bacteria and acidities of the environment on change of grain strength is investigated. Optimum modes of whole rye grain preparation for its use in bakery products of the increased food value are defined.Keywords: whole rye grain, grain strength, acidity of environment, grain expansion, lactic bacteria.
Possibility of use of wheaten food fibers Hamulsion of production of the “Tate & Lyle” company in technology of the fat-free curds is investigated. It is established that the dosage of food fibers in number of 0,8% from weight of skim milk reduces norm of an expense of raw materials by production of curds to 30% and gives to a finished product synbiotic properties.Keywords: curds, food fibers, product expense norm, prebiotic, probiotic.
The change of rheological properties of praline sweet mass when making vegetable oils – walnut and flaxseed oil is researched. It is established that their the addition to vegetable fat produces paste with good processing characteristics.Keywords: praline sweet mass, nut oil, linseed oil, melting point.
Improvement of extraction methods of biologically active subsnances of phenolic nature from plant raw materials
The advanced technology of reception of biologically active extracts from the plant raw materials containing phenolic combination, for their further use as dyes is offered by manufacture of cosmetic products. Extracts from the grape seeds pre-treated by freezing, and by-products of processing of the corn, processed by hydrolytic enzyme preparations are received.Keywords: grape seeds, by-products of corn processing, biologically active substances, extraction, flavonoids.
A formulations number of cauliflower-based canned foodstuffs for children is developed with addition of various vegetable, cereals and fat-containing components for the purpose of improvement of sensory indices of finished product. The comparative assessment of the received samples of canned food showed that these indices were influenced by the presence and amount of vegetable and fat-containing ingredients, but were actually indifferent to addition of cereals. The statistical analysis of the obtained data resulted in selection of 7 formulations which are being tested in production.Keywords: cauliflower, canned foodstuffs for children, product formulation, sensory indices, nutritional value.
The effect of Jerusalem artichoke powder additives on the structural and mechanical properties of the test wafer and ready wafer sheets at replacement of wheat flour part is studied. Found that Jerusalem artichoke powder reduces the viscosity of the test and increases the fragility of the wafer sheets.Keywords: Jerusalem artichoke powder, waffle batter, wafer sheets.
The improved apparatus-technological scheme of fruit and vegetable cryopowders with use of preliminary processing of raw materials by an electromagnetic field of ultrahigh frequency and process of solar drying is presented.Keywords: cryopowders, freezing, cryocrushing, electro magnetic field of ultrahigh frequency.
The technology of bitterness removal from the spent brewer’s yeast in the presence of chemical catalysts with use of the vegetable oils containing nonlimiting fat acids is offered. The mechanism is analysed, optimum regime parameters of process of bitterness removal are found. Non-bitterness brewer’s yeast can be used in production of foodstuff and in sterns for animals.Keywords: brewer’s yeast, chemical composition of yeast, iso-?-acids, hydrolysis, chemical catalysts.
Features of technology development of the flavored coffee and coffee products for expansion of their range and stabilization of the received aroma are presented. The research results of organoleptic, physical and chemical characteristics and safety indicators of the flavored coffee samples are given.Keywords: flavored coffee, coffee roasting, coffee flavours, organoleptic assessment of coffee.
The analysis of the results of smoking with the help of Canadian intensive method and the Massachusetts intensive method in comparison with the results of the standard methods of smoking ISO was held. The influence of intensive modes of smoking on the basic indicators of tobacco smoke, depending on the design and type of cigarettes was assessed.Keywords: intensive modes of smoking, nicotine, tar, carbon monoxide.
The technological scheme of the innovative production technology of food alcohol of the Extra and De luxe brands with an ethanol yield to 99,5 % is developed. Operating mode parameters are defined.Keywords: brew rectification installation, mathematical modeling, food alcohol, high alcohol yield from potential.
Researches results of influence of an additive of various dosages of the crude alcohol received from a yeast sediments on change of a chemical composition and organoleptic characteristics of received cognac distillates are presented. Optimum parameters of process are defined.Keywords: cognac distillate, yeast, crude alcohol, enanthic ester.
Possibility and expediency of use of the flour received from seeds of a pumpkin of a cultivar Golosemyannaya by manufacture of bread rye varieties is shown. Results of research of influence of various dosages of the flour from seeds of a pumpkin on carbohydrate-amylase a rye flour complex are presented.Keywords: flour from pumpkin seeds, rye flour, bakery properties, carbohydrate-amylase a rye flour complex.
By means of a test organism of Tetrahymena pyriformis relative biological value (RBV) of wheat grain prepared for a grinding on modernized technology is investigated. The 3-fold increase in RBV of grain after cleaning on the innovative equipment is established.Keywords: wheat grain, relative biological value, grinding unit, photoelectronic separator.
Technology improvement of fish and vegetables semi-finished products with use of vegetative components with antioxidant properties
The technology of fish and vegetables semi-finished products (FVP) of readiness high degree with use of CO2-extracts from vegetative raw materials with antioxidant properties is developed. Chemical composition CO2-extracts, dosage of the main components of compounding, organoleptic and microbiological indicators of developed FVP during the guaranteed period of storage are defined.Keywords: fish and vegetables semi-finished products, CO2-extracts, antioxidants, organoleptic indicators, period of storage.
Processes & Apparatus
Exergy analysis of grain drying production lines with the application of vapor compression refrigerating machine and steam-jet ejector refrigerating machine was carried out. Exergy capacity of each flow and both internal and external loss were defined. Exergy efficiency calculation showed higher energy efficiency of the technology using steam-jet ejector refrigerating machine.Keywords: exergy analysis, grain drying, energy efficiency, exergy capacity.
Process of brewer’s yeast drying with use of drying installation with the opposition inter-twisted streams of inert object is considered. Mass exchange and heat exchange processes between a dried-up product and the drying agent are analysed. The physical and mathematical model of the process, allowing to calculate product temperature on an exit from the drying unit, duration of drying of a film of a product and process time is presented.Keywords: brewer’s yeast, product drying, heat and mass transfer, duration of drying.
The statement and solution of optimal temperature control problem in brewing kettle on the stage of wort heating is considered. The statement of problem is based on finite-time thermodynamics methods. The optimal control program that provides minimum of dissipative losses is obtained.Keywords: optimal control, maximum principle, heat exchange, finite-time thermodynamics, technology brewing.
A mathematical model of the fermentation process, taking into account the simultaneous processes of enzymatic conversion, mass transfer, including the permeability of the cell, and the phenomenon of inactivation of the yeast is developed. The parameters of the model to identify own experimental and productive data are defined.Keywords: fermentation, mass transfer, the yeast cell, the cell membrane, mathematical modeling, the inactivation of yeast, food ethyl alcohol.
Influence of various modes of enrichment of cognac distillates by components of oak wood at distillation on a chemical composition and organoleptic indicators of received distillates is shown. Optimum parameters of the process, allowing to raise quality indicators of cognac production are defined. The method and installation are protected by patents of the Russian Federation.Keywords: cognac distillate, oak chips, components of oak wood, cognac quality.
Methods of Investigation, Quality & Safety of Food Products
For detection of the hidden infestation of grain is perspective application of near infrared (NIR, eng. NIR), to obtain images at a wavelength of 0,75–1,1 microns. The error of the known methods of detection of the objects based on the discriminant, cluster and factor analysis, as well as the use of neural networks is 5–10%. To reduce errors and increase speed of recognition in this paper we propose neural network models and statistical classifier with feature space of the harmonic wavelet spectrum. It is shown that the higher – in terms of accuracy and speed – the efficiency of recognition, on a sample of the literature cited in the NIR-images of size 640 ? 480 pixels, at a wavelength of 1305,05 nm, for: a healthy wheat contaminated with grain beetles, weevils, Sitophilus oryzae, Rhyzopertha dominica, Cryptolestes ferrugineus and Tribolium castaneum.Keywords: detection methods, hidden insect infestation of grains and legumes, the image in the near infrared radiation.
The results of studies of the composition of phenolic acids and aldehydes aged cognac spirits produced in Russia, Ukraine, Armenia, Azerbaijan, France and Spain are presented. Typical ranges of varying concentrations of phenolic aldehydes and acids are installed. Analysis of the ratios of aromatic components in pairs: syringaldehyde/vanillin, syringaldehyde/syring acid, vanillin/vanillic acid, vanillin/coniferyl aldehyde, syringaldehyde/sinapic aldehyde, syring acid/vanillic acid carried out.Keywords: phenolic aldehydes and acids, cognac distillate, range of concentrations, concentration ratio.
The classification and description of the active factors that influence the process of pectin extracting from plant tissue have been suggested. Its practical use will allow to determine the direction of the optimization process to develop an effective pectin extraction technology at the lowest possible quantitative and qualitative losses of the target component.Keywords: pectin’s extraction, the active factors, plant tissue, protopectin macrocomplex.
Technological features of manufacturing of the aromatized teas are considered. Research results of organoleptic, physical and chemical characteristics and safety indicators of 12 samples of the teas aromatized by various additives are presented.Keywords: aromatized tea, organoleptic assessment of tea, safety indicators.
Collaborative interlaboratory study as way of competence assessment of tobacco branch test laboratories
The data of collaborative interlaboratory studies on influence studying of intensive methods of smoking of cigarettes on nicotine, ‘tar’ and carbon monoxide content in smoke are presented. The received results allow estimating validity of measurement inside of laboratory and between laboratories, considering distinctions of the test methods.Keywords: collaborative interlaboratory study, quality control, methods of cigarettes smoking, Canadian intensive method.
Results of research of basic physic-mechanical properties of seeds of a pumpkin variety «Muscatnaya» and «Kormovaya» are presented: the linear sizes, weight of seeds, their volume weight, weight of 1000 seeds and a corner the friction necessary for working out of the technological equipment.Keywords: linear sizes of pumpkin seeds, weight of seeds, rest friction coefficient.
Influence of various factors – conditions of technological processing, a grade of plants – on sorption ability by cultural plants seeds of heavy metals ions is investigated.Keywords: sorption, heavy metals ions, cultural plants seeds.
The cryoseparation method with help of an inert gas and the method of evaluation of its quality have been developed. The method allows to manufacture the cryoseparated food semi-finished products. The experimental investigation results of the proposed method efficiency on the example of vegetative raw materials have been represented.Keywords: cryopreservation, cryoseparation, cryocrushing, vegetative raw materials, carbon dioxide.