The estimation of development of nanotechnology in the food sector, the main directions of the use of such technologies. The main factors influencing the positive consumer perception of nano-products. The main difficulty in the use of nano-additives in the foods associated with the stability of additives and their possible interactions with foods. The main path of destruction systems, nano-additive product supply and the main factors that influence this process. In particular, we present the main elements of the classical theory of Derjaguin–Landau–Verwey–Overbeek (DLVO) as applied to nano-additive. Also examined the cases of deviation from the above described real systems theory, are the main factors causing such deviations and provides practical examples of such systems. The basic mathematical relationships needed to describe the stability of the nano-additives. Considered nonspecific for traditional colloidal systems and characteristic of nano-additives problem of destruction of the dispersed phase as a result of its gradual dissolution. The examples of real systems product and nano-additive and are the main difficulties encountered when working with them. Particular attention is paid to aggregate and chemical changes that can occur in real-world products with nano-additives. The role of the stabilizing agents, and describes possible destruction of nano-additives, depending on the used stabilizer. The influence of external factors, including the environment, for products containing nano-additive. Evaluated the potential of mathematical modeling of systems of food product, nano-additive and external environment.Keywords: foodstuff, nanotechnology, food additive, the stability of nano-additives, interaction with food additives.
Table of contents for # 5-6 (335-336), 2013
In the production of frying products fats subject to prolonged high temperature exposure in contact with air. The results of domestic and foreign studies on the mechanism of thermal destruction of the different types of oils and fats used in practice as in the production of deep-fried foods was studied. The examples of the radical mechanism of the chemical process of oxidation of fatty acids (FA) are presented. At the heart of the process of oxidation of frying fats has the principle of the free radical chain, branched chain reactions leading to degradation of FA source of fat. It is established that during frying products occur deep oxidative changes FA to form dimers and polymers, bridged through carbon atoms, as well as epoxy, carbonyl compounds and oxy acids with different length of the hydrocarbon chain. The increase in extinction in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum in the frying fats subjected to heat, indicating the formation of conjugated double bond system. Depth processes oxidative degradation of FA in the heated frying fats is reflected in changes in their physical and chemical properties. The degree of degradation of FA correlates with changes in the viscosity, density, refractive index, acid-, peroxide-, benzidine-, carbonyl-, iodine value, fatty acid composition, the content of the individual polymers and polymer fractions. The accumulation of breakdown products of FA leads to the deterioration of taste, smell, increase smoke production and foaming fats. Products of oxidative degradation of FA having a high reactivity, capable of reacting with proteins fried products, thereby reducing their nutritional value.Keywords: oils, frying fats, fatty acids, mechanism of thermal destruction, oxidation products, polymers, nutritional value.
Economics of Food Industry
Cluster potential of ukrainian market of vegetable oils in context of improving competitiveness of vegetable oils industry
The increased competition on the world market of food products due to globalization and internationalization, the acute economic differentiation of countries and sectors. Therefore the study of competitiveness of the economy, which can be the backbone of the Ukrainian economy growth, especially in the conditions of financial crisis, is relevant. The purpose of the present work is to study theoretical and methodological foundations of international competitiveness vegetable oil industry of Ukraine and its cluster potential. The subject of research is the composition and stage of formation of the competitive potential of the largest manufacturers of vegetable oil in Ukraine. Production of vegetable oil in Ukraine is a powerful driver of food industry and must serves as the basis of its competitiveness. Analysis shows that having a number of factor of competitive advantages – of natural resources, climatic conditions, geographical location, vegetable oil industry of Ukraine not to has modern infrastructure, specialized research institutes and, as a consequence, highly educated and specialized personnel, formed databases in certain fields of knowledge and other factors. As a result of available competitive advantages not used effectively enough. Only the creation of innovation clusters growth can provide vegetable oil industry of Ukraine’s long-term competitive advantage on the world market.Keywords: economic clusters, competitiveness, agriculture, vegetable oil industry, production of vegetable oil.
Food Raw Materials & Ingredients
Investigated technological and consumer properties 4 short rice grain (Garant, Liman, Rapan, Khazar) and 3 medium rice grain (Amethyst, Regul, Yantar) rice varieties, separately for each grade. In all variants of experiments, investigations were carried out according to generally accepted standard methods. Assessment of the quality of rice-grain and groats carried out in accordance with applicable standards and specifications. Statistical processing of experimental data was performed by analysis of variance. The indicators are grains of rice: the mass of 1000 grains, total, full and partial glassiness, scarious, fracture, moisture, content of broken, red and green grains for each grade. Investigated the grain size of each varieties of rice at various stages of processing: non-brown, brown and rub rice. Peculiarities that need to be considered in the post-harvest processing and a choice of modes of grinding to maximize their potential opportunities of each variety are revealed. Assess the quality of the produced groats: the residual content of nuclei with non-extracted germ content of nuclei with red stripes and chalked. Based on the results recommendations were given on separate processing of each varieties of rice to increase their consumer properties.Keywords: rice, rice grain, rice groats, technological and consumer properties of rice, output of groats.
Describes the new aquaculture facilities – Silurus Clarias gariepinus (African Silurus). Perspectivity of cultivation due to the high rate of growth of their simplicity and the ability to breathe atmospheric air, sanitary-epidemiological and ecological safety is show. Results of researches techno-chemical characteristics (mass, chemical, amino acid compounds) Silurus Clarias gariepinus (CG) of the spring season of fishing are presented. The data of chemical composition are presented in comparison with the indicators of the main aquaculture species: white, motley and hybrid carp, sheatfish, white and black Amur. Calculated criterial indicators – protein-water and protein-water-lipid ratios characterizes the muscle tissue of CG as tender and juicy with normal water. In the protein CG contains all the essential amino acids in the number of 211,9 g/kg, and also conditionally essential amino acids arginine and histidine. Developed technical documentation for the manufacture of CG chilled and smoked for implementation through the retail trade and public catering enterprises.Keywords: Silurus Clarias gariepinus (African Silurus), aquaculture, chemical composition of fish, mass composition of fish.
Chemistry of Food Products & Materials
The change in the quantitative content of hexosamine, glycosides and collagen in short-term (30 min) and long cooking (2,5–3 h) processing muscular tissue sea cucumbers – cucumaria and trepang is investigated. The influence of the residual amount of hexosamines on the strength of the finished product is established. It is shown that with increasing duration of cooking is an increase of soluble compounds and hexosamine-containing collagen and increases the bioavailability of these components. The necessity of the development of technologies to ensure the safety of biologically active substances and collagen in muscular tissue sea cucumbers is proved.Keywords: sea cucumber, trepang, cucumaria, heat treatment of hydrobionts, digestion, bioavailability, collagen, hexosamines, glycosides.
To adjust the fatty acid (FA) composition of curd in accordance with the requirements of the food combinatorics of great scientific and practical value are milk fat substitutes (MFS). Their application in technology of curd allows to approximate the FA product composition to the formula hypothetically perfect fat and increase in it a number of polyunsaturated fatty acids. For the production of curd products with improved functional and technical characteristics, the importance of the identification FA composition. The purpose of this paper is to determine the qualitative characteristics of the MFS and identification of their FA composition method of gas chromatography. The objects of analysis were MFS for the milk industry Ecolakt 1403-35 and Oilblend 1003-32, milk fat. Separation and identification of the FA composition of the MFS were performed on gas chromatograph HP 6890 Plus. The contents of solid triglycerides at different temperatures were determined on relaxometer NMR MQ 20. Chromatograms obtained FA composition of the MFS, the method of internal normalization conducted a quantitative definition FA, content of trans-isomers. On the basis of the received data on the content of solid triglycerides at different temperatures built curves melting of Solid Fat Content (SFC profile). It is established that most fully corresponds to an ideal fat FA composition MFS Ecolakt 1403-35 which may be recommended for the production of curd products with functional properties.Keywords: curd product, fatty acid composition, gas chromatography, milk fat substitutes.
The data on the chemical composition of Camelina sativa seeds are given. It has been shown that Camelina sativa seeds are valuable raw material for producing vegetable oil and high-protein products i. e. oilcakes and meals. Camelina sativa seed oil has favourable fat-acid composition: the content of non-saturated fatty acids in it approaches 80%. Its distinctive feature is high content of fatty acids щ-3 which are mainly represented by б-linolenic acid. Despite of high unsaturation of fatty acids contained in Camelina sativa seed oil this oil is characterized by high stability to oxidation which is due to considerable content of tocopherols, phospholipids and carrotenoids in it. Protein substances contained in Camelina sativa seeds consist basically of albumins and globulins. In amino acid composition they are comparable to «ideal» protein, being inferior to it only in lysine content. The peculiarity of Camelina sativa seeds is the presence of thioglycosides in it, they are basically represented by sinigrin. During Camelina sativa seeds processing thioglycosides are split; this splitting being followed by the formation of allyl mustard oil and other products containing sulphur. These substances transit in oil and reduce its the consumer properties. To prevent sinigrin splitting the technological process of Camelina sativa seeds processing is carried but according to the technology ensuring enzyme system inactivation. Camelina sativa oil is used for direct utilization in food as well as for producing drying oils, varnishes, paints. One of the promising directions is the development on its basis of blended vegetable oils having optimum fat-acid composition. Camelina sativa oilcakes and meals may be used for fodder as well as for the manufacture of protein products utilized for food.Keywords: Camelina sativa seeds, Camelina sativa seeds oil, lipids, fatty acids, tocopherols, sterols, proteins, indispensable amino acids.
For increasing the biological value of bakery products prospectively using flour, ground of non-traditional crop – triticale. Triticale contains a lot of protein, which is more balanced amino acids than wheat protein, and vitamins B and PP, minerals and other biologically active substances. The choice of dry wheat gluten (DWG) as a raw material for production of bread with functional properties due to its ability to slow the rate of assimilation of carbohydrates bread and reduce the glycemic index. It is established that the amount of wet gluten from triticale flour with increasing the dosage of the DWG increasing, due to the increased hydration ability dry gluten gluten triticale flour in small extent relaxes. Features of structural-mechanical properties test of triticale flour obtained on structure-meter and farinograph, indicate that the introduction of DWG contributed to the improvement and increase waterabsorbing properties of test and decrease the degree of its dilution. To identify the impact of the DWG on the quality of the bread of triticale flour held a series of test laboratory cookies dough method and liquid leaven. Reasonability of dough on a liquid leaven with the introduction on the stage of its preparation of 2% of the DWG. The basic indicators of quality of bread from triticale flour, cooked-to-liquid leaven, higher than that of cooked dough method.Keywords: bakery, triticale flour, dry gluten, rheological properties of dough, dough on liquid leaven.
Considered are the possibilities of application of barrier technologies to enhance of fish preserves safety. Based on the analysis of normative and technical documents for the production of preserves revealed that the terms of their storage mostly depend on the storage temperature, the type of preserves and packaging. It is established that the use of multiple preserving factors, in particular the processing of electromagnetic fields low frequency (EMF LF), stabilizing additives, bactericidal packaging allows preserves with while taking prolonged shelf life and reduce number of traditionally used in the technology of production of preserves chemical preservatives. When processing preserves EMF LF optimal impact on the livelihoods of mesophilic aerobic and facultative anaerobic microorganisms noted at a frequency of 19 Hz. Introduction antioxidant in the amount of 0,1% and more helps to slow down the oxidation process and stabilization of consistency sauces, which allows to increase the shelf preserves and improve their organoleptic properties. Use to fill the bactericidal packaging made on the basis of oriented polymer high pressure, plasticizer in the form of fatty oils from the caraway-seeds and antiseptic – the essential oil from the caraway-seeds, gives the finished product a pleasant (caraway) aroma and eliminates the inhibitory effect of traditional carcinogenic phenolic preservatives on digestive enzymes.Keywords: barrier technologies, preserves, product safety, product shelf life, electromagnetic field of low frequency, consistency stabilizer.
Influence of vegetable preparations additives on the activation of compressed yeast and consumer properties of bakery products
The researches results in the field of enrichment of the nutrient mixture for activation of pressed yeast are presented. As activators of yeast used seeds and pomace tomatoes, grapes, watermelon, malt barley and lentil. Study their chemical and mineral compositions determined the composition of amino acids of proteins of plant activators, the amount of which malt lentil, barley and seeds, tomato pomace exceed soybean protein, traditionally used to activate the yeast. It has been experimentally found an effective way of preparation of raw material before coming into a breeding ground for yeast, define its parameters. Advantages when using herbal supplements to activate the yeast: increases the lifting force of yeast, reduced the duration of the technological process, improvement of consumer properties of bread, increasing its shelf life. Set the improvement of consumer properties of bread when making powder of tomato pomace and barley malt in nutrient mixture at preparation of yeast. The comparative assessment of products of secondary processing of agricultural raw materials for activation of pressed yeast in a baking production.Keywords: bakery products, vegetable raw materials, activation of compressed yeast, technological process, consumer properties of bakery products.
Technology of dairy desserts on the basis of consortium of bifido- and lactobacteria using stimulants growth of bifidobacteria, fruit and grain fillers, which increase the nutritional and biological value dessert products, forming them organoleptic properties are studied in this paper based on science and technology. The optimum ratio of pure cultures of lactic acid provides a harmonious development of all components of the yeast and gives the product a certain flavor characteristics. Fruit and berry syrups, juices, purees, natural fruits and berries in a frozen or crystallized form are used as the fillers in the production of fermented milk products. Fermented milk products have good consumer properties, high nutritive and biological value. A wide range of flavorings, fillers, flavoring agents, stabilizers, which regulate the processes of structure, prevent precipitation of the filler particles and protein denaturation by heat treating the mixture can extend the range of dairy products. Along with the formation of a mixture of inherent dessert products of the stabilizing system link free moisture and it becomes inaccessible for microorganisms, helps to lengthen the shelf life of dairy dessert products for consumption.Keywords: bifidobacteria, lactobacteria, probiotics, prebiotics, vegetable fillers, biological value, dairy products.
The research results of sour milk product manufacture by bifidobacteria culturing in the milk with addition of the cedar oilcake (the defatted protein-carbohydrate residue from cedar nut kernels) as a prebiotic are presented. Using of cedar oilcake, which was obtained by microwave extraction with ethanol, allows to avoid its additional sterilization and pasteurization, required for bifidobacteria cultivation, owing to microwave heating sterilization effect. Experiments on finding the optimum cedar oilcake dose, souring duration was carried out and structural-mechanical properties are investigated. It is established that with cedar oilcake dose rising the acid forming capability increases. Adding of cedar oilcake raises the bifidobacteria biochemical activity and reduces souring milk duration. Oilcake high-molecular polysaccharide and oligosaccharide have high water-binding ability and raise the sour milk clots viscosity. Addition of different oilcake doses promotes the reduction of degree and speed of whey separation, due to high water-holding ability of oilcake components: proteins, starch, and oligosaccharide. By experimental way the optimum cedar oilcake dose in the sour milk product – 2–3% is found. The technology was developed of sour milk product “Bifivit kedrovii”, which has homogeneous viscose consistency, good specific sour milk taste with especially cedar nuts aftertaste, contains food fibers, mineral substances and high quantity of viable bifidobacteria cells – 1010 CFU/cm3.Keywords: bifidobacteria, cedar oilcake, fermentation, sour milk product, probiotics, prebiotics.
Biotechnological potential of wild plants growing in the North-West region of Russia, is unique. Wild herbs are an alternative cultivated spicy herbs and spices and possess a wide range of physiological effects on the human body, which makes them promising raw material for production of original phyto-composition used in the food industry as taste and functional additives. The purpose of work is research of biologically active substances of wild herbs and cultivated varieties coriander to justify the use of aromatic phyto-composition in recipes sauces-seasonings. The objects of the research were dried by the conventional technology, the above-ground parts of plants: St. John’s wort, oregano, thyme, yarrow and calendula flowers, widely spread in the North-West region of the Russian Federation, as well as dried herbs-coriander different varieties. Justified composition flavored phyto-composition for sauces-seasonings with a high content of minor biologically active components of food. On the basis of the received results has developed 5 phyto-composition “Lesnaya Fantaziya”, “Borodinskaya”, “Prelest”, “Izyskannaya” and “Tayga” with a different combination of wild herbs and greens of coriander, with high content of flavonoids and carotenoids. Developed by the creation of phyto-compositions included in the formulation of sauces for culinary seasonings to meat products. In accordance with the level of fortification minor biologically active components of food additives developed phyto-composition in the amount of 10 g in enchilada sauce weight 100 g allow you to meet the recommended rate of consumption per day flavonoids on 20–30%, carotenoids – 50–60%. Use of phyto-composition of wild and cultivated herbs in recipes sauces-seasonings will expand the range of functional food with original taste and aromatic type.Keywords: wild growing herbs, coriander, taste-aromatics phyto-compositions, sauces-seasonings, minor components of food.
This article reports the results of the analysis on the limited availability of products from watermelon flesh and lack of flavor in these products. It argues for expediency of development of new jelly products from watermelon pulp that contains a significant amount of lycopene. The article discusses the possibility of implementing the mechanism of aroma recovery in gelatin jelly by means of lipolytic enzymes. It furthermore outlines the key components of enzymatic reactions that play part in aroma recovery, namely wheat bran enzymes extract and the lipid component of the prepared watermelon pulp. In following the classic technology of jelly production, the antioxidant properties of lycopene hinder the oxidative enzyme reaction. The synthesis of aromatic substances happens by means of immobilization of enzymes in a gelatin solution and follows this scheme: the enzyme complex was added to a warm gelatin solution that was kept at a temperature of 45–42°C and with an extract solvent ratio of 3 : 1; the extract was stirred for 2–3 min and held still for 5 min before being introduced into the prepared watermelon pulp. It is shown that the carbonyl compounds play a significant role in the aroma recovery that was lost during the preparation process. The results of microscopic examination confirm that the gelatin jelly, having the properties of polyelectrolyte, ensures the electrostatic attraction of molecules in the substrate. In addition, the adhesion process has some role in the mechanism of binding the substrate and enzymes in the jelly. The number of flavor in the post sol-gel phase samples varied from 40 to 110 ml Na2S2O3/100 g. The article offers the results of a comparative study on ways to flavor watermelon jelly. These results prove that the method of introduction of enzymes extract into the gelatin solution and watermelon pulp significantly affects the rate and depth of occurrence of the enzymatic reaction of flavor formation. The article concludes with the description of property found in gelatin solution to increase the availability of substrate to the active sites of enzymes.Keywords: watermelon flesh, flavor, enzyme complex, gelatin solution, bran.
It is shown that the consumption of lime to clean solution of raw sugar is composed of lime, necessary for carrying out the actual chemical precipitation reactions, decomposition, exchange, substitution, and lime need to get enough calcium carbonate adsorption of non-sugar and ensure filterability solution of raw sugar. Is noted that for the proper chemical reactions sufficient to maintain the alkalinity limed at 0,5–0,6% CaO. Is provides a theoretical rationale for the use of the surface charge of carbonated sediments to clean solution of sugar raw in order to reduce consumption of limestone and coal burning at its refining raw sugar premium “high poly”. Thus return carbonated sediments will provide filtration properties solution of raw sugar without the extra expense of lime. A positive ж-potential of the calcium carbonate particles of which mainly consists carbonated precipitate and the residual content of lime allows to use them to improve the cleaning efficiency even at the stage dissolving of raw sugar. Of the assumptions were verified experimentally. For the experiments were asked to compare the effectiveness of validity for non-sugar raw sugar solution washed and unwashed saturation precipitation. The results of studies have shown that non-carbonated sediment washed with the same cleaning efficiency and filtration properties will get cleaned solution of raw sugar with lesser hue while reducing consumption of lime to clean 2 times. The way of dissolving raw sugar with use of carbonation sediment is proposed. Found that the flow rate of limestone and coal for firing him down twice.Keywords: clarification solution of raw sugar, ж-potential sediment flow saturation, consumption of limestone rock.
Use of water-alcoholic extracts from far eastern wild plants in technology of strong alcoholic beverages
Developed new technology of new alcoholic beverages with application of water-alcoholic extracts from various bodies from Far Eastern plants of family of Araliaceae: Eleutherococcus senticosus, Aralia elata, Acanthopanax sessiliflorus. For an assessment of samples of drinks the preference and acceptability method was used. The best flavoring characteristics alcoholic drink about use of extract from stalks Acanthopanax possesses. On this product technical documentation «Tincture bitter “Samarga-reka”» (TU 9181–001–00337857–2011) is developed.Keywords: extracts of Far Eastern wild plants, Araliaceae family, strong alcoholic beverages.
Development of production technology of dietary fibers from by-products of mango and bananas fruits processing
The production technology of dietary fibers (DF) from by-products of mango and bananas fruits processing, based on the two-stage enzymatic hydrolysis is developed. Established rational parameters of the enzymatic hydrolysis of this raw material: temperature, pH, liquor ratio, duration and dose of the enzyme. The complex of quality parameters of DF is investigated, is confirmed by the efficiency of enzyme preparations to receive them. The necessity of using electrochemically activated solutions (ECHA-solutions) during enzymatic hydrolysis, which application improves the functional and technological properties of DF from by-products of mango and bananas fruits processing and increase their outcome.Keywords: mango and bananas fruits processing, dietary fibers, enzymatic hydrolysis, modes of hydrolysis, ECHA-solutions, quality of food fibers.
The results of the analysis of European legislation in the field definition, description, presentation, labeling of alcoholic beverages, in particular, the categories of spirits from wine Eau-de-vie de vin, sold under the name Cognac. The concepts of “geographical indication”, “brandy”, “Russian cognac”, “Russian cognac geographical indication” in view of the current regulatory framework in Russia. Is a summary of the environmental factors, the requirements for soil and grades required for the production of high-quality cognacs, are appropriate agro-ecological zone of the Russian Federation. An assortment of grapes for the production of high-quality cognac in agro-ecological zones of the Krasnodar region. The results of long-term studies of cognac distillates produced in East and Taman agro-ecological zones of the Krasnodar region. Is a summary of the experimental data on the composition of volatile and extractable components of cognac spirits, emerged from two existing wine-wineries farms compared with cognac distillates, worked out in France (Cognac). It was established experimentally that the Russian and French cognac distillates contain a similar set with comparable levels of trace concentrations. The results of the research content of 2-butanol in the domestic brandy distillates of different ages and from different manufacturers with a high level of sensory evaluation. It is shown that the aged cognac distillates produced in the zones of ecological optimum Krasnodar region, tasting different special characteristics, as demonstrated by the analysis of chemical composition. This allows you to identify these products as wine production is resistant characteristic organoleptic properties due to the characteristics of the soil and climatic conditions, varietal composition of the raw materials used agronomic and technological methods.Keywords: Russian cognac, agro-ecological zone, chemical composition of cognac.
Influence of ultrasonic treatment on the efficiency of extraction of water protein-lipid components of rice shorts
The effect of ultrasonic treatment on the suspension of rice shorts in the water, the results of which determined the optimal ratio of reactants, promoting a more complete phase separation and extraction of useful protein and lipid components. Given the low stability of rice shorts to oxidative and hydrolytic processes studied the effect of the intensity of ultrasound treatment on parameters of oxidative deterioration of lipids contained in the allocation of protein-lipid and lipid-cellulose complexes. Experimentally that effective modes of ultrasonic processing of rice shorts to ensure the preservation of fractional composition of proteins with minimal values of indicators of oxidative deterioration of lipids, extraction of the functional nutrients.Keywords: rice shorts, ultrasonic treatment, the ratio of the components, protein-lipid complex.
Processes & Apparatus
Microwave-convective drying regimes for steady-state conditions were investigated for the development of a garlic rational combined drying regime. Stationary drying regimes were investigated in the following ranges of technological parameters: air temperature of 293 K, air flow rate of 0,338–0,900 m/s, garlic plates thickness of (2,0…3,0) • 10–3 m, the magnetron power N 600, 700 and 800 W. As a result of garlic drying stationary regimes analysis, a combined microwave-convective drying regime consisting of three periods was developed. In the first period garlic slices of thickness of 2–3 mm are heated by microwave waves up to a temperature of 300 K, while blowing air flow at a rate of 0,9 m/s for 7,5 min, in the second period – to a temperature of 316 K and air flow rate of 0,7 m/s for 12 min and in the third period – to a temperature of 320 K and air flow rate of 0,5 m/s for 20 min. The duration of the three periods was determined by the experiment. The developed combined microwave-convective garlic drying regime allows to improve the quality of the product by keeping rational temperature influence on the processed product, to carry out the process of the evaporated moisture removing in line with the basic kinetic laws, to minimize the energy consumption for garlic drying through the use of combined heat supply to the treated product, to achieve uniform drying due to the use of soft, gentle processing regimes.Keywords: microwave convective drying, kinetics of drying, combined regime, garlic.
The existing technologies of whey processing include its rectification from protein disperse phase, thus cheese dust. Despite some prior research done in technology whey treatment today there is no single approach to solving this problem. The most part of whey is neither treated nor used. The authors suggested to apply filtering of whey treatment. Due to relatively high content of cheese dust in whey a layer of sediment will be created on the filtering surface during its treatment. In this case the efficiency of the process will depend on rheological properties of cheese dust, namely filtration and adhesion. It is aimed at determining the effect of filtration and adhesion properties of cheese dust in the process of whey filtering. The research filtration properties of cheese dust were performed using the basic assumptions of the theory of filtration consolidation. While studying adhesive properties, adhesion has been regarded as a process that takes place over time in the event of generation or disturbing the contact of two different surfaces. The values of the specific filtering resistance, the consolidation ratio and the specific strength of adhesion have been received. As a result of the data processing there have been suggested the analytical equation describing the change of filtration and adhesion characteristics of cheese dust in the process of whey filtering. The results may be used in mathematical modeling of filtering of dispersed systems based on lactic protein. They can also be used in development of regeneration of filtering surface of whey treatment filters.Keywords: whey, cheese dust, filtration, adhesion, filtration properties.
Study of relationship of criteria flowability with dynamic and energy characteristic of extent in continuous mixer
The research results presents of fine dry free-flowing materials and mixtures according to the diameter of the particles and their density, determined the effect of mechanical and physico-mechanical properties of materials on the value of flowability. A mathematical model, which allows to assess functional dependence of flowability of the physical and mechanical characteristics of the material by means of multiple regression analysis. Resulting polynomial equations describing the effect of the expiration of the area, physical and mechanical properties on the flowability of materials and mixtures. The criterion of free-flowing, describing the movement of various materials under the forces of inertia. Specified net power output and the criterion for some bulk food materials. Received private and universal criteria equations that describe the energy cost of the mixing of bulk materials.Keywords: bulk, the area of expiration, flowability, rash time, flow time, criterion of flowability, criterion of power.
Cooling continuous crystallization of the lactose is carried out in a wide temperature range and variable viscosity condensed up to 50% dry substances of milk whey (MW). The analytical study of temperature change MW in relationship with its rheological properties of cooling in the lamellar scraper heat exchanger continuous action was conducted. Temperature distribution of the product in the cooling element is investigated on the basis of differential equations of heat transfer in moving liquid environments, recorded in the cylindrical coordinate system for axisymmetric distribution of temperature, without taking account of dissipation of energy. The results obtained allow to carry out the calculation of the process of cooling crystallization of the lactose in the MW in the stream and determine the main parameters of the scraper plate heat exchangers.Keywords: milk whey, cooling, rheological properties, lactose crystallization, heat exchanger of continuous action.
Food Engineering, Processes, Equipment & Automation of Food Production
To carry out the majority of chemical, petrochemical and food processes used mixing devices. With purpose increase the heat and mass transfer processes in the food and chemical industries vibro-mixing device (VMD) to use devices in which the perforated working bodies reciprocating motion. As the actuator device previously selected VMD synthesized rotary encoder drive reciprocating working bodies, which consists of a series of interconnected hinge four sections and toothed linkage. A distinctive feature of the investigational device is that it allows you to implement a rational reactors operating practices at the expense of variable amplitude and frequency of vibration of the workers. Reciprocation of work in a stirred medium leads to a large unbalanced inertial forces and moments. Since traditional actuators mixing devices located on top of the reactor, then in order to reduce the vibration load on it, the problem is solved actuator of VMD. Since the actuator is composed of two series of interconnected devices, their equilibration is carried out independently. Using the method of symmetry, determine the conditions under which will be compensated by the inertial forces and moments occurring in the rack-and-lever mechanism. Investigated and dealt with general and specific methods of balancing the hinged four unit. The conditions under which the hinged four unit will be balanced. It is shown that balancing hinged four unit with fixed and variable long arm should be carried out so that the centers of mass of the beam and rod located in the hinges that connect the arm to the reception and the connecting rod to the crank. As a result of equilibrated with rack-and-lever mechanism and swivel four sections to obtain VMD, balanced on the foundation.Keywords: vibro-mixing devices, lever mechanism, actuating mechanism, hinged four unit, rack-and-pinion mechanism, static and dynamic balancing.
To improve the structure of wafer products need to improve the uniformity of the distribution of components in the process of mixing, ensuring maximum reduction of viscosity of raw components through modification of their surface. To improve the quality of dietary wafer products containing natural sweetener stevioside, beet fibres, whey, it is necessary to take into account changes in the viscosity of toppings and its density due to selection of intensity and time of processing, the relevant rheological properties of the processed patterns. On the basis of the generalized analysis and aggregation of the results of the conducted 3-factorial experiment constructed three-dimensional chart and obtained regression equation sufficiently describing the dependence of the length of kneading the filling of its viscosity and adhesion wafer sheet. For the production of dietary wafer products offered to use the standard technological schemes that have been improved and adjusted in connection with entering the stage of kneading the filling of functional ingredients. Lists the parameters of a technological mode of production of dietary wafers, which allows to reduce the duration of the process. The advanced design of the apparatus-technological line for manufacturing of dietary wafers, providing increase in the dispersion degree of homogeneity of the filling containing functional ingredients, and improve product quality.Keywords: dietary wafers, homogenization, crushing, technological line, technological mode of wafers production.
Considered are the peculiarities of the process of deaeration of water as one of the stages of the production of carbonated beverages. Analyzes the ways and revealed the basic conditions for the effective conduct of deaeration. It is shown that the most rational way deaeration during the production of carbonated beverages is a vacuum deaeration. Presents a brief analysis of the existing structures deaerators, assesses their strengths and weaknesses. Proved the application and describes the new design of the deaerator with low hydraulic resistance and a high efficiency of mass transfer. The basis for the design is the distribution element of screening disk, creating a dome-shaped film of moisture blocking a cross-section of the deaerator. Shows the main advantages of this new design of the deaerator.Keywords: production of carbonated beverage, deaeration, design deaerator, mass exchange, dome-shaped film.
Methods of Investigation, Quality & Safety of Food Products
Taking into account the consumption of animal protein defined quantitative content of biologically active additives (BAA), lecithin, vitamins B1 and PP when used in technology of meat products preventive for persons suffering from diabetes. Applications using computational simulation Hyper Chem v.8 quantum-chemical, semiempirical and molecular-dynamic methods investigated changes of molecular properties of these additives in the process of thermal treatment. Created molecular structure of lecithin, vitamins B1 and PP, performed their geometric optimization using the methods of molecular dynamics and quantum-chemical calculations. Evidence of the correctness of geometric optimization, minimization of the potential energy and energy balance of the properties of systems was the value of the total energy studied components. Using quantum-chemical and semiempirical methods was investigated surface electrostatic potential distribution of lecithin, vitamins B1 and PP. For modeling of the process of thermal treatment of molecules used module Periodic boundary conditions. Modeling of the heat-treatment process led to the stabilization of the energy state of the molecular system. Stability of the energy state was determined by a fixed value (for a specified time period) size of potential energy. The obtained results showed that when used modes of heat treatment of the potential energy of the system has a stable value, indicating a correctly issued procedure modeling of technological process of thermal treatment.Keywords: molecular structures, geometric optimization, molecular properties, products of diabetic orientation, thermal processing of meat products.
Properties of lactic acid and its possible influence on sum determination of organic and mineral acids in foods
Currently, the technology of dry red wines and wines with residual sugar to improve the organoleptic properties of the finished wine often provide for malolactic fermentation (MLF), in which the malic acid into lactic passes. With this technology, wine lactic acid (LA) concentration may increase from traces to 2 mg/dm3 and up, making it one of the major titratable acid wines. In order to evaluate the possible effect of LA in the form of the titration curves of wines produced by MLF technology, conducted LA potentiometric titration method with coulometric generation base on a device with a silver anode. It is possible experimentally to examine the acid-base properties of dilute aqueous solutions in the presence of LA 1 mol/dm3 KCl. Analysis of the data and its theoretical interpretation showed that the LA and its anionic form in aqueous solution in the form of stable dimers, and LA titrated as dibasic H2A2 in accordance with step ionization constants. The nature and intermolecular hydrogen bonds is considere. The suggested model of dissociation LA, revealing relay mechanism of proton transfer and explains the abnormally high mobility of the hydronium ion. Construct curve distributions of molecular and ionic forms as titration. Shows the influence of the type of titration curves wines presence LA. The results can be used to improve methods for identifying and assessing the quality of food products and raw materials (particularly wine products).Keywords: lactic acid, ionization constant, distribution curves of the dimeric forms, criterion coefficients for indirect estimation of quality wines.
Explore the feasibility of using chitosan from shell of gammarus of the Azov, technology fish-vegetable semi-finished products to increase their shelf-life. Determined solubility of chitosan in various food acids and concentration in a solution with a constant effective viscosity for shape retention fish-vegetable semi-finished products. It is established that the best way chitosan soluble in 1% solution of acetic acid and its optimal concentration of 4%. The influence of 4% of chitosan solutions of various molecular mass to the expiration date fish-vegetable semi-finished products is investigated. It is established that the addition of chitosan solution with a molecular mass 320 kDa increases the shelf life of products.Keywords: chitosan, fish-vegetable semi-finished products, solutions of acids, shelf life of products.
Industrial ecology & Biotechnology of Food Systems
Research of phytotoxicity and biological indicators of soil conditions, changing the dose of pollutant
Investigation of changes in the characteristics of the soil in conditions of anthropogenic impact is an important element in solving the problems of rehabilitation of soils, development of methods of remediation of soils, taking into account the specifics of mobilizing natural reserves of soil ecosystems. Samples were studied methods of leached chernozem territory of Krasnodar region, pollutant of soil served oil, introduced in various doses. Defined biological activity of the soil indicators: phytotoxicity, cellulose-lytic ability, the intensity of the release of carbon dioxide from the soil. Phytotoxicity of soil was evaluated by the following parameters: energy of germination and speed of germination of seeds, the length of aboveground and underground parts of plants, the wet weight of each plant on the 14th day. It is established that when soil oil reduced germination of seeds, the energy of germination, changes the colour of the leaves of plants. Also decreased the length of aboveground and underground parts of seedlings, as well as their weight. Counts decreased soil biological activity. The indicators of degradation of oil in the investigated soil samples are defined.Keywords: chernozem, soil, oil, pollutant, phytotoxicity of soil, biodegradation of oil.
Considered the issues to profess history in technical universities. Noted that the trends of modern social development and promotion of information technologies have highlighted a number of challenges that require reflection in the mainstream education system improvement. Especially it concerns the development of students scientific-historical ideology, knowledge of the regularities of the historical process, the understanding of the crisis humanitarian values. The proclamation of 2012 the Year of Russian history posed by lecturers in history in technical universities of the tasks of strengthening the interest of the students for the national history, creation at them of methodology of historical and comparative analysis. Synthesis of technical and humanitarian knowledge will improve the educational and professional level of students, creative potential of the future specialists, the quality and effectiveness of education.Keywords: to profess history, technical education, Year of Russian history, methods of historical analysis.
The characteristics of educational and research work of students (ERWS) as one of the components of the educational process is given. It is shown that ERWS has considerable potential for the formation of competencies and personal and professional qualities of the student – social and professional competence, tolerance, information competence, communicative competence and other. Because of the close links with other components of the educational process – an industrial practice, scientific and practical activities, scientific-research work of students, ERWS plays an important role in the formation of a qualified engineer, formation of skills for research and analytical work. The examples of modeling the relationship between ERWS with other components of educational process on the basis of the formation of the necessary levels of professional competence are presented.Keywords: educational and research work of students, educational process, personal and professional development, professional competence.
The results of researches of the nutritional value black chokeberry’s fruits variety Chernookaya grown in the Central Black Earth Region of Russia made by the complex of biochemical indices are submitted. The possibility of the use of the black chokeberry’s fruits as a source of biologically active substances in food industry is ascertained.Keywords: the black chokeberry’s fruits, nutritional value, biologically active substances, vitamins, micro- and macroelements.
Results of research of some physic-mechanical characteristics of melons seeds variety “Amiri” are presented: the linear sizes, weight of seeds, their volume weight, weight of 1000 seeds and a corner the friction necessary for working out of the technological equipment.Keywords: linear sizes of melons seeds, weight of seeds, rest friction coefficient.
Prospects of creation of non-alcoholic beverages of medical purpose on basis of mineral water source Gil-Su
The possibility of production of non-alcoholic beverages therapeutic purpose of wild fruits and berries extracts and the mineral water source Gil-Su is considered. There are presented data on the content of organic compounds and minerals in the water source Gil-Su. Classification of underground mineral waters it refers to acid, siliceous, chalybeate, boric mineral waters chloride-hydrocarbonate calcium-sodium. Water source Gil-Su is characterized by high stability of macro- and microelements, gas and radiological composition and refers to therapeutic and therapeutic-table mineral drinking water. It is shown that the water source Gil-Su is a good basis for the creation of soft drinks therapeutic purpose, enriched with biologically active components due to the introduction in the formulation of wild fruits and berries extracts.Keywords: mineral water, non-alcoholic beverages therapeutic purpose, extract of wild fruits and berries.