The review of the modern directions of production of snacks and prospects of further development of this branch in Russia is presented. Expansion of the range of the snacks possessing useful and functional properties is noted.Keywords: snacks, vegetable and fish raw materials, types of snacks, products of functional orientation, meat snacks.
Table of contents for # 4 (334), 2013
Food Raw Materials & Ingredients
Features of drying process of Jerusalem artichoke tubers of promising varieties of zone in the Krasnodar region
Tubers of three varieties of the Jerusalem artichoke zoned in Krasnodar region from the point of view of availability of their use for drying with preservation of all useful properties of tubers and the smallest power expenses are investigated. It is established that the most perspective for storage of tubers by way of drying is the variety Jerusalem artichoke Interes.Keywords: Jerusalem artichoke tubers, drying of root crops, moisture content, drying speed.
The chemical composition parameters meat cutlet are studied. With the aim of increasing the biological value of meat chopped products offered to use in their recipe of raw materials from apples and products of their processing. Modelling formulations is realized, losses at thermal processing of meat chopped products with apple components are defined.Keywords: cutlet meat, chemical composition of meat, apples, products of apples processing.
The researches results of influence of different methods of storage – freeze, vacuum freeze-drying and thermal drying – on antioxidant activity of several types of fruit: apples, pears, kiwi, persimmon are presented. Optimal for this indicator methods of storage of fruit is revealed.Keywords: storage of fruits, antioxidant activity, freeze products, thermal drying, vacuum freeze-drying.
Chemistry of Food Products & Materials
The results of investigations of pork muscle fiber received by water extraction of forcemeat from full-piece pork muscle tissue sample pretreated by 20, 40, 75, 95% ethanol for 2 and 10 min are presented. Method EDRS (electronic diffuse reflectance spectroscopy) were used in this investigation. The influence of water-ethanol blends structure on the biological characteristics of the muscle tissue and muscle fibres is established.Keywords: optical diffuse reflection, muscle tissue, muscle fiber, water-ethanol blends.
Analysis of factors influencing chemical composition and antioxidant activity of apple juice of direct extraction in the course of production technology
The research results of influence of technology factors on a chemical composition and antioxidant activity of apple juice of a direct extraction are presented. The general content of phenolic connections, antiradical activity on the DPPH method, the general contents flavonoids, the restoring force, antioxidant activity in linoleic acid system, and also physical and chemical indicators of the received apple juice are investigated. Optimum technological modes of receiving apple juice of a direct extraction are revealed.Keywords: apple juice, exposure time pulp, content of pulp, antioxidant activity, phenolic substances, flavonoids.
Data of comparative research of physical and chemical indicators, chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the received samples of puree from apples, pumpkins, tomatoes, the pepper, grown up in the Samara region, and samples of similar products from a distribution network are presented. Puree from local raw materials surpasses industrial samples in many indicators and can be used with success in food with the directed antioxidant action.Keywords: apples, tomato, pepper, pumpkin, puree, antioxidant activity.
The effects that both temperature and of concentration xanthan gum on pH, viscosity and sedimentation behavior of the product for enteral nutrition was studied. It is found the optimum concentration of xanthan gum at which the enteral product was thermodynamically stable and stability. The viscosity of the research product not exceed 15 mPa Ч s and the pH was 6,26 ± 0,02 at 20 ± 2°C.Keywords: dynamic viscosity, sedimentation behavior, enteral product, xanthan gum.
Results of research of ability of viscous strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus 3е, 5е, H and 7m13 to produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) in milk whey and use of the last for the manufacturing of desserts are presented. Isolation and purification of EPS, synthesized in milk whey, was performed with the usage and a comparison of two different methods. The chosen method included an additional clearing operation – dialysis. With the use of this method we have chosen a strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus with increased ability to synthesize EPS – L. acidophilus 7m13. We have also performed viscosity measurements of the fermented milk whey samples: it was shown that the viscosity of the samples after fermentation increases to 1,3–1,5 times depending on the used strain. Milk whey fermented by the strain L. acidophilus 7m13 was used as a base for desserts preparation. The ability of this strain to accumulate EPS in whey allowed to decrease the amount of jelly to 2 times.Keywords: еxopolysaccharides of lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus acidophilus, desserts from milk whey.
The water-soluble fragment with high molecular weight was obtained by the partial enzymatic degradation of cell wall в-glucan from yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that was isolated by the peroxide method. The conditions of obtaining about 70% of water-soluble form that contain macromolecules with molecular weight from 1 to 30 kDa from the initial glucan were established. It is shown that the triple helix is an element of the water-soluble glucan structure.Keywords: baker's yeast, в-glucan, enzymatic degradation.
The possibility of stabilization of betanin by forming a complex with arabinogalactan of pine Pinus silvestris is shown. The concentration of arabinogalactan and betanin solutions, their volume ratio, the temperature and the duration of complexation, the pH meaning have been determined, allowing almost completely to include betanin in the composition of complex. The complexation leads to increase of pH- and thermal stability of betanin, that provides possibility of its stabilization in food systems and durable action in the human digestive tract.Keywords: arabinogalactan, betanin, complexation, pH-stability, thermal stability.
Analysis biologically active components contents in the wine drinks type cahors, made with perspective varieties of grape
The structure of biologically active components – phenolic connections, vitamins and vitamin-like substances – in wine drinks type Cahors wine, prepared of perspective grades of grapes – Kubanets, Dostoyniy, Krasnostop AZOS and Cabernet AZOS is investigated. The comparative analysis of the content of these components with indicators of the similar drinks received from traditional grades of grapes is carried out. Perspective grades which can be used by production of wine drinks type Cahors wine are revealed.Keywords: wine drinks type Cahors wine, perspective grades of grapes, biologically active substances, phenolic substances, biological value of wines.
Determined mass fraction of extractive substances in natural ground coffee exhaustive extraction volatile the solvent in the glass Soxhlet extractor. As a solvent used diethyl ether with boiling point of 34,5–36,0°С. To obtain essential oils from the coffee used installation for definition of a mass fraction of essential oils.Keywords: natural ground coffee, extraction process, diethyl ether, extractive substances, essential oils.
A comprehensive potentiometric study of antioxidant activity (AOA) and redox potential (RP) of the catholyte, obtained in the electrolyzer «Melesta». It is established that AOA of the catholyte is from 6 to 26 mmol-eq/l, the values of the RP below –450,0 mV. If the electrolysis of water 7–8 min AOA received catholyte exceeds the results of some of fruit and vegetable juices and wines.Keywords: electrochemical activated water, catholyte, antioxidant activity, redox potential.
The results of development of technology of custard gingerbread products with use of the full-fat flour received from seeds of flax are presented. It is shown that the full-fat linen flour promotes improvement of structural and mechanical and organoleptic indicators of finished goods, gives functional properties, increases nutrition and biological value.Keywords: custard gingerbread products, full-fat linen flour, nutrition and biological value, functional properties, physical and chemical indicators of gingerbread products.
Technology development of functional food products osteotropic and chondroprotective action from secondary fish raw materials
The technological scheme of receiving food additives from secondary fish raw materials – scales and the heads of fishes is developed. The received additives are used as receipt components in technology of the developed bioproducts on the gelatinous basis enriched with phyto-decoctions from medicinal herbs. By means of mathematical modeling optimize receipts of new bioproducts, on the basis of chemical composition researches their application is recommended at diseases of the musculoskeletal system. Drafts of standard documentation on production and recommendations about application of ready bioproducts are developed.Keywords: fish secondary raw materials, biologically active additives, diseases of musculoskeletal system, optimization of products compounding.
There are investigated the possibility of replacing table salt for preventive salt in the technology of fish preserves. Also there are shown the prospects of the antihypertensive extract herbs use while prior fish salting in order to make preserves with health care properties. There are considered the chemical composition of prophylactic salt. There are presented experimental preserves samples flavor profilograms with different antihypertensive phyto-additives. Are revealed optimum of them for use in technology of fish preserves with curative properties.Keywords: fish preserves, salt preventive, curative and preventive properties, hypertension, sprat, mistletoe, chokeberry Aronia, hawthorn, horsetail, Melissa officinalis, cranberries.
The content of tannins, essential oil, ascorbic acid and the general content of extractive substances in aromatic plants is established: to dushitsa ordinary, marjoram, basilica ordinary. Efficiency of extraction of biologically active agents from aromatic raw materials with electrochemically activated solutions use is shown.Keywords: aromatic plants, biologically active agents, extractive substances, electrochemically activated solutions.
The results of the technology development of fermented products based on Jerusalem artichoke is presented. The process of fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tubers is investigated and installed the changes of the carbohydrate composition of raw materials.Keywords: Jerusalem artichoke, carbohydrate composition, fermented product, lactic acid bacteria.
Investigating the effect of processing factors complexes on the efficiency of sunflower oils phospholipids hydration providing high degree of phospholipids extraction and the quality of products obtained oil, i. e. hydrated oil and phosphatide concentrate. The efficiency of hydrating vegetable oils depend on the processing parameters: the type of hydrating agent, it’s amount and treatment temperature. It is shown that expending to employ lactic whey as an effect hydrating agent. To estimate optimal amount of the hydrating agent it is rational to employ ultrasound impact in the impulsive regime, and the temperature regime is to be identified according to the conductivity of oil blends and hydrating agent.Keywords: phospholipids, hydration, hydrating agent, interfacial tension, ultrasound impact, specific resistance, temperature of hydration.
The functional and technological qualities of food fibers of a various origin are studied. It was concluded that wheat food fiber “Hamulsion” are characterized by better technological qualities if compared to citrus and beеtroot: its moisture absorption on 20th day is 25,3% and swelling is 84,4%.Keywords: functional and technological qualities, beеtroot, citrus, wheat fibers, moisture absorption, swelling.
The results of development of cakes’s new production technologies on the basis of dry composite mixtures (DCM) are presented. Founded prescription composition DCM for the production of cakes «Zdorovie» on the 6 variants. Data about the food and energy value received cupcakes. Considered are the peculiarities of the technological process of production cakes products on the basis DCM.Keywords: dry composite mixture, cupcakes, diet products.
The results of development of compoundings of functional drinks on the basis of pumpkin puree with addition of infusions of herbs: lindens, melissa, hawthorn – are presented. The composition of biologically active substances of the developed drinks which are intended for completion of a shortcoming of an organism of power and regulatory food substances is defined.Keywords: functional drinks, pumpkin puree, infusions of herbs, chemical composition of drinks.
Results of researches of change and accumulation of components of table sweet wines in the course of fermentation and influence on these processes of various strains of yeast are presented. Races of the yeast, allowing to regulate the indicators of flying acidity and formation of the substances influencing oxidation of wine are revealed.Keywords: ice wines, chemical composition of wine, fermentation, active dry yeast, flying components of wines.
Development of functional emulsion beverages technology using saponin containing extracts Saponaria Officinalis L.
The technology of multicomponent emulsion drinks of a functional orientation with use as a solubilizater of saponin containing extract Saponaria officinalis L. cultivated in the conditions of Primorskiy region has been developed. The structure of compositions of valuable types of the vegetable raw materials which extracts are used for receiving drinks of a certain physiological orientation has been presented. The quantitative contents in compoundings of drinks of functional hydrophobic ingredient – vitamin E has been proved. The assessment of quality of drinks on a complex of indicators, storage established periods has been given.Keywords: functional beverages, emulsion structure, solubilization, saponins, quality indicators beverages.
Influence of use at each phase of flour from alfalfa (FA) at various stages of preparation of dough for quality of bread from wheat flour is investigated. It is established that FA introduction at any stage of preparation of dough at a dosage to 1% to the mass of flour in the dough promotes improvement of bread quality on all indicators. The best results are received at addition of 1% of FA at a stage of activation of the compressed yeast.Keywords: flour from alfalfa, use at each phase, activation of yeast, leaven, bread quality.
The possibilities of the development of the CO2-extraction of biologically active components of plant raw materials through the use of the effect of co-extraction, ultrasonic influence, combining in one module ways sub- and supercritical extraction are investigated.Keywords: CO2-extraction, subcritical mode, supercritical mode, extraction apparatus.
The rational technology of sour invert syrup allowing to increase content of reducing substances to 70–80% instead of 30–40% of the existing technology is designed.Keywords: monosaccharides, inversion of sucrose, fructose, glucose, hydration.
The influence of orange dietary fibers on the consumer properties of sugar wafers is investigated. It is established that introduction of dietary fibers ensures the preservation of the quality indicators of wafers with standard conditions of storage and increases their nutritional value.Keywords: dietary fibers, sugar wafers, consumer properties of wafers.
Use packed columns in scheme rectification to improve production efficiency and reducing industrial waste
Completed structural and parametric optimization of the technological scheme distillation plant, equipped with additional distillation packed column of periodic action. Increased yield and quality of rectified alcohol.Keywords: distillation plant, packed column, food alcohol, alcohol yield of the potential.
The comparative evaluation of fractional composition of proteins of seeds of the sunflower received in the traditional way and ethanolic extraction from non-husk kernel is carried out. Results testify to increase in albuminous fraction of proteins when using in quality extractive agent ethyl alcohol.Keywords: sunflower meal, proteins of sunflower seeds, fractional composition of proteins, ethanolic extraction.
The results of development compounding of a hairspray fixation with use of fatty acids of sunflower oil are presented. It is shown that the developed sample of a hairspray possesses the improved consumer properties in comparison with industrial samples.Keywords: fatty acids, hairspray fixation, contact angle of wetting, experiment planning.
Processes & Apparatus
A mathematical model of non-steady desublimation process on vacuum freeze drying is offered, allowing to forecast not only the layer thickness of the desublimate, but also the coefficient of heat transfer during some time on interfacial area of the desublimator.Keywords: mathematical model, desublimate, vacuum freeze drying, numerical experiment.
Descrease of energy inputs distillation plant by lessening irreversibility process in alcohol column
Expediency of application in the scheme of rectification installation of two thermal pumps intended for increase of an exergy of alcohol vapors of top of alcohol column and secondary steam of evaporation distillers is considered. Efficiency reduce the irreversibility of the process of the alcohol column is analyzed. The heat recompression steam is used instead of steam from the boiler to heat the bottom of the alcohol column for the supply of heat to distillation columns and the heating of the grain mix. It is shown that the total savings from the partial replacement of the heating steam from the boiler is 10 million rubles in the year for distillation plant a 30000 liter in day rectified alcohol.Keywords: heat pump, irreversibility of rectification process, rectification, alcohol column, energy inputs.
The way of an intensification of process of thermal sterilization of canned food with use of two-stage heating in a stream of heated air and in hot water with the subsequent step cooling in water and in a stream of atmospheric air is offered. The developed modes of sterilization provide industrial sterility of canned food; promote economy of thermal energy and water and improvement of quality of a ready-made product.Keywords: thermal sterilization of canned food, ways of sterilization, step cooling, sterilization modes.
Baking of a filled pie is considered as a problem of heating a two-layer object. Generalization of quasi-one-dimensional approximation for regular heating theory has been proposed, which allowed obtaining simple approximated relationships for baking duration.Keywords: time of baking, two-layer structure, pie, filling.
Methods of Investigation, Quality & Safety of Food Products
The theoretical principles and experimental results of the method of correct determination of ethanol content in waste products of alcohol and alcoholic beverage industry are presented. The developed method can be easily incorporated into practice of analytical and control laboratories because for its development there are no additional material, financial or time costs. In accordance with introduced method is sufficient to use for calculation of the received according to GOST R 52363–2005 and according to GOST 3639–79 source of measurement.Keywords: alcohol products, ethanol concentration, gas chromatography.
Modeling of quasistationary mode distillation column to reflect the changes concentration with time and height
The results of the quasistationary mode of work modeling of the rectificative column of distillation plant are adduced. The advantages of the quasistationary mode, which provide increase of fusel oil quality and rectified alcohol output are revealed.Keywords: mathematical modeling, quasistationary mode, ethyl alcohol, fusel oil, distillation plant.
The conceptual model of cosmetic products development of a functional purpose is offered. The evaluation of consumer properties of the developed cosmetic product is carried out on the basis of the joint function of all indicators.Keywords: cosmetic products of functional purpose, development and optimization of compoundings, evaluation of consumer properties.
The development results of a virtual laboratory works for students, learning in the direction of preparation 260100.62 – «Food products of plant raw material», as informatization way of the educational process and increasing its efficiency are presented.Keywords: research methods, virtual laboratory work, informatization of education.
Developed of production technology of insoluble food fibers of peel green peas, investigated their component composition.Keywords: peel green peas, insoluble food fibers, products of special purpose.
The effect of sugar beet, apple, wheat and potato fiber on the structural and mechanical properties of dough cupcakes is investigated. Found improvement in the quality of semi-finished and finished products.Keywords: dietary fibers, dough cupcakes, rheological properties, quality indicators.
Identification at early stages of malfunction of technological installations with synchronous engines
Information signs of signals which will allow to reveal and to identify malfunction of synchronous motors of technological installations at early stages are defined. The task is solved by development of mathematical model on the basis of the salient pole synchronous engine in phase system of coordinates and its numerical decision in Mathcad.Keywords: synchronous engine, malfunction, information signs.
Specific work of destruction of seeds of a melon as humidity of 6,2–27,8% is experimentally defined. The equations of dependence of specific work of destruction from the position of achene in relation to destroying effort and humidity of a seed are presented. The resulting data should be used in the development of equipment for breaking and grinding melon seeds.Keywords: melon seeds, specific work of destruction, humidity of seeds.
Results of development of compoundings of sauces on a dairy basis with a pulp additive from tubers Jerusalem artichoke are presented. It is established that the specified additive promotes an intensification of process of a fermentation and increase of biological value of sauces.Keywords: Jerusalem artichoke, sour-milk sauces, products of functional purpose.