Results of studying of technological characteristics of mixed varieties of paddy rice in various percentage ratios are presented. It was found out that short grained varieties Rapan and Khazar have their technological characteristics worsened when mixed with each other in comparison with processing each variety separately. For varieties of the same type Liman and Garant it is appropriate to use varieties Rapan and Khazar as improving agents. The variety Liman, possessing low compared with other short grained varieties of technological and consumer properties, mixtures with them in different proportions significantly reduces their technological properties by reducing output of the whole kernel and increase the output of broken rice. On the other hand, the addition varieties Liman promotes decrease in cereal mixed nuclei with not separated germ. When short and medium grained varieties were mixed milling yield of head rice was lower. It can be explained because it is difficult to find optimal processing conditions for rice of different types. Medium grained variety Ametist can be used as improving agent when mixed with other varieties of the same type.Keywords: rice, mixed varieties rice, technological characteristics of rice, milling yield, rice quality.
Table of contents for # 1 (337), 2014
Food Raw Materials & Ingredients
A rational approach to processing of small fishes and secondary fish resources, generated during processing fish fishing objects of the catch should be based on systematization approach to their quality. On the basis used in the fishing industry classification criteria, built on common and essential attributes of hydrobionts, proposed to systematize the fish raw materials into groups based on the explicit and implicit factors classifications. Developed scheme of systematization of quality indicators of small fish and secondary fish resources, taking into account the morphometric and physical properties, techno-chemical indicators, functional and technological properties, including rheological and structural-mechanical characteristics of fish raw. On the basis of the data of chemical composition and techno-chemical indicators of small fishes of the Volga-Caspian fishery basin and derived secondary fish resources provides recommendations for the production of the farce production, processing innards and collagen-containing waste. On the basis of the received data determined the directions of rational processing of small fish and secondary fish resources.Keywords: small fish, secondary fish resources, systematization, quality indicators, structural and mechanical characteristics, collagen-containing waste.
Conducted research on the improvement of the storage technologies of agricultural raw materials. The possibility of the use of antimicrobial action of CO2-extracts from polyphenol-containing aromatic raw materials for the extension of storage periods of vegetable raw materials and root crops, designed by the authors installation with a high output of commodity products is established. The impact of CO2-extracts raw materials in the installation is done in two ways: a remotely using the device for the energy-information transfer of matter, as well as directly through aseptic biodegradable packaging materials, produced according to the technology developed by the authors in the recipe with the addition of starch and CO2-extracts of aromatic raw materials. Storage facilities were the most common types of tomatoes, cucumbers, carrots and potatoes grown in the Krasnodar territory. The developed technology can be used in conjunction with pre-treatment of vegetable raw material before putting it into storage electromagnetic field extremely low frequency (EMF ELF) in a range from 18 to 40 Hz. To prevent secondary contamination of junk microflora sterilized EMF ELF vegetables and root crops asked to fill them in breathing packaging biodegradable film coated on the inner surface of CO2-extract, which allows you to remove through the pores formed during respiration vegetables ethylene and protects the contents of the package from secondary contamination.Keywords: storage of vegetable raw materials, electromagnetic field of extremely low frequency, energy and information transfer, CO2-extracts, biodegradable packaging materials.
Chemistry of Food Products & Materials
Electrometric research of interaction of electrochemical synthesized hypochlorite of sodium with various additives of ammonium salt is conducted. Opportunity indirect redox electrometric definition of ions of ammonium with application as reagent oxidizer of the electrogenerated active chlorine is studied. Kinetic dependences “the measured potential–time” were registered in an automatic mode after mixture of solutions electrogenerated “active chlorine” with additives of salt of ammonium of various concentration. Character of curves “potential–time” is defined. The abnormal course of dependence “potential–time” is revealed at sufficient excess of active chlorine. The explanation of this abnormal dependence irreversible oxidation of NH4+ or NH3 to molecular nitrogen is offered. It is established that kinetic parameters from curves “potential–time” aren’t suitable for quantitative definition of ions of ammonium. It is offered to use linear functional dependence as the calibration characteristic. On the basis of results of research the technique of definition of NH3 in model solutions and foodstuff is developed.Keywords: redox potential, ammonium salt, electrogenerated active chlorine, sodium chloride.
Secondary products of processing of fruits melons are its seeds, oil which is 25–45%, and the total protein content 25–36%. Therefore melon seeds may be an additional source for the production of valuable vegetable oil and coarse meal. The results of a study of the chemical composition of melon seeds of varieties “Asiatskaya ovalnaya” grown in Tajikistan are presented. Set mass fraction of protein substances composition of lipids, carbohydrates and minerals are established. Defined fatty acid composition of spare lipids extracted from the seeds of melons. Made comparison of these indicators seeds of melons grown in different soil-climatic conditions.Keywords: melon seeds, proteins, lipids, amino acids composition, fatty acid composition.
The possibility of use of fish raw materials in the technology of processed cheese products is investigated to improve their food and biological value, enrichment of micro- and macroelements, unsaturated fatty acids and expansion of the assortment of dairy products. As fish additives have been used crushed, salted, frozen semi-finished products herring, trout and salmon. Presents operational-technological scheme of production of processed cheese product with the use of fish. Describes how the selection and preparation of cheese and fish products, salts-fused. Regimes of the fuse process is determined. The influence of the type and dose of applied fish additives taste on smell and consistency of the finished product. On the basis of obtained results it is established that the best organoleptic indicators have cheese products with the addition of trout and salmon in the amount of 4–5%. Samples with the addition of herring significantly inferior to them. The influence of dose filler (salmon and trout) on the water-holding ability of the product, which indicates its quality during storage is determined. Found that over 60 days this indicator in the obtained samples of cheese has practically not changed, the product retains moisture, respectively does not change its organoleptic properties.Keywords: processed cheese product, raw fish, organoleptic characteristics of the product, water-holding ability.
Research of structural and mechanical properties of pudding with polysaccharides and isolate of soy protein on the basis of whey
The structural and mechanical properties of the developed low-calorie pudding based on whey with polysaccharides of different origin and isolate of soy protein are researched. For research used polysaccharides of vegetable, algal and microbial origin, as well as whey, cream with fat 30%, granulated sugar, gelatin, corn starch, soy protein isolate, fructose. Determined rheological parameters (viscosity) of ready-made puddings depending on the storage temperature. Viscosity measurement of ready-made puddings carried viscograph company “Brabender” (Germany), with the rotation of 76 revs per minute. It is established that the developed pudding in contrast to the control sample on the gelatin whose viscosity is reduced approximately in 2 times when re-heating and the subsequent storage of refrigerated, saves the rheological properties in the process of storage and restores the structure after heating at the subsequent storage in a refrigerated. Developed pudding on the content of dry substances is not inferior to the control sample, and the number of protein surpasses it, the content of fat and carbohydrates in the dessert reduced, making low-calorie product: energy value 35,6 kcal less in comparison with the control sample. The pH value is approaching neutral, which makes the product more secure for assimilation.Keywords: milk whey, polysaccharides, pudding, soy protein isolate, rheological properties.
Development of wafer small loafs compounding with use of protein nonconventional sources of phytogenesis
With the purpose of obtaining new types of flour confectionery products with high nutritional value and improved technological characteristics explore the feasibility of using alfalfa field in the compounding of wafer small loafs. The data on chemical composition of the leaves of alfalfa and content of essential amino acids in proteins compared with the ideal protein. To save contained in the plant of active substances alfalfa leaves pre-dried in a dark place at the optimum temperature 34–37°C to the content of dry substances 88–89%, crushed in a rotor-roller disintegrator. Additive powder from leaves of alfalfa in the compounding of wafer small loafs carried out in the amount of 3–5% of flour. Defined physical and chemical indicators of the quality of semi-finished and finished products control and prototypes with protein additive and organoleptic properties of ready wafer small loafs. It was found that application of a powder from leaves of alfalfa contributes to the quality of wafer small loafs on the main parameters. The optimal dosage of protein additive – 4% of flour. Application of a powder from leaves of alfalfa in production of wafer small loafs allows not only to obtain products with a higher nutritional value, but also change some of the technological properties of semi-finished and finished products.Keywords: wafer small loafs, nonconventional vegetable raw material, alfalfa field, powder from leaves of alfalfa.
The predefecation is one of the important steps of purification of diffusion juice. Theoretically, the effect of cleaning at this stage should reach 24%. In fact, the sugar factories Krasnodar region efficiency predefecation reaches only 12–14%, which affects the overall treatment effect of diffusion juice. One reason for the low efficiency of cleaning diffusion juice in sugar factories determined is not rational use of electrokinetic properties of disperse systems of sugar production: coagulate predefecated juice and carbonated sediments. Is conducted a study on the dynamics of change of the ж-potential of the coagulate predefecated juice of the pH in the presence and absence of calcium carbonate. It was found that in the presence of calcium carbonate, the negative charge of the dispersed phase-consistent predefecated juice retained until pH 7,5–7,6, and after recharging has two peaks of the positive charge particles coagulate: the first is in the range of pH 8,8–9,2, and the second at pH 10,8–11,2. Based on the studies of the proposed predefecation and identify entry points suspensions juice I and II saturation. Results of implementation of the development of the sugar factories have shown that while the rate of deposition predefecated juice increased from 3,2 to 4,6 cm/min; purity of the purified juice increased by 0,55–0,70%, the effect of cleaning for 5–7%; calcium content and color of the purified juice decreased by 13–24 and 20–40%.Keywords: electrokinetic properties, ж-potential carbonated sediments, charge coagulate, way of predefecation.
Conducted the research to development of technology of receiving functional food based on fruit, vegetables and cereals. In work we create compositions of functional purpose dessert snacks. We also offer the way of dessert snacks production. Dried apricots, prunes, dried apples are basic components of our snacks compositions. Sea-buckthorn, raisins, nuts, spices are offered as individual flavor-forming components. The snacks components ratio is optimized according to the dietology requirements. The biomodified proteinaceous products of a winter cress seeds, a colza seeds, sunflower seeds, melon and pumpkin seeds, oat flakes, wheat bran and girasol powder are entered into snacks compositions for formation of a functional orientation and increase of a biological and nutrition value of snacks. The technological scheme of fruit and cereal snacks production is offered. The results of physical and chemical and microbiological researches of the obtained products are given. Calculations of degree of satisfaction of daily requirement of an organism in food fibers, pectin, vitamins and mineral elements are presented at introduction to a diet of offered fruit and cereal snacks. The complex assessment of results of the tasting analysis taking into account ponderability coefficients is given. According to the offered technology and the developed compoundings at the JSC “Azbuka vitaminov” enterprise production of fruit and berry and fruit and cereal snacks is carried out.Keywords: functional products, snacks, product compounding, tasting, physical and chemical, microbiological indicators.
Considered possibility and summarized results of practical use of agricultural raw materials processing by electromagnetic field of low frequency (EMF LF) (1–100 Hz) with the purpose of prolongation of storage, increase quality of finished products and creation of resource-saving technologies. The regularities of influence of EMF LF to the growth of the seed is established. The regularities of the microbiological fermentation processes under the influence of EMF extremely low frequencies (ELF) are researched. The character of changes of physical and chemical parameters and properties of products derived from processed EMF LF raw materials and semi-finished products is defined. The changes in the physico-chemical properties of wine and beer yeast under the influence of EMF LF are researched. Shows the block diagram of installations for the processing of biosystems EMF LF. Scientifically founded effects of EMF exposure on the processed objects. Proposed and experimentally tested at various stages of production technology of agricultural raw materials processing by EMF LF. Regimes of processing EMF LF different types of agricultural raw materials, seeds of agricultural crops: frequency, field strength, duration of exposure are determined. Recommendations on the germination of substandard seed using ELF EMF are development. Set resonant effect of ELF EMF, which can speed up or slow down the processes occurring in the wine and brewing yeast, facilitate activation of proteolytic enzymes muscle tissue of animals. Confirmed the influence of EMF LF to change of activity of enzymes of biological liquids.Keywords: electromagnetic field of low frequency, plant seeds, animal raw materials, activated water, wine and brewer's yeast.
To improve the comprehensive utilization of raw materials from hydrobionts, as well as to improve the nutritional value of mayonnaise and mayonnaise sauces explore the feasibility of using sea cucumber (Cucumaria japonica) in the production of mayonnaise sauces. To regulate the structure of the sauces additionally contributed polysaccharides of algae and stabilizers. It was found that replacing milk and egg component in mayonnaise on boiled farce of sea cucumber together with cooking waters did not affect the taste and smell of the product, which are consistent with traditional. The products are small pieces of boiled sea cucumber size up to 1 mm. Color samples light cream, cream. To increase the robustness of the emulsions investigated the possibility of complex use of stabilizers: gum and xanthan (0,2–0,5%), guar gums (0,25–0,5%), as well as sodium alginate (0,2%). Comparison of rheological characteristics of model sauces showed that introduction recipe sauces complex gum and xanthan and guar gums in the amount of 0,5 and 0,8% in different concentrations and ratios increases the viscosity products in 5–7 times. Stratification of samples within 3 months of refrigeration storage (0–10°C) was not observed. The offered technology of production of mayonnaise allows to get a product with the high organoleptic properties, preserving biologically active components contained in the muscle tissue sea cucumber and cooking waters. Developed mayonnaise products are lower in comparison with traditional caloric value (120 kcal).Keywords: sea cucumber, mayonnaise sauce, guar and xanthan gums, alginate, polysaccharides of sea origin, viscosity and resistance emulsion, hormone precursors structures, rheological properties.
Development and deployment of safety management system of food production on the example of production of smoked and boiled rolls from fowl
The safety management system in relation to specifics of production on JSC “Kolmogorovsky Broyler Poultry Farm” is developed. The analysis of dangerous factors and critical control points in the production technology of smoked and boiled rolls from fowl (RF) according to the principles of system of HACCP is carried out. The list of considered dangerous factors (biological, chemical, physical) according to the risk analysis chart is created. Critical control points are established when developing meat products. Designed map of metrological provision of production process RF and the production programs of obligatory preliminary actions directed on elimination of the reasons for reduced safety, arising in products or the production environment are developed. For the purpose of confirmation of functioning of safety management system of food products the standard program of check (verification) is created. Decrease in losses from marriage for the studied period of time that testifies to efficiency of the developed safety management system of food products is noted. The approbations of compoundings and technology are carried out, regulated indicators of quality of rolls from fowl are defined. The conducted researches allow to conclude that functioning of system of HACCP, since its introduction, provides stability of qualitative characteristics, including safety that is confirmed by absence of claims from the consumer and the rejected products.Keywords: safety management system, HACCP, meat products, food quality, safety of products.
We investigate the possibility of refining of vegetable oils, derived by the combined method, providing biotechnological processing of crushed oilseeds baking yeast and forging oil extraction with the use of carbon dioxide. Derived of this technology are oil has a relatively low colority 27–45 colority units of 13,5 cm layer. We investigate the possibility of refining derived a combined way of cotton oil to manufacture a product that will meet the criteria of safety of products for food purposes. Carried out the selection of the most appropriate technologies and modes of refining process. It is established that optimal results can be achieved through a two-stage refining: alkaline with subsequent adsorption bleaching. Selected bentonite fields of the Republic of Uzbekistan, through the activation of which was received adsorbents with the necessary adsorption properties. The optimal technological conditions of thermal and acid activation bentonites are estimated. Established conditions of adsorption refining cotton oil: the temperature of 65–70°C, the duration of the process 35–40 minutes, the intensity of mixing the 12,6–14,3 turn/s, number of adsorbent of 2,5% by weight of oil. These settings allow you to derive cotton oil with the release of 94,6%, corresponding to the qualitative higher grade according to the State standard of the Republic of Uzbekistan.Keywords: cottonseed oil, refining oils, alkaline refining, adsorption refining, colority oil.
There are presented the results of researches on development of formulation and technology of obtaining low fat milk, fortified with liposomal в-carotene. To obtain liposomal forms of в-carotene was used soy lecithin LeciPRO 90С by firm “Orison Chemicals Limited”. Liposomes were obtained by hydration dry lipid film with the subsequent mechanical emulsification. The average diameter of liposomes did not exceed 1 mm. Education and the internal structure of the obtained liposomes controlled by electron microscopy methods negative contrast and ultrathin slices on electron microscope JEM-100C (JEOL, USA). Fractional-disperse structure and aggregate stability liposomal samples was estimated by the method of laser correlation spectroscopy with spectrometer LKS-03 (Russia). Confirmed sustainability of the liposomal structures of the colloidal system milk and preservation of the biological activity of в-carotene over a set period of 10 days. The formulation of a novel functional product – low fat milk, fortified with liposomal в-carotene, has been developed. The additive was introduced into pasteurized milk at 4°C at the level ensuring 40% of daily requirement in в-carotene of an adult. Hexobarbital sleeping time test performed on laboratory animals showed hepatostimulation effect of the developed functional product.Keywords: liposomes, method of dehydration/rehydration, в-carotene, encapsulation of biologically active substances, hepatostimulation activity.
Most of confectionery products contain a significant amount of sugar is refined product, in which after receiving and cleaning practically does not remain valuable for human nutrition substances, other than sucrose. Contents of a large number of sucrose causes high sugar and calorie confectionery products, therefore one of the main tasks in obtaining them is to reduce high sugar and energy value, increasing the physiological value of the product. In recent years in production of confectionery products use different sugar substitutes (natural and artificial), however, as a rule, they all have their drawbacks. We have developed the technology of obtaining powder semi-product of sugar beet (PSSB), which allows to save not only sucrose, but almost all useful for human nutrition substances contained in beet. The resulting PSSB represents the bulk solid, 85% of which consists of total sugar and includes functional ingredients. Particles PSSB have amorphous-crystalline structure, their size 5–30 мm. The chemical composition of PSSB includes carbohydrates, organic acids, mineral substances, proteins, fiber, and vitamins. Data are presented organoleptic and physical-chemical parameters of powder semi-finished product, is a diagram of its receipt. The use of powder semi-product from the juice of sugar beets instead of sugar in confectionery products will improve their nutritional value and reduce high sugar.Keywords: confectionery, sugar beet, nutritional value, sugar, powder semi-product.
To determine the appropriateness of the use of potato dietary fibers (PDF) for the production of biscuits half-finished products investigated density and humidity test, specific volume and porosity baked half-finished products. For prototypes in the formulation conducted replace 100% of potato starch and from 5 to 15% of wheat flour from its number in the control formulation potato dietary fibers. The influence of PDF on physical-chemical and organoleptic indicators of the quality of biscuits, as well as the structural-mechanical properties of biscuit dough is investigated. It is shown, that replacement of the 100% starch addition PDF in the amount of 10–15% to weight of a flour in the test leads to the improvement of the quality of biscuit, increases its nutritional value and increases the duration of preservation of freshness. It is established that the structural-mechanical properties of biscuit dough is largely dependent on the voltage and the shear rate and decrease with increasing the dosage of PDF more than 15% by weight of flour in the test. At this dosage film frame is becoming less sustainable. After baking such products have a low indices of specific volume, and porosity. It is shown that at replacement of a part of flour dietary fibers foam stability increases. The results of the research testify to the feasibility of the use of PDF to improve organoleptic and physical-chemical indicators of the quality of ready-made biscuits.Keywords: biscuit, potato dietary fibers, structural-mechanical properties of dough, quality indicators biscuit.
The cakes are produced mostly from wheat flour and differ in calories, high in fat and carbohydrates with small amounts of essential amino acids, vitamins, macro- and microelements. To improve the nutritional and biological value of cakes on the chemical baking powder, enrich their dietary fiber, minerals, vitamins and expansion of assortment of confectionery was suggested to use the recipe of the cake rye flour instead of wheat flour. Different dosage of rye flour in the recipe cakes and their influence on the density and acidity pastry, and specific volume of finished products are investigated. The possibility of replacement in the recipe of the cake to 50% wheat flour baking top grade on flour rye is established.Keywords: cakes on chemical baking powder, rye flour, quality indicators of cake.
Valuable raw materials for production of functional products and the ingredients used for their enrichment, are water biological resources, including the fish milts representing a by-product of processing of some valuable breeds of fishes. In this respect considerable interest is represented by the salmon milts. Possibility of creation of the enriched product from salmon milts with use of a versatile additive chitosan is investigated. Chitosan possesses ability to form a complex with DNA, providing compaction of a molecule and its delivery in organism cells; besides, chitosan carried out functions of the technological component protecting a ready-made product from damage and increasing its biological value. The technology of fish pastes was taken as a basis of technology of the new enriched product. In a compounding used the milts enriched with the chitosan-DNA hydrolyzate, and the vegetable oil. On the basis of an assessment of organoleptic indicators and emulsion stability of system the optimum ratio of components of a compounding is defined. The final product is designed in the form of roll with the topping including components of raw materials of an animal and a phytogenesis. The technological scheme of production of roll “Neptun” is submitted. Assessment of innovation of technological development carried out by calculation of an integrated criteria indicator taking into account an assessment of safety, a level of quality, organoleptic indicators, the biological value of a new product, economic efficiency, competitiveness and the practical importance of technological development. Its scientific and practical importance is as a result confirmed. Availability of functional ingredients in a new product allow to position it as enriched.Keywords: salmon milts, chitosan-DNA hydrolyzate, functional product, enriched product, chitosan, innovation of technology.
Explore the feasibility of using a mixture of vegetable oils (MVO) – deodorized sunflower refined high-linoleic and deodorized sunflower refined high-olein (in ratio of 56 : 44) in the production of fat-containing praline candies with a view to improve the rheological indices, lowering calories and fatty capacity, raise nutritional value, to ensure the functional orientation of products. The content in the MVO 50% oleic acid gives the product immuno-correcting properties and increases resistance to oxidative processes by mono-nonsaturation. As a sugar-containing raw material in a compounding of products used palatinose, as the fat component – a mix of palm oil and MVO in ratio of 7 : 1. As a result of experiments was chosen the optimal ratio in the formulation of hard and vegetable fats, providing the best physical-chemical and organoleptic characteristics of praline candies. Developed praline mass have a hard, but enough plastic consistency at room temperature. Evaluation of the quality of finished products according to the standard methods showed that samples of praline mass, prepared with the addition of the MVO, the main indicators differ from control: they are completely missing the sucrose and 35% lower fat content. The developed products is tender melting texture and pleasant coffee taste without the use of artificial flavorings. In addition they are enriched physiologically functional ingredients contained in vegetable oils.Keywords: vegetable oils, formulation of products, praline candies, functional fatty component.
Investigated the change in the rheological properties of the candy mass on isomaltulose in the process of making candy with chewing structure when making softeners and fiber to determine viscoelastic mass properties for chewing candies. Deformation measured both in the area without destruction, i. e. the linear viscoelastic area and at higher voltages outside viscoelastic area. Measure viscoelastic properties were adopted: module of dynamic elasticity, module mechanical losses and tangent of elasticity. Determined that the prototypes chewing candy mass on isomaltulose have higher module of dynamic elasticity and of the tangent of elasticity, which testifies to their best rheological characteristics in comparison with control samples on sugar. We found that the addition of plasticizers and dietary fibers leads to an increase in the elasticity modulus. Introduction of additives contributed to the reduction of plastic and improve the elastic properties of the mass, improves chewing properties of candies. Prototypes chewing candies obtained using isomaltulose and dietary fibers, had significantly reduced hardness and improved consistency in comparison with control samples on sugar. Mainly assessment texture chewing candies showed that enhanced texture was obtained by increasing the tangent of elasticity within the measured field in nonlinear viscoelastic region.Keywords: chewing candies, plasticizers, dietary fiber, plasticity, elasticity, chewing profile.
The possibility of subcritical СO2-extracts application as natural flavoring agents, obtained from spicy-aromatic and officinal vegetative raw material has been analyzed in the article. Estimation of CO2-extracts application methods as flavoring agents in food products has been done. Raw material selection for production of CO2-extracts has been fulfilled, chemical content has been studied, directions of application in food industry have been determined. CO2-extracts of leafed stalks of East Indies basil, buds cloves, black pepper, fragrant pepper, red pepper, laurel leaves produced at extraction plant of “Karavan Company” Ltd (Krasnodar) was the objects of research. The content of oily substances, organic acids, phenolic substances in CO2-extracts has been determined by gas chromatography and photo-colorimetric methods. The required doses of CO2-extracts for necessary intensity of taste and aroma in food products have been determined. Economical effectiveness of CO2-extracts application instead of dry spices at production of natural canned food products and canned food products with application of oil has been calculated. It has been recommended to use the results of research at production of meat and fish canned food products.Keywords: flavoring agents, CO2-extracts, spicy-aromatic raw material, subcritical extraction, extraction installations, economical effectiveness.
Environmentally-friendly packaging materials for storage of food products and semi-finished products
Various aspects of development and production of environmentally friendly packaging materials for storage of food products and semi-finished products are considered. The analysis of some of biodegradable packaging materials is realized. Presents the results of development of technology of biodegradable hydrophobic packaging films for a wide range of frozen and refrigerated semi-finished products and products ready to the use, as an alternative to traditional plastic packages. Developed composition of packaging, consisting of plant polysaccharides, flavouring basis or water, a natural preservative. Composition is a hydrogel, cross stitched natural polymer, which contains a large amount of water, not dissolving in it. Flavouring basis is selected depending on the purpose of packaging, i.e. from a kind of semi-product or chilled ready meals. The technology and operational characteristics of the developed packaging film is presented. Studied its qualitative indicators, barrier properties and safety indicators. Deadline for decomposition of the film in the soil is determined.Keywords: packing of food products, biodegradable packaging, packing of frozen food products.
Fruits of a wild-growing and cultivated sea-buckthorn belong to perspective types of vegetable raw materials for production of highly effective food additives. These researches of a chemical composition of fruits of the sea-buckthorn growing in the Republic of Dagestan and Krasnodar region are given. It is established that according to the content of vitamins C, E, folic acid, irreplaceable fatty acids fruits of a wild-growing sea-buckthorn surpass indicators cultivated. The advanced technological scheme of complex processing of fruits of a sea-buckthorn with receiving sea-buckthorn juice and oil, CO2-extract and a food additive from a marc of a sea-buckthorn, wax for the cosmetic industry is developed. Innovative advantages of the scheme applies wash fruits saturated water with the purpose of intensification of the process and the reduction of microbiological contamination. The way of preliminary processing and the subsequent drying of fruits of a sea-buckthorn and marc from them by a pulse electromagnetic field of ultrahigh frequency in an interval (2700 ± 50) MHz, 400–500 W, lasting 1–2 min is developed and approved. Sea-buckthorn juice with the high content of vitamin C, в-carotene and carbohydrates is received. The marc which has remained after an extraction of juice, according to the developed scheme dried up, drew extractive substances liquid CO2 and received a food additive with a size of particles of 50–60 мm by sharp dumping of pressure (explosion) from 6,4 to 0,1 MPa in the extraction device.Keywords: sea-buckthorn fruits, chemical composition of sea-buckthorn fruits, sea-buckthorn juice, CO2-extraction, pulse electromagnetic field of ultrahigh frequency.
Processes & Apparatus
Mathematical model of stabilisation of material and thermal streams in the closed cycle by manufacture of cereal concentrates
The decision of a task for a difficult technological system in which three basic operations proceed: a washing, cooking and groats drying was reached by methods of mathematical modelling. Overheated steam used for realisation of the basic operations with formation of the closed contours of circulation on material and thermal streams. Overheated steam used at cooking and a washing – fulfilled after drying overheated steam. Submitted on cooking fulfilled overheated steam moisten with water, spattering in the chamber of cooking to a saturation condition. In compiling heat balance equations, the values of enthalpy for all interacting components, which correspond to the internal energy of a particular component. The equations material and power balances for three stages have been worked out: drying, cooking and a washing. For modelling of process “washing–cooking–drying” the program GL7 in language Turbo-Pascal in operating system Windows 7 was made. For the decision of the given problem the search method on discrete set by splitting of an interval of restriction on n points and calculation of the minimum value of criterion function in these points was used at constant parameters. Settlement dependences of a mass fraction of superfluous steam on productivity cooking-drying apparatus the device are received at the various water temperature submitted on a washing and cooking, at various humidity of rice groats after cooking, and at various temperature of steam fulfilled after drying. A deviation of the settlement data from the experimental did not exceed 11%. The energy saving technology of boiled and dried groats is developed and the combined installation for its realization, based on recirculation and full use of superheated steam energy, is suggested.Keywords: mathematical model, thermal and material streams, stabilization, energy saving, cereal concentrates, washing, cooking, drying.
Crushing of particles of spicy vegetable raw materials is important technological operation by production of foodstuff with additives of spices. Cryoprocessing of spicy vegetable raw materials before crushing allows to reduce losses of valuable flying components. The researches results of influence of cryoprocessing on mechanical characteristics of fruits of pepper of the black bitter are presented in this article. The comparative assessment of the studied strength parameters of fruits without and with cryoprocessing is given. Dependences for calculation of strength characteristics of the studied objects are presented. It is established that destruction of fruits of pepper of the black bitter happens in the field of elastoplastic deformation, without reaching area of plastic deformation. For calculation the Heaviside Step Functions function in the program Mathcad environment is used.The possibility of decrease in power expenses is established when crushing the cryoprocessed fruits of pepper of the black bitter.Keywords: fruits of pepper black, cryoprocessing, strength characteristics.
A mathematical model of cooking grains with the addition of enzyme solution. The model takes into account changes in temperature over time, and detachment of swollen starch granules with a surface layer material tenderize. Solution of the system of differential equations satisfied by grid metod on the implicit scheme. Obtained at each time step the system of linear equations with tridiagonal matrix solved by successive elimination of variables. When the cooking of the starch granules swell, and thus, in the process of cooking the diffusion of bound water. Dependence of the diffusion coefficient on temperature is given by the Arrhenius equation , which takes into account the diffusion activation energy and pre-exponential factor. Last calculated by extrapolation of the experimental dependence of the diffusion coefficient of water temperature. Shows photographs of the particles of the starch granules in the dry wheat grains, after cooking of at magnification of 200 times. Average grain size in the dry wheat grain powder was 18 mm, the swollen granules – 34,7 mm, which is in agreement with the known experimental data. In the numerical calculations was taken grain powder size of 1 mm. The number of steps taken by the coordinate of 200, so that each layer is roughly match the size of the starch granules. Since the problem is symmetric, then the calculation is carried out for 100 layers. Assumed that the 1st layer is bordered with a liquid, and the latter is located in the center of grit. When identifying a defined equilibrium concentration of moisture in the solid at the interface and the diffusion activation energy. Graphic shows the calculated dependence of changes in the concentration of moisture in the coordinate and time.Keywords: cooking, barley granul, starch granul, swelling.
The basic parameters of IR-radiation of pumpkin seeds of a variety “Styrian oil”, covered with a thin filmy cover are investigated. Short-term thermal influence allows to keep and improve their proteinaceous composition. Changes of temperature and humidity of seeds depending on a specific thermal stream of IR-radiation, distance between a layer of seeds and IR-lamps, durations of irradiation and humidity of initial seeds are investigated. The regression equations for calculation of temperature and humidity of pumpkin seeds are received at IR-radiation depending on the studied constructive technology factors. With the purpose of choice of control actions undertook an assessment of the impact of these factors on temperature and humidity of pumpkin seeds. The received results are recommended to be used for basis of IR-radiation parameters of pumpkin seeds of a variety “Styrian oil” and when developing the thermo-radiation equipment.Keywords: pumpkin seeds of variety “Styrian oil”, IR-radiation, best and worst band outputs.
Pulp press water returning – a method of improving of sugar factory’s raw juice obtaining station work efficiency
The process of extracting sucrose from beet cossettes in modern continuous extraction apparatus is not limited only diffusive mass exchange, due to the influence of the conveying device, it is supplemented by a partial pressing of the cossettes over the entire length of the apparatus. This partial pressing of beet cossettes in the apparatus, accompanied by mechanically mixing of displaced juice with extractant is similar to operating of diffusion apparatus with returning of pulp press water. It is obvious that the process of final mechanical desugaring of beet cossettes can be transferred to an external pressing of partly desugared by diffusion cossettes in pulp presses with following mandatory returning of pulp press water. In this case, pulp presses should be categorized as devices for final desugaring of beet cossettes and diffusion apparatus as one of the links in a unified complex for extraction of sucrose out of sugar beet, including: extraction of the main amount of sucrose by diffusion method, final desugaring by pressing of beet cossettes, preparation and returning of pulp press water. On the basis of the equation that takes into account the interrelation between the main technological factors of the extraction process with returning of pulp press water the nomograms were developed. These nomograms reflect the interrelation between sucrose content in the fresh pulp, amount of obtaining raw juice and sucrose losses in the pressed pulp, i.e. they are contribute to the solution of a number of practical issues related to improving the juice-obtaining station of a sugar factory work. It is also shown that the returning of pulp press water allows to solve the complex problem: reducing of the amount of obtaining raw juice in order to reduce the consumption of energy resources and reducing the production losses of sugar in the pressed pulp with a corresponding increasing of product yield.Keywords: extraction process, pulp press water, quantity of raw juice, sugar losses in pressed pulp.
Determination of the relative slip and efficiency of friction pairs of cylindrical wheels in equipment of food industry
Of the operation reliability of the friction gears technological equipment of food industry depends not only product performance and product quality, but also the specific energy consumption. When you configure a friction gear is important to ensure its work with a minimum slip and high efficiency. The purpose of this study is to identify the values of relative sliding surfaces of cylindrical wheels and efficiency of a friction gear with the use of transmission modes, consisting of hard wheels with nonrigid rims. To analyze the interaction of processed material with the working bodies of machines is proposed to use the elementary physical model (EPM). The obtained dependences enable one to quantify the loss of speed of the driven wheel (slip) the magnitude of i – relative sliding friction gear. It is established that the efficiency of the transmission and sliding friction pair to the influence of the same factors; efficiency peaks at approximately equal values of normal and tangential components of the resultant. The received analytical dependencies recommended to use for optimal operation of the equipment and design of the friction gear.Keywords: friction gear, relative sliding cylindrical wheels, elementary physical model, efficiency of friction gear.
Methods of Investigation, Quality & Safety of Food Products
Cereal products traditionally occupy in the human diet for a significant segment. At the same time, vegetable proteins are not balanced in composition, in connection with than mono-component dishes from cereals have low consumer properties. With the purpose of assortment expansion, adjustments nutritional value and improve consumer properties of cereal casseroles we have conducted research on the modification of their cereal-ended modelling formulations based on linear programming. The main task, expressed as a target function, was to obtain the formulations with the balanced nutrients composition. In the design results were obtained casserole recipe Zolotistaya and Zernistaya, set croup which was expanded into three types, which made it possible to balance prescription to the composition of the composition of protein, fats and carbohydrates, as the inclusion of additional specific components contributed to the improvement of organoleptic properties and increase of content of biologically active substances. This work presents the results of a comprehensive quality assessment of cereals casseroles made are calculated recipes, in comparison with existing analogues. For comprehensive quality assessment of the developed casseroles, including summarizing all the indicators studied culinary products was used multiplicative type additive model of integrated assessment, expressed as weighted arithmetic means. Received multiplicative model of private and generalized Harrington desirability function confirmed the increase of the key indicators of quality of new types of food products as compared with traditional ones.Keywords: comprehensive quality assessment, Harrington desirability function, cereal casseroles, mathematical modeling, polycomponent product composition.
Conducted а researches on development and deployment of system of HACCP at the JSC “Leninsk-Kuznetsky hlebokombinat” which main direction of activity is production of bakery products. As object of research production of bread “Pantomaral” is chosen. Dangerous factors of production at all stages are defined, the assessment of probability of their emergence is given. Developed management activities identified factors, criteria of efficiency of their conduct. Determine the critical control points in production stages: preparation of components to kneading, kneading dough, baking, storage, control of which generally provides the safety of products. The effectiveness of the HACCP system is confirmed with the developed program of checking the registration and analysis of deviations from a given level of quality and evaluation of production with the holding of corrective measures. A decrease of losses in 5,4 times, testifying to the effectiveness of the functioning of the implemented food safety management systems. Developed and approved changes in the technical documentation: STO 00350875–5–2010 “Bakery products made of rye and a mixture of rye and wheat flour. Technical conditions”. Defined regulated by indicators of quality and safety of products.Keywords: HACCP, bakery products, food quality, safety of products.
The researches results of various indicators of filtered cigarettes presented in the tobacco market in Russia in 2012, with design features, a contents variety of tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide in tobacco smoke are adduced. The indicators of the chemical composition of tobacco blends of cigarettes with the filter are analysed. Interrelations between indicators of cigarettes safety and their design features are revealed. The basic tendencies in the change of qualitative indicators and design features of filtered cigarettes in the tobacco market of Russia are defined.Keywords: cigarettes, cigarette filter, ventilation cigarettes, nicotine, tar, chemical composition of the smoke, tobacco blend.
There is no tobacco burning process while smoking hookah and smoke is formed because of evaporation and further condensation of volatile compounds of hookah blend. The charcoal heats hookah blend to a certain temperature and therefore it is the main factor which affects the smoke formation. There are two main types of hookah charcoal: quick lighting and usual. Hookah charcoal is pressed briquettes or tablets of natural charcoal, and quick lighting tablets for acceleration their ignition properties are treated with saltpeter. Quality parameters for quick lighting hookah charcoal are not standardized, so we have suggested and defined parameters which affect the burning process. Tablets mass and their variation quotient, influence of quick lighting charcoal storage duration on burning time and temperature of exhausted gases have been studied. As the result it has been discovered that tablets mass can vary greatly and variation quotient is from 2 to 9%. Quick lighting hookah charcoal while stored in open pack adsorbs water vapors from ambient air this affects the process duration and its temperature. It has also been found that it is more difficult to ignite charcoal after storage in open pack. We have also determined that increasing storage duration leads to decreasing uniformity of charcoal properties and exhausted gases temperature. As the result measures for improving quality and leveling properties of quick lighting charcoal have been suggested.Keywords: hookah, quick lighting hookah charcoal, quality of hookah charcoal.
The necessity of using of the schematic diagrams of the general and stage-by-stage technology of the organization of transportation of dairy products developed by authors from positions of process approach for accurate and harmonious work of the customer with performers of transport transportations, and as for expeditious carrying out audit of quality of the organization of a cargo transportation is shown. The methodical recommendations of carrying out audit of delivery of production to consumers on the basis of the developed questionnaire will allow to carry out quickly audit of quality of work of dispatching service of transport department of establishment of discrepancies of a cargo transportation of dairy products, and as to elaboration of correcting and warning actions.Keywords: quality audit, quality management system, correcting actions, results of audit.
The creatine quantity is determined with indirect method of transforming it in creatinine with heating. To determine creatinine there were used its reaction with nitroxanthic acid in alkaline medium. The time of reaction output (picrate creatinine) formation is 11 min. Spectrophotometric method with wavelength 510 nm was used for evaluation. To determine creatine in meat it is necessary to estimate creatinine in meat at first as after transforming creatine in creatinine the total number of creatinine was determined. The reaction period of transforming creatine into creatinine was 2,5 hours. To improve the reaction selectivity after picrate creatinine formation in alkaline medium the chlorhydric acid was added to destroy picrate creatinine. Gotten analytical signal is corresponded to absorption of chemical compounds of nitroxanthic acid with other substances. Analytical signal of reaction output between creatinine with nitroxanthic acid was calculated as the analytical signal differences of sample solutions in alkaline and acid media. The possible influence of non-meat ingredients on the sample analytical signal was studied. While analyzing the samples of beef and pork minced meat with addition of bread, soya, starch, creatine quantity was in the proportion to meat quantity in the sample.Keywords: spectrophotometry, creatine, quality of meat products.
The problem of storage of apples at a near-cryoscopic temperature is lack of stability of a temperature mode because of what there is a temperature gradient in storage container which promotes partial crystallization of moisture containing in apples. Besides, the temperature gradient can arise on the volume of container in which apples are stored. A way of stabilization of the storage mode of apples fruits at near-cryoscopic temperature has been developed. The effect is being achieved by correct location of air-coolers and thermo-sensors in the storage container.Keywords: near-cryoscopic temperature, apple fruits, stabilization of storage, refrigerator storage.
About 70% of Russia’s population is experiencing a deficit in the ? -3 unsaturated fatty acids (USFA), satisfying the needs in the body of these substances only 50–80% of the daily norm. We investigate the possibility of enrichment ? -3 USFA cakes on the chemical baking powder made with rye flour, and the addition of the formulation of the product Omega-360тм Pure 22-3, produced by “Denomega Nutritional Oils” (Norway). Dosage of additives, introduced at dough instead of vegetable oil based on minimum and maximum daily needs adult in the ? -3 USFA was 1; 1,5; 2 and 3% to weight of a flour in the test. It is established that introduction of 1–2% of the additive does not have negative influence on physical and chemical characteristics of the pastry and the quality of the finished product. This suggests the possibility of enrichment cakes on the chemical baking powder with ? -3 USFA satisfying 10% of the maximum daily needs (1,6 g) of these substances with the consumption of 100 g of the cake.Keywords: ? -3 unsaturated fatty acids, cakes on the chemical baking powder, satisfaction of daily needs.
Recommendations about carrying out audit of process quality of delivery to consumers of dairy production
The scheme of process approach developed by authors to a technique of a choice of the applicant for rendering services in delivery of dairy products to the consumer is shown. On the basis of the developed schemes of separate stages and the general scheme of process of transportation fragments developed the questionnaire and recommendations for expeditious implementation of audit of quality of realization of deliveries are given.Keywords: quality audit, quality management system, correcting actions, results of audit.
Expediency of the organization of production of the first and second canned dishes in the conditions of small enterprises c by use of the designed laboratory inverter very high frequency (VHF) installation different from the ordinary microwave oven by a fast volume warming up of production, small power consumption and lack of the transformer thanks to the electronic control unit of the magnetron is proved. It is established that at VHF-sterilization it is provided some canned food of the best quality, with vitamin C preservation to 70%, carotinoids to 85%, tocopherols to 90%. Sterilization of vegetable stew with meat in a VHF-field in comparison with autoclave way provides the best preservation in a product of amino acids, digestibility of protein on the average increases for 15%. Smaller change of structure of the product prepared in inverter VHF-installation is noted. In a ready-made product more moisture which doesn’t boil in the course of sterilization, thanks to sparing impact of microwaves on products remains. The executed researches confirmed practical expediency of VHF-sterilization for processing of lunch canned food at a temperature of 125 °C that allows to reduce sterilization duration almost by 4 times.Keywords: canned food, first and second lunch dishes, very high frequency sterilization, sterilization modes, safety of biologically active agents of raw materials.