Results of researches aimed at creating metrological means increasing objectivity and accuracy in visual determination the senescence and sort of green leaf tobacco during harvesting are presented. Instrumental methods for quick determination sort and smoking properties by defining color are elaborated.Keywords: tobacco, tobacco raw materials, quality control, visual control, indicators of optical properties, color scale, atlas of tobacco raw materials.
Table of contents for # 1 (331), 2013
The review of the works devoted to search and use of natural vegetable components – stalks and seeds of various cultures – for sorption of heavy metals ions for the purpose of increase of selectivity and safety of sorption process is submitted.Keywords: sorption, heavy metals, seeds of cultural plants, vegetable components, natural sorbents.
Food Raw Materials & Ingredients
The possibility of obtaining hens’ eggs with experimentally modified fat and acid composition, when using in hens’ diet of polysaccharide of brown seaweed fucoidan has been investigated.Keywords: laying-hen, hens’ eggs, fucoidan, hens’ eggs fat and acid composition.
Content of pectin substances and vitamins in fruits of wild plants of Dagestan depending on soil-climatic conditions
It is established, that ecological conditions of the foothills and mountain valleys of Daghestan contribute to a significant accumulation of pectin substances, vitamins C and P in the fruits of wild cherry plum, blackberry, dogwood, medlar, sea-buckthorn and thorns, than in mature on the plain. It is recommended to use the fruits of wild plants to produce products with high dietary, radiation protection and treatment-and-prophylactic properties.Keywords: fruits of wild plants, pectin, vitamins, growing conditions.
Antioxidant properties of vegetable raw materials and vegetable bases for reception of soups-mashed potatoes
The experimental data on chemical compound research (maintenance of phenols, flavonoids, в-carotin) and antioxidant activity (on methods DPPH and FRAP) bases for reception of soups-mashed potatoes: pumpkin, peppers, tomato and initial raw materials for their reception: pumpkins of a grade the Novinka and pumpkin mashed potatoes are presented. Process of inhibition of formation malondialdehyde on method TBARS for vegetable soups-mashed potatoes on the basis of a chicken broth is investigated.Keywords: vegetables, cream soup, phenols, flavonoids, antioxidant activity, malondialdehyde.
Chemistry of Food Products & Materials
The physico-chemical properties of hydrolyzed proteins of dry wheat gluten and rice proteins by endoprotease and exoprotease emzymes were studied. It was shown that the investigated proteases belong to the serine and cysteine protease families and can be used to change of physico-chemical properties of cereal proteins. Hydrolysates from different quality of gluten and rice proteins differ from the initial proteins in fraction composition, aggregation ability and contribution of non-covalent and covalent bonds in the stabilization of their structure.Keywords: dry wheat gluten, rice proteins, hydrolysis, proteolytic enzymes, physico-chemical properties of proteins.
The extraction of lactose and its decay products (galactose and glucose), hydrophilic solvents and their mixtures from aqueous salt solutions, as well as in the presence of б-amino acids and sugars was studied. The conditions for lactose extraction from aqueous solutions were optimized. The easily feasible method for extraction-potenciometric selective determination of lactose in foods without the use of harmful chemicals was developed.Keywords: lactose, galactose, glucose, extraction, potentiometric titration.
Influence of marine hydrobiont lipids in the fodder mix composition on biological value of chicken meat
The possibility of obtaining chicken meat with a modified fatty acid composition, high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and with low content of saturated fatty acids while enriching the hens total diet with marine hydrobiont lipids has been investigated.Keywords: chicken meat, fatty acids, cholesterol, marine hydrobiont lipids.
The research results of antioxidant activity of citrus fruit processing products: orange of grade Valencia, lemon of grade Willa Frank and grapefruit of red grade Rio Red, and also industrial samples of juice: orange Zolotaya Rus and grapefruit Rich are presented. For the analysis indicators are chosen: the general content of phenols, flavonoids, ability to catch free radicals on the DPPH method, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) method and antioxidant activity in system with linoleic acid.Keywords: citrus fruit, antioxidant activity, phenols, flavonoids, DPPH method, FRAP method, linoleic acid.
The biotechnological properties of baking yeast in a nutrient medium with addition of wild hops extract are investigated. It is established that hop extract positively influences generative function of yeast and intensifies process of carbon dioxide release of during fermentation of flour semi-finished products.Keywords: baking yeast, wild hop, hops extract, biotechnological properties of yeast.
The results of the chromatographic analysis of the fatty acids (FA) in various grades of tea and coffee are presented. In composition of FA in coffee palmitic and linoleic acids are prevailing, in tea this oleic, palmitic and linoleic acids. It is established that the content of prevailing FA in coffee and tea decreases in process of lowering the grade of a product.Keywords: tea natural black, coffee natural ground, fatty acids, chromatographic analysis, heksane extraction.
The studies results of electrophysical properties of phospholipid miscells in nonpolar solvent are presented. It is shown that treatment miscells in the electrostatic field allows to increase the polarity of the molecules of phospholipids and their hydratability out of miscells.Keywords: phospholipids, hydration, electrical conductivity.
Is investigated рossibility of use of probiotics Bifilact A and Bifilact D, and also prebiotic food fibres BeneoTM Synergy 1 in the composition of fatty filling of wafer products in order to make them functional properties.Keywords: probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, wafer products.
The influence of fried flour from waxy corn on the quality of the biscuits and short cookies is investigated. It is established, that the replacement of wheat flour on fried from waxy corn contributes to the quality improvement and nutritional value of finished products, improves the performance of their storage.Keywords: fried flour from waxy corn, biscuit, get stale, short pastry, soakage, nutritional value of food.
The technology of production vegetable milk from filbert kernels is developed. Comparative research of organoleptic and physical and chemical indicators of the samples of vegetable milk production in laboratory conditions with milk substitute Soy Milk is conducted. The nutrition value, indicators of safety and microbiological indicators of a new product are defined. Vegetable milk from filbert kernels can be recommended for use in treatment-and-prophylactic nutrition.Keywords: processing of nut-bearing cultures, filbert kernels, vegetable milk, organoleptic and physical and chemical characteristics, product nutrition value.
The functional properties of hydrolyzed dry wheat gluten and rice proteins by endoprotease enzymes were studied. It was shown that the hydrolyzed proteins have higher solubility and foaming properties, but lower fat emulsion, water and fat absorption compared with controls. Functional properties of hydrolyzed gluten depend on hydrolysis time, its quality, and functional properties of rice protein hydrolysates – on specific features of grain. Foaming property, fat absorption and solubility of hydrolysates of short-tearing gluten were higher, while fat emulsion, water absorption were lower than that of weak gluten hydrolysates. Foaming property, water absorption of hydrolysates from white rice were higher, and fat absorption, fat emulsion, emulsion stability were lower than that of similar products from red rice. Modified gluten proteins and hydrolysates of white rice are promising for use in foam and emulsion food systems.Keywords: dry wheat gluten, rice proteins, hydrolysis, proteolytic enzymes, hydrolysate, functional properties.
The possibility of use of the wheat food fibers (WFF) by production of soft wafers when replacing by them from 10 to 20% of a flour is investigated. It is established that WFF raise a soakage of wafer products and reduce time of cooling of soft wafers.Keywords: wafer products, wheat food fibers, soakage of wafer products, organoleptic indicators of wafers.
The results of development of compositions with antioxidant action on the basis of cow colostrum and vitamins C and ?-carotene are presented. Optimum ratios of components in mixes for receiving the maximum synergetic effect are defined. The received compositions can be used as a part of products for an enteroalimentation.Keywords: antioxidant activity, coulometric titration, cow colostrum, synergetic effect.
The technological production line of the natural flavored coffee is presented. At the expense of installation in it two cameras of aromatization and carrying out process of aromatization of coffee grains before their crushing and after it produce a ready-made product is provided with the smallest losses of fragrance and native aromatic substances of coffee.Keywords: flavored coffee, coffee roasting, cryo-crushing of coffee grains.
The researches results of use possibility of wild strawberry berries of the various grades growing in the Republic Daghestan, for production of high-vitamin natural products with high flavoring qualities are presented.Keywords: wild strawberry berries, freezing of berries, vitamin C, organoleptic assessment of product.
New biologically active additive of a tableted form of frame type is developed. The quantitative and qualitative structure of components of a compounding allows positively influence emergence and correction of visual dysfunction that is confirmed with the expert opinion of Institute of Food of the Russian Academy of Medical Science.Keywords: biologically active additive, antioxidants, correction of visual function.
The researches results of functional and technological properties of collagen drugs of new generation: SCANPRO BR 95, SCANPRO T 95, GS 100, GS 200, Tipro 601 are presented. The critical concentration of gelation and pH in aqueous solutions and various dairy systems are defined.Keywords: functional and technological properties of collagen drugs, structure-formation, critical concentration gel, cottage cheese whey, skim milk, low-fat cottage cheese.
Complex processing technology of hyssop medicinal for use of received phytopreparations as part of cosmetic products
The technology of hyssop medicinal complex processing, directed on the most complete extraction of biologically active substances of a plant and allowing to receive a number of phytopreparations: essential oil, absolute oil, bioconcentrate, cleared wax, a flavonoid containing preparation is offered. The received products are recommended for using in compoundings of cosmetics of treatment-and-prophylactic action.Keywords: hyssop medicinal, complex processing of vegetative raw materials, essential oil, absolute oil, wax, flavonoid containing preparation.
The research results of biochemical and technological features of wax fraction of sunflower seeds, received after a refinement of sunflower oil are given. The technological scheme of obtaining pure sunflower wax for the purpose of their further use as a part of cosmetic products is presented.Keywords: sunflower wax, chemical composition of wax precipitation, wax in cosmetic products.
Developed technology of processing of Gammarus crustacean’s of the Azov sea with the production of chitosan from chitin by the gas-liquid processing, which allows to ensure the continuity of the process, shorten its duration, get chitosan more high quality. Given a technological line of chitosan production from the shell of Gammarus crustacean’s of the Azov sea.Keywords: Gammarus crustacean's of Azov sea, chitin, chitosan, processing of CO2 under pressure.
The production technology of anhydrous ethanol with the use of as separating agent narrow fraction of saturated hydrocarbons C6–C7 is development. Flow diagrams and process conditions obtaining of anhydrous ethanol are presented. Simulation is carried out in an environment HYSYS with the use of the method NRTL.Keywords: anhydrous ethyl alcohol, bioethanol, hexane, heptane, distillation, mathematical modeling.
The complex technology of tomatoes processing, which allows to develop tomato-products – juice and paste – improved quality, production from the seeds of tomatoes oil and protein, from the peel – food dye.Keywords: processing of tomatoes, concentrated tomato-products, tomato juice, tomato paste.
Research results of organoleptic and physical and chemical indicators of the bread received with addition flour from beans mash (FBM), possessing high protein content are presented. Ways of preliminary preparation of FBM are developed, defined its optimum ratio to the mass of a flour.Keywords: mash bean culture, bakery products, richer of protein, organoleptic indicators of bread.
Influence of processing by electromagnetic field of extremely low frequency on preservation and quality indicators of tomatoes
The research results of influence of processing of tomatoes before a bookmark on storage by an electromagnetic field of extremely low frequency (EMF ELF) are presented. It is established that processing of EMF ELF promotes preservation of commodity quality of tomatoes and prevents defeat them mushroom diseases.Keywords: tomatoes, storage of fruit and vegetable raw materials, biochemical indicators of quality, electromagnetic field of extremely low frequency.
Processes & Apparatus
The mathematical model of drying process of vegetable raw materials (Jerusalem artichoke, parsnip, parsley and celery, mushrooms) by superheated steam is adduced, which allows to determine the distribution of the fields of the moisture content and temperature of the inside of product.Keywords: drying of vegetable raw materials, mathematical model, superheated steam, fields of moisture content and temperature.
Structures of blends of vegetable oils with an optimum ratio of щ-6/щ-3 of acids are developed. Rheological characteristics of the received mixes are investigated. The design of the curb camera oil-presses is modernized that allows to increase an oil exit, and also at the expense of the picked-up optimum parameters of pressing to improve its quality.Keywords: cold pressing, polynonsaturated fatty acids, blended oils, curb camera of oil-presses.
New ways of step thermal sterilization of canned food in sealed containers with use of heat recovery principle and a design of the device of continuous action which don’t demand additional expenses are developed; process of thermal processing is carried out in the ordinary device for step thermal sterilization. Ways provide essential economy of thermal energy and water.Keywords: step thermal sterilization, heat recovery principle, heating and cooling of canned food, economy of thermal energy and water.
The algorithm calculating a packed periodically distillation column intended for the separation of secondary products isopropanol column.Keywords: packed column, food alcohol, convective diffusion and mass transfer, grid method, explicit scheme.
Experimental determination of the specific work of breaking (SWB) watermelon seeds with moisture content of 6,2–31,5%. It is established that the maximum SWB fall on seeds with a moisture content of 15,8%, minimum SWB is required when the load on the achene, directed along its long axis. The resulting data should be used in the development of equipment for breaking and grinding watermelon seeds.Keywords: watermelon seeds, the specific work of breaking, humidity seeds, breaking seeds.
Food Engineering, Processes, Equipment & Automation of Food Production
The design and operation principle of developed by rotary-pulsating machine (RPM) with guide vanes is provided. The results of the study of the extraction process in the RPM with guide vanes, used for extracting the components of chokeberry and for mashing process in beer production are presented.Keywords: extraction, rotary-pulsating machine, mashing process.
Influence of kinematic parameters of a belt press on an arrangement of a neutral layer in the press channel that causes the press productivity, degree of compaction of a material and distribution of power of the drive on pressing belts is shown.Keywords: belt press, press productivity, degree of compaction, drive capacity.
Management of positional drive alternating current, providing energy saving at food-processing industry enterprises
Developed optimal for speed chart movement of the executive body of the drive: up to a limit of speed, without speed limits. Defined and constructed the dependence of the length of the cycle and energy consumption of a given move.Keywords: optimal for speed diagram, executive body, positional drive.
Methods of Investigation, Quality & Safety of Food Products
The regularities of a alteration difference pH-potentiometric signal for the concentrated solution of borax in the presense of mono- and polysaccharides are determined mainly by buffered action of borax-systems. The mathematical model for this interaction is proposed and it is in accordance with experimental data. The possibility of express definition of the summary quantities of all polyols at equilibrium and selective definition of certain monosaccharides in a transfer process until 5 s is shown.Keywords: pH-potentiometric signal, mono- and polysaccharides, borax-systems.
The optimal process parameters of pectin’s hydrolysis and extraction of from the green peas shutter have been determined with mathematical modeling. By carrying out check experiment adequacy of the offered mathematical model is confirmed.Keywords: green peas shutter, pectin substances, hydrolysis and extraction process, mathematical model of process.
Chemical gas sensors based on polyaniline have been obtained by electrochemical polymerization. Gas sensitive characteristics have been determined toward trimethylamine which change of concentration is used for determining of fish freshness. It was shown that polyaniline exhibits sensitivity in the range from 0,81 to 52,0 ppm.Keywords: determination of fish freshness, chemical sensors, conducting polymers, polyaniline, trimethylamine, gas sensitive characteristics.
Assessment of trueness for indirect pH-potentiometric determination of acid values in vegetable oils
Three samples of the sunflower oil with different acid values (AV) have been investigated by the indirect pH-potentiometric technique. Based on the data of control Sheuchart charts the statistical stability of the trueness indexes for indirect pH-potentiometric method AV determination has been established.Keywords: vegetable oil, acid value, statistical control, trueness of measurement, intralaboratory precision.
The research results of the amino-acid composition of Jerusalem artichoke tubers of varieties of Interes, Novosti VIRa and Skorospelka when storage them underground method. Identified varieties of Jerusalem artichoke, a more promising for use in the production of functional food products.Keywords: Jerusalem artichoke, amino-acid composition, natural storage of roots.
Results of research of some physic-mechanical properties of melons seeds variety «Asian oval» are presented: the linear sizes, weight of seeds, their volume weight, weight of 1000 seeds and a corner the friction necessary for working out of the technological equipment.Keywords: linear sizes of melons seeds, weight of seeds, rest friction coefficient.
The results of content determination of copper, iron, zinc, manganese, cobalt, nickel in the leaves of Amelanchier rotundiofolia growing in the Donetsk region are presented, with a view to their possible use for enrichment of food products.Keywords: leaves Amelanchier rotundiofolia, metal content, roentgen-fluorescent analysis.
The ecological aspects of the recovery and recycling of by-products distillation: draff, ether-aldehyde fraction, ether-aldehyde concentrate, fusel alcohol, fusel oil.Keywords: food ethyl alcohol, distillation, secondary product distillation, wastewater treatment.