The training questions for the food and service industry on technology and catering services chair at the Kuban State Technological University are stated. The chair merits for its 30-year history are noted. The specialty and the directions in which training of specialists is carried out; the main features of training of highly qualified specialists in modern conditions of development of the food and service industry are presented. The main directions of the researches conducted on chair within the scientific direction “Improvement of Technology of Foodstuff of Functional, Specialized Purpose and Public Catering” are designated.Keywords: food and service industry, restaurant service, catering services.
Table of contents for # 2-3 (338-339), 2014
The conceptual essence of formation of technological platforms of high technologies of food at the present stage of development of the food industry of the Russian Federation is considered. Results of work of sciences school on a grant of the Russian President No. 7510.2010.4 “Live Systems” to NCFU are presented. The concept nano-, bio-, membrane and biomembrane production technologies of food from agricultural raw materials of an animal origin – milk is created. Examples of modern use of the given technological directions in the food industry are reviewed. Efficiency of membrane technology on the example of molecular sieving divisions of dairy raw materials is shown. The principles for creation of hierarchy of technological platforms of the food industry on branches and products are stated. The logistic scheme of formation of technological platforms of the food industry on the basis of realization of modern innovations in the field of the nanobiomembrane technologies, developed by the sciences school 7510.2010.4 creative collective is presented.Keywords: technological platforms, high technologies, food safety, innovative priorities, biomembrane technologies.
The analysis of use of probiotics in foodstuff for the purpose of suppression pathogenic, conditionally pathogenic and restoration and correction of normal microflora of intestines at sharp enteric infections and dysbacterioses, increases of immunomodulating functions of an organism is carried out. Classification of four generations of preparations probiotics is presented. Their division into two groups depending on the production technology and feature of biological and technological properties of the probiotics received by a method of liophilic drying, and preparations in a liquid form is considered. Rather wide use of probiotics as a part of dairy products is stated. Prospects of their application in compoundings of the confectionery which are in wide demand for the consumer are shown. The review of use of probiotics in production of different types of confectionery is submitted: wafer products, fatty stuffings, milk candies, vitamin jelly marmalade. Features of the technological decisions promoting increase of efficiency of influence of probiotics at consumption of products containing them are shown.Keywords: probiotics, classification of probiotics, liophilic drying, confectionery, microencapsulation.
Organization of Public Catering
Tendencies, problems and prospects of development of the public catering sphere of the Krasnodar city
The analysis of a condition of the public catering sphere of the Krasnodar city is carried out – the number of the enterprises of various type, their characteristic and feature of functioning and development are given. The main tendencies of development of the market of the public catering industry are revealed: development of the local network enterprises, availability increase due to use of industrial methods of preparation of semi-finished products and automation of processes of cooking, expansion of presence at zones of complex trade and hotel service. Importance of actions for increase of qualification level of the personnel is noted: seminars, master classes, competitions of professional skill. Scientifically reasonable model of the school food organization, operating in the Krasnodar city, based on the municipal target program “School Food” and the federal program of modernization of general education system is presented. The main problems in the organization of adequate food in the school collectives, caused by age features of school students, specifics of consumed products and need of enrichment of school diets are revealed by the products developed taking into account directed useful change of a chemical composition according to medical norms and a physiological condition of certain groups of children. Possibilities of the organization of corporate food are considered at manufacturing enterprises and establishments. The most probable prospects of formation of public catering structure of the Krasnodar city are defined.Keywords: public catering, restaurant business, food industry, school food, fast food, ration enrichment.
State role in formation of highly skilled human resources in the tourism sphere (by example of Krasnodar region)
The article considers the questions of efficiency of state management of tourist activity, as well as alternative methods of formation of the qualified personnel resources in the sphere of tourism and resorts. In addition to providing income to the national economy and the increase of jobs in the tourism sector, the forecast of development of tourism imposes a responsibility on the industry of hospitality, including state institutions that make tourist policy, to improve safety and service quality. The measures for improvement of specialists training with an average and higher education for the tourism sphere are offered, to increase of qualification level of the personnel due to updating of education programs on the specialties “Hotel Business” and “Tourism” and creations of training centers on the basis of tourist and hotel complexes. Formation of the highly professional staff of the enterprise of hospitality directly depends not only on a balanced and correct policy of the leadership of each enterprise, but also on the state policy in this field.Keywords: tourism policy, competitiveness, human resources policy, quality of services, qualification of the personnel.
The changes in training of specialists in the sphere of public catering are noted. The new direction of preparation “Technology of production and the organization of public catering” is guided by the Federal state educational standard of higher professional education for the first time considering professional standards of the industry of food. Training according to this standard will be carried out in two directions: according to the program the bachelor of the general qualification with realization of the main activities and in the applied direction according to the program the bachelor with realization for production-technological or other practice-oriented kind of activity of the technological orientation assuming possibility of obtaining the certificate or the certificate of a working profession of raised qualification level. Possibilities of practical application of professional standards for employers and educational institutions are shown. The branch frame of qualifications including 6 qualification levels, and 3 types of competences for training to the sphere of public catering of the professional standard of the industry of food are considered.Keywords: educational standard, public catering, professional standard of food industry.
The questions of the innovative activity (IA), development and implementation of quality management systems and safety at the catering enterprises (CE) are considered. As a result of research and approbation the technique of cognitive modeling of new dishes and culinary products are developed system of modeling of process of innovative development of CE on the basis of hybrid technologies; limiting factors in enterprise IA are revealed; the model of an assessment of innovative capacity of the enterprise and technique of its correlation for development of the innovative project is offered; on the basis of the developed model of formation of the consumer properties (CP) of dishes and culinary products are revealed factors defining them, the assessment of these factors by studying of consumer preferences is given; the system of formation of the consumer demand, including model of market researches and the mechanism of formation of consumer preferences in the course of merchandising at all stages of IA is developed; systematization of the developed and approved systems of formation of CP to new types of dishes and culinary products is carried out; practical recommendations about application of methodology of design and advance on the consumer market of developed production in the conditions of IA are developed. The developed quality management systems model based on process approach with use of the ISO 9001, 9004 standards is presented. Measures for ensuring strategy of a sustainable development of the enterprise are defined.Keywords: innovative activity, management, quality of production, safety of production.
Results of development of technology and the compoundings of dry milk porridges of fast preparation which aren’t demanding cooking, on the basis of a flour from buckwheat and oat grain with use in a flour compounding from the Jerusalem artichoke tubers which production technology is developed by authors are presented. The developed products can be used for diabetes prevention as keep biologically active components containing in Jerusalem artichoke tubers, not collapsing at preparation of porridges. The technology of obtaining a flour from the Jerusalem artichoke tubers, including cutting of tubers on plates 2 mm thick, drying in programmed convection superheater, crushing and sifting is presented. The chemical composition of the obtaining flour is defined. Two compoundings of the developed porridges are given. Their organoleptic characteristics, chemical composition and power value are defined. Porridge buckwheat with a Jerusalem artichoke contains bigger amount of proteins and carbohydrates, porridge oatmeal with a Jerusalem artichoke has the smaller power value and bigger amount of fats in comparison with the developed buckwheat cereal.Keywords: flour from Jerusalem artichoke tubers, porridge of fast preparation, porridge with buckwheat flour, porridge with oat flour.
Possibility of partial replacement of powdered milk by the barley textured flour in a compounding of a protein-carbohydrate product of a functional purpose is investigated. Its physical and chemical properties and biological value are defined. Two options of a compounding of a product of a functional purpose on the basis of yogurt (3,5%) with use of the barley textured flour and amber acid are developed. The received protein-carbohydrate product represents uniform weight, light-cream color, a consistence of dense sour cream, with aroma of cereals, with pleasant sweetish taste. One of samples was chosen by results of the organoleptic analysis. The mass fraction of fat in it made 24%, solids – 61,6%. Results of researches of amino acid composition of the received product showed that it is balanced according to the content of essential amino acids in comparison with ideal protein. Vitamin and mineral structures of the developed product are defined. According to the content of food fibers the product can be referred to category functional and be used for food at the increased physical activities.Keywords: protein-carbohydrate product, barley textured flour, functional product, biological value of product.
New types of foodstuff are developed: “Lyutenitsa enriched with milk protein”, as a source of milk protein used cottage cheese or sheep cheese; drink on the basis of the tomatoes, including the tomatoes, the dried-up whey, ascorbic acid; drink with use of apricots, dry whey, bee honey. All types of products are developed in two options: with extract of medicinal herbs and without it. Extract represents a water and ethanol extract of leaves of a walnut, hop cones, inflorescences of peppermint and a basil, hips and nettle inflorescences. The structure and indicators of safety of the received products, the contents in them nutritious and other substances before and after 12-month storage are defined. The obtained data show that extract of medicinal herbs promotes preservation of biologically active substances both during thermal treatment, and after storage of samples within 12 months. The developed products are products of functional food, contain the main biologically active substances, are safe and are recommended for realization through a distribution network.Keywords: functional product, extract of medicinal herbs, biologically active substances, fruits red bell pepper, tomatoes, fruits of apricots, whey.
Possibility of application of defatted flour from oil seeds (linen and sesame) in gluten-free diet is proved. Amino acid composition of linen and sesame flour in comparison with ideal protein, vitamin and mineral structures are given. The technology and compounding of a food concentrate of a farinaceous dish (pancakes) with full replacement of wheat flour by mix of linen and sesame flour are developed. Organoleptic indicators of the products prepared on established technology of restoration of a concentrate are defined. Samples had uniform coloring, thickness no more than 2 mm, color of a surface ruddy, brown, on a section – light brown, a soft, dense consistence, at the edges of a product – crackling, taste – harmonious, with obvious nut smack. Replacement of wheat flour by gluten-free components in a compounding of pancakes allowed developing the new products which aren’t conceding on quality to traditional, and thanks to higher content of irreplaceable amino acids – surpassing analogs from wheat flour. Rich mineral and vitamin structures of the developed product provide rather high nutrition value of a product.Keywords: linen and sesame flour, gluten-free diet, food concentrates.
Insoluble dietary fibers (DF) have been extricated from pea seed glumes using sulfuric acid with further heating, rinsing and hydrogen peroxide solution treatment. Acquired DF had relevant taste and smell, cream color, humidity 9,35% and acid capacity 2,0 grad. They possessed also a higher moisture binding and fat emulsifying property. Formulation and cooking technology for bakery products with pea seed glume fibers has been developed. Pea seed glume fibers have been added to the bakery products instead of a portion of patent wheat flour in the amount of 2–4%. Sensory and physical and chemical attributes of the new product have been examined. It has been determined that after adding pea seed glume fibers the bakery product had appealing appearance, well-defined taste and flavour. The humidity of the bakery products with fibers is higher compared to the reference sample, since fibers have a higher water retention capacity. Weight content of sugar in bakery products with fibers has decreased compared to the reference sample. It has been discovered that after adding 2 and 3% of fibers to the formulation the bakery product had a more developed porosity compared to the reference sample, and after adding 4% of fibers porosity decreased. It has been defined, that the best dosage of fibers is 3% according to which the bakery product will be classified as a product enriched with DF.Keywords: pea, glumes, dietary fibers, bakery product.
For expansion of production of a barley flour for the purpose of its further use in a compounding of bakery, flour confectionery and macaroni influence of storage duration of barley flour produced with various methods (from the grain which has past the hydrothermal treatment (HTT) with moistening at atmospheric pressure and under vacuum, tempering and drying and from the original grain which wasn’t exposed to the hydrothermal treatment) on the moisture content, acidity by beaten-up flour and water, acid number of fat was investigated. Two methods of storage of flour were used: at the laboratory conditions at air temperature (20 ± 0,5)°С and at air temperature (40 ± 1)°С (“the accelerated aging”). It is established that use by production of a barley flour of the HTT including operations of moistening, an tempering and grain drying, significantly increases firmness of finished goods at storage. At this HTT with grain moistening under vacuum promotes the best safety of barley flour. The method of “the accelerated aging” allows reducing duration of definition of periods of storage of a barley flour. The period of storage of a barley flour under standard conditions (20°C) can be calculated through defined by a method of “the accelerated aging” an experimental period of storage (on an acidity indicator on the talker), using the coefficient of compliance equal 3. The following periods of storage of a barley flour are recommended: 5 months – for the flour received from initial grain (without HTT); 9 months – for the flour developed from grain, passed HTT with moistening with an atmospheric pressure, tempering and drying; 12 months – for a flour from the grain which has passed HTT with moistening under vacuum, tempering and drying.Keywords: barley flour, hydrothermal treatment, moisture content, acidity, acid number of fat, period of storage.
The advanced technology of increase of the contents and improvement of qualitative characteristics of pectin substances in extracts, received of by-products of processing of fruit and vegetable raw materials – the apple residue remnant after extraction of juice from apples, a press of sugar beet after extraction of sucrose, a press of tubers of a Jerusalem artichoke after inulin extraction – at joint impact on raw materials of an electromagnetic field of the lowest frequency and whey in the course of hydrolysis extraction is offered. Used a fruit and vegetable raw materials grown in the Krasnodar region and Republic of Adygeya. With the purpose of parameters optimization of receiving pectin extracts and forecasting of the contents in them of pectin and its connecting ability concerning heavy and toxic metals the mathematical model of 4-factorial experiment was developed. Optimum parameters of process of hydrolysis extraction of pectin substances and receiving pectin extracts are established on the basis of mathematical modeling. Physical and chemical indicators of the extracts are given. Compoundings of the juice drinks enriched with received extracts, “Plam enriched”, “Apple enriched”, “Top Apple”, are developed. Their physical and chemical indicators and nutrition value taking into account satisfaction of daily physiological need of the person in functional food ingredients at consumption of 200 g of the developed juice drinks are defined.Keywords: by-products, pectin substances, soluble food fibers, juice drinks, whey, hydrolysis, extraction, electromagnetic field of the lowest frequency.
The choice of prescription components of culinary products for prevention of iron deficiency condition at children of school age is foundation. Beef liver as a valuable source of digestible iron was the main component of developed products, also a tops of vegetable of table beet and soy pulp into a compounding are entered which enrich culinary products with bivalent biologically assimilable iron and the substances promoting its assimilation – proteins, vitamin C, folic acid, cobalt, copper, zinc, and considerably reduce production cost. For definition of the optimum maintenance of the prescription components providing preservation of the demanded form and a consistence of finished culinary products, mathematical planning of experiment carried out which analysis of data showed that the optimum consistence of studied systems is reached at the contents in a liver compounding from 60 to 70%, a tops of vegetable of table beet – from 15 to 25%, soy pulp (dried up) – from 13 to 23%. Structural-mechanical properties model the of force-meat systems are investigated. The formulations of two developed products (fritters and meatballs) and technology of their preparation are given. The developed culinary products for prevention of iron deficiency condition at children of school age have a high nutrition value. The use of one portion of a product satisfies daily need of children of school age for hemo iron and the substances increasing its assimilation, more than for 40%. The developed products after storage during 2 weeks at a temperature –2 … –4°C correspond to safety requirements and qualities.Keywords: culinary products, prevention of iron deficiency condition, food of children of school age, beef liver, tops of vegetable of table beet, soy pulp.
Possibility of use of binary composition of structure-formers in compoundings of mayonnaise and sweet dishes is investigated. For the purpose of decrease in the content of cholesterol in mayonnaise instead of an egg yolk are used chitosan and the protein concentrate received from seeds of sesame that is proved. Percentage of structure-formers and natural dye (в-carotene) in a product at full replacement of an egg yolk is experimentally established. The developed mayonnaise has a uniform consistence of dense sour cream and gentle taste. Introduction in a compounding of mayonnaise of a protein concentrate allowed increasing its biological value in comparison with control for 8%. Chitosan is used in compoundings of sweet dishes as a structure-former at a complete elimination of gelatin. The contents chitosan in the developed products of a functional purpose made from 0,5 to 0,8 g/100 g of a product. The developed products at norm of holiday of a sweet dish of 150 g, and mayonnaise for salad filling (an exit of 150 g) – 37,5 g satisfy daily need for physiologically functional ingredient to the chitosan at the level of 50–60 and 20% respectively.Keywords: structure-former, chitosan, protein concentrate, functional product, biological value of product.
The technological production line of semi-finished products of Jerusalem artichoke tubers for catering and the retail trade, including sorting, a sink, calibration, cleaning, cutting, packing, marking and storage, is developed. Release of semi-finished products of Jerusalem artichoke tubers on the developed technology is possible at catering and the food industry having serially issued processing equipment. The range of semis which includes: Jerusalem artichoke crude; Jerusalem artichoke the crude cleared; Jerusalem artichoke crude cleared, cut in cubes; Jerusalem artichoke crude cleared, sliced; the Jerusalem artichoke crude cleared, cut by straws, is created. Results of determination of nutrition and power value and chromaticity of semi-finished products of tubers of a Jerusalem artichoke are given. The offered way of packing of semi-finished products (vacuum packages with a capacity from 1 to 10 kg) provides preservation and safety of production within 6 months.Keywords: Jerusalem artichoke, semi-finished products, technological line, nutrition value, chromaticity, vacuum packing, preservation and safety of production.
Development of the production technology quickdissolving powdery concentrates on the basis of wild-growing medicinal vegetable raw materials
Results of researches on development of the production technology of quickdissolving powdery concentrates (QPC) on the basis of guelder-rose and cowberry berries, and also leaves and flowers of a willow-herb narrow-leaved are presented. The developed technological scheme at which in a ready-made product remain scarce nutrients, includes process of extraction by methods of enzymatic hydrolysis together with electrodialysis and the sublimation drying which parameters of process are presented. Effective modes of an electrodialysis at extraction of the vegetable raw materials, providing a high exit of soluble solids and vitamin C, are revealed. Technological modes of receiving QPC from the studied vegetable raw materials are presented. Foodstuff estimation of QPC is carried out. The guaranteed period of storage of the developed product is established 6 months. On the basis of the received concentrates functional drinks were developed, nutrition and which power value is calculated. The antioxidant activity, immunomodulating and hypocholesterolemic properties of the products received from QPC are confirmed with clinical trials.Keywords: wild-growing medicinal raw materials, quickdissolving powdery concentrate, functional drinks, bioactive substances, electrodialysis, enzymatic hydrolysis, extractive substances, sublimation process.
Structural-mechanical and thermodynamic properties of food systems on the basis of cottage cheese, jerusalem artichoke and cereal flakes
For the purpose of justification of compoundings and technologies of the formed culinary products structural-mechanical and thermodynamic properties of food systems on the basis of cottage cheese, a Jerusalem artichoke and cereal flakes are investigated. Use of cottage cheese is caused by its high nutrition and biological value, and also availability and technological effectiveness. It is established that for production of the formed culinary products it is expedient to use cottage cheese with a mass fraction of fat of 5%, being characterized the greatest value of limit tension of shift. The Jerusalem artichoke choice as one of prescription components of the studied food systems is caused by its chemical composition – the high content of functional food ingredients: inulin, vitamins, pectine and mineral substances. The cereal flakes in these food systems were used as the consistence regulator. The mark scale is developed for an organoleptic assessment of a consistence of the studied food systems. The best for production of the formed culinary products samples are selected: the content of cottage cheese of 30%, the cereal flakes – 20% (the combined cereal flakes of “5 cereals”), the rest – a Jerusalem artichoke puree. The comparative analysis of the general deformation of the developed semi-finished products brought to readiness in the “steam–convection” mode within 5 min, previously frozen at the recommended temperature of –14°C, and also the freshly prepared, showed that this indicator after freezing decreases from 2 to 4%. Thus organoleptic changes of a consistence aren’t expressed, i.e. after freezing of weight keep the structural-mechanical properties that cause possibility of use of freezing for increase in periods of storage of the formed culinary products on the basis of cottage cheese, a Jerusalem artichoke and the cereal lakes.Keywords: formed culinary products on the basis of cottage cheese, Jerusalem artichoke, cereal flakes, adhesive tension, deformation, limit tension of shift, thermodynamic properties, structural-mechanical properties.
Possibility of expansion of the range of cake products due to use of the vegetable raw materials containing increased amount of food fibers, is considered. Bran wheat, rye and oat, used the deodorized fat-free soy flour, whole-grain wheat flour of rough grinding, whole-grain buckwheat flour (mulberry), amaranth flour, extruded grains used for experiences. The additive of bran grain prevents aging and drying of products which at storage lose moisture on the average 30–50% less, than prepared on traditional technology. The additive of the deodorized fat-free soy flour made from genetically unmodified soy, promotes increase of a biological and nutrition value of cake products, reduces production cost as soy serves as substitute of expensive products – nuts, animal oil, etc. The amaranth and buckwheat flour (mulberry), rich with vegetable protein, don’t contain gluten therefore can be a basis for creation of products for patients with celiac disease. The amaranth flour contains squalene, neutralizing free radicals, carcinogens and other toxic substances. Considerable reduction of density extruded grains improves structure of flour confectionery.Keywords: cake production, bran grain, whole-grain wheat flour, whole-grain buckwheat flour, amaranth flour, extruded grains, healthy food.
Development of industrial technology of vegetable semi-finished products of high degree of readiness
In the course of thermal treatment of vegetable production at catering establishments substantially decrease the contents in it biologically active nutrients and its nutrition value. Use of modern types of the multipurpose equipment, such as steam convections, devices of intensive cooling/freezing, allows to optimize modes of thermal treatment, to reduce power expenses of production, to make semi-finished products and finished goods, as much as possible keeping their nutrition value and quality indicators. In work results of research on development of technology of universal vegetable semi-finished products of high degree of readiness of a wide range of use with the prolonged expiration dates for catering establishments are presented. Indicators of quality of semi-finished products from the vegetables, subjected thermal treatment in the steam convections are investigated. It is established that processing in steam convection reduces technological losses and positively influences quality of finished goods. Optimum modes of thermal treatment and storage of vegetable semi-finished products are defined. Methods of an assessment of a keeping in them biologically active agents are shown. The results of development of the unified indicators of quality of the multicomponent vegetable semi-finished products based on correlation of organoleptic and instrumental estimates of finished culinary products are presented.Keywords: vegetable semi-finished products, steam convection, quality indicators of products, multicomponent food systems.
Non-alcoholic beverages on basis of mineral water source Gil-Su and extracts of wild-growing raw materials
For the purpose of expansion of the assortment of non-alcoholic beverages of medical and preventive appointment researches of production possibility of such drinks on the basis of natural mineral water of a source Gil-Su with use of extracts of fruits of a hawthorn and blackberry berries are conducted. The technology of obtained extracts is described. The content in them phenolic substances is defined. The model compoundings of the beverages which have been picked up taking into account a 20–50% covering of daily physiological requirement of a human body in P-active agents at the expense of consumption of 200 cm3 of drink are investigated. Organoleptic indicators of model samples are defined. On the basis of the obtained results compoundings of two types of the non-alcoholic beverages providing daily requirement of an organism in P-active agents on the average for 38–41% are developed. The general technological scheme of production of non-alcoholic beverages on the basis of natural mineral water of a source Gil-Su and extracts of fruits of a hawthorn and blackberry berries is submitted.Keywords: non-alcoholic beverages, mineral water, extracts of fruits and berries, polyphenol compounds.
For increase of a nutrition value of flour confectionery and giving of functional properties to them use of nonconventional types of raw materials, including the apple dietary fibers (DF) is perspective. Apple DF possess high water- and fat binding and retention abilities, stabilizing, structure-forming, emulsifying and sorption properties. The choice of apple DF as raw materials for production of flour confectionery with functional properties is caused by their ability to slow down the speed of comprehensibility of carbohydrates of muffins and to reduce their glycemic index. It is established that water absorption ability of mix of wheat flour of the premium and apple DF increases with increase in a dosage of the last. Changes of humidity and dough density for muffins are investigated at introduction of apple DF. Introduction of an additional amount of water is offered at knead dough for muffins for achievement of necessary humidity. Characteristics of structural and mechanical properties of dough for the muffins, received on a farinograph, testify that replacement of part of wheat flour of the premium with apple DF promoted improvement of these indicators, increase of water absorbing ability of dough and decrease in degree of its elasticity. A series of trial laboratory pastries is carried out. The main indicators of quality of muffins of prototypes are higher, than at the control. Results of an organoleptic assessment and physical and chemical indicators of muffins testify that the best results are received when replacing 10% of a baking flour with apple DF.Keywords: muffins, apple dietary fibers, rheological properties, organoleptic indicators, physical and chemical indicators.
New technology of producing autolysate from spent brewer’s yeast with the properties of sorbent mycotoxins
The new technology of processing by product of beer production – spent brewer’s yeast (SBY), which allows effectively separate from the yeast cells of its shell, and includes sequential homogenization, freezing and drying suspension of SBY is offered. The technology of separation shell yeast cells by homogenization is realized at a pressure drop of 220 atm. Originally suspension of SBY passes through the slit of homogenizer. Rupture of the yeast cells shell occurs at the moment acceleration of suspension before entering the slit. Due to the presence of the velocity gradient at the site before and after the slit of homogenizer the pressure difference arises between the front and rear portions of the yeast cell .This process leads to a partial cell liberation from the polysaccharide shell. The final cell liberation from the polysaccharide shell is carried out by subsequent freezing of the suspension after homogenization. For freezing of suspension of autolysates of SBY, it is offered to use the icemaker generator continuous action. However methods of calculation of necessary time of freezing the suspensions which different from water by low cryoscopic temperatures of freezing, in the icemaker generator, do not exist now. In article the method of calculation of time and icemaker generator productivity is offered when freezing suspensions with low cryoscopic temperatures. The additive to foods autolysate of brewer’s yeast liberated from the polysaccharide shell leads to enrichment their by proteins, which are accessible for the action of digestive enzymes. The polysaccharide shell in the free state performs the functions of a sorbent of mycotoxins. The resulting autolysate of protein of brewer’s yeast has high digestibility, is the cheap sorbent of mycotoxins.Keywords: spent brewer's yeast, brewer's yeast autolysate, freezing suspensions, protein digestibility, sorbent of mycotoxins.
One of the most promising types of whipped dessert is ice cream product with along with the high taste of food, biological and energy value. Soft ice cream produce mainly in catering, in cafes and shopping centers. Soft ice cream is made without the hardening process, while it has a light airy creamy texture. We investigated the possibility of using in technology for soft ice cream of special purpose polysaccharides of different nature with stabilizing properties: sodium alginate, guar gum, furcellaran, xanthane. The results of the study developed a technology of production of soft ice cream with oxygen polysaccharides. Was based on the famous recipe and technology of ice cream “Bodrost” with oxygen. Form part of the required overrun cream achieved using methyl cellulose as a stabilizer. Currently, methyl cellulose is used in the food industry is limited due to the possibility of gastrointestinal tract. Based on the studies we have identified technological modes of preparation of polysaccharide additives: the ratio of water: polysaccharides, while the swelling and dissolution of polymers, and developed a recipe and production technology whipped dessert with sodium alginate and guar gum. New whipped dessert – ice cream is the oxygen quality and safe food product and can be used in oxygen therapy for the prevention of hypoxia.Keywords: aerated products, ice cream, polysaccharides.
Methods of Investigation, Quality & Safety of Food Products
Expediency of development of the enriched food is proved. The developed approaches and structure of production are considered. The reasons of micronutrient deficiency are called. The explanation of the concepts “hidden” hunger, “nutrification”, “fortification”, “supplementing”, “food diversification” is given. The characteristic “operated by the market” fortification is provided. The standard and legal base supporting development and realization of enriched food for the purpose of prevention of deficiency of food nutrients at Russians is considered. The review of the market of the companies on development of the enriched food in Russia is submitted. Two ways of enrichment of foodstuff are characterized: addition in product nutrients in the course of its production and the directed modifying of a metabolism of an animal. The problems of enrichment of products and way of their decision are considered. Complementary approaches for a solution and prevention of micronutrient deficiency which can be used as part of projects of development of regions for reduction of malnutrition and defective food, and also integration of food security and cooperation for development are listed.Keywords: enrichment of food, nutrification, fortification, supplementing, nutrition value.
Physicochemical processes in deep frying oils such as heat and mass exchange, oxidative and hydrolytic reactions are described in the manuscript. Detailed review of existing methods for frying oils quality control with description of their advantages and disadvantages has been done. Russian and international regulations governing the use of control methods for frying oils were analyzed. The problems of the necessity to revise and expand the methodological basis of control for this type of production and also establishing a legislative framework governing the use of these methods are posed.Keywords: lipid oxidation, food quality control, frying oils, methods of analysis, legislative regulation.
Assessment of influence of press cake germs wheat on the biotechnological and innovative potential of chopped functional culinary products
The results of market researches and assessment of biotechnological and innovative potential of chopped culinary products from various animal and the fish raw materials, cake germs wheat containing, are given. It is offered to enter cake of germs of wheat into food meat and cereal systems in the form of the paste received by hydration of a dry product of a certain degree of dispersion in the ratio of solids and water 1 : 1,7–1,8 before achievement of the consistence identical or improving structural-mechanical properties of forcemeat. The content of paste in compoundings of meat – and the fish-vegetable semi-finished products make 33–44% of press cake germs of wheat. It is shown that introduction of this vegetable additive considerably enriches vitamin and mineral structure of culinary products without balance violation on the main macronutrients. By results of researches the range of semi-finished products and ready-made products on the basis of fowl, beef, offal, fish who satisfy not less than 20% of daily requirement of an organism on wide range nutrients is developed. Costs of raw sets taking into account an additive of press cake germs wheat in comparison with control samples were calculated. The received results show that the cost of prototypes is no more than 3% higher than the control. It testifies to investment appeal of introduction of the developed compoundings and technologies.Keywords: press cake germ wheat, chopped culinary products, enrichment product, biotechnological potential, meat- and fish-vegetable semi-finished products, raw material costs.
The features of methods of quantitative and quality assessment of nutritional status of various groups of the population, including children of preschool and school age are considered. The developed characteristics of quantitative methods of an assessment of nutritional status are submitted: settlement, registration, reproduction, physical and chemical, weight method, definition of energy expenditure. Qualitative methods of an assessment of nutritional status of consist in an assessment of stereotypes of food behavior, they can be carried to a kind of personal interview methods. For an assessment of a health status it is offered to rely on valeology criteria on indicators of power potential of a human body in total with a method of an assessment of level of functional adaptation of an organism. The interrelation of the considered methods is shown. The developed classification of methods of an assessment of nutritional status and health is presented.Keywords: methods of an assessment of nutritional status and health, personal interview methods, stereotypes of food behavior, organism adaptation.
The questions of the organization of activity of catering enterprises on formation and improvement of the assortment of manufactured and realized production are considered. The factors defining efficiency of assortment policy, based on stability of quality and safety of made production, the organization of types of control, introduction of innovative technologies, regular updating and management of the assortment, optimization of assortment structure are noted. The offered measures will promote not only to increase in sales volume, but also will allow to raise a service rating of the enterprise.Keywords: safety and types control of culinary products, assortment of enterprise, innovative technologies, mechanism of increase in sales, menu formation.
The methodology of system analysis of the production of molded culinary products for nutrition of children of school age, including a number of consecutive and interlinked stages is offered. At the first stage categories of foodstuff for elimination of the deficiencies established at schoolchildren food nutrients are allocated. The second stage involves the development of private technological solutions of production molded culinary products, including analytical substantiation of principles of creation of compositions and technologies. Influence of technological modes on safety food нутриентов is estimated, receptions are developed for their stabilization, efficiency increase, and in case of need – decrease in the maintenance of anti-nutritious components. Investigation of structural-mechanical properties – the third stage of development of specialized food products. The relationship of composition and physical-chemical indices of the rheological characteristics not only of semi-finished and finished products but and raw materials in the process of its processing by determines and studies. At the fourth stage it is developed industrial production technologies of specialized food. Service according to the scheme “food combine – the school cafeteria” allows to provide the most complete production and financial control at all technological stages and to reduce to a minimum of expense of equipping the kitchens. At the fifth stage development of compoundings and formation of the range of culinary products is carried out. The final step is the development of technical documentation and evaluation of economic efficiency of production.Keywords: system approach to the production technology of culinary products, nutrition of children of school age, formation of quality of production, production quality control.
Analyzed different approaches to the description of mass transfer between a yeast cell and mash during fermentation saccharified mash. Mass transfer in the system is considered “mush – cell membrane”, transport through the membrane and “cell membrane – cytoplasm”. The morphology of the yeast cell and its geometrical characteristics, membrane resistance and mass transfer coefficients from mush in the membrane and from membrane in the yeast cell. Various researchers analyzed data on the geometric dimensions of the yeast cell and mass transfer coefficients in phases: the cytoplasm, the cell membrane and saccharified mash (outer fluid). The tables of values of the diameters of the yeast cell, the cell membrane thickness and volume depending on the schedule time of yeast cells during its growth. The mathematical model of mass transfer in the “yeast – must” taking into account the above factors. Used data on the equilibrium in the “yeast – must”. In accordance with the analyzed material made refinements and modifications of the mathematical model of ethanol extraction from yeast cells with water. Shows results identification model, the calculated and experimental data. The model assumed: cell diameter 4 microns, the diffusion coefficient of water in ethanol D = 11,8 • 10–10 m2/s, the mass transfer coefficient in the outdoor liquid вж = 5,9 • 10–4 m/s, the mass transfer coefficient in the cytoplasm вц = 1,21 • 10–6 m/s. Found that when considering the mass transfer in the “cytoplasm – saccharified mash” mass transfer can be neglected in the cytoplasm and in saccharified wort. The main resistance to mass transfer renders the cell membrane. The diffusion coefficients of the cell membrane, thickness of 7 nm which was Dм = 1,75 • 10–17 m2/s, and the resistance of the cell membrane д/Dм = 4 • 108 s/m.Keywords: mass transfer, yeast cell, cell membrane, diffusion, permeability, mathematical modeling.
Processes & Apparatus
The preparation of beer mash is the most important and the most complicated stage of the beer production technology. The quality of beer depends on the mash quality. At the same time it is the most power-hungry process, which requires great production areas. Actually the beer mash concentrating processes are produced in the different types of the heat-exchange apparatus. The rotary film apparatus (RFA) is one of the most perspective devices. The object of this article is a study of the possibility of the using RFA for the beer mash concentrating process. The research was realized on the experimental installation with the hard bolted blade. The article contains theoretical description of the heat-exchange process and beer mash thermal characteristics: the values of density, viscosity, surface tension, temperature conductivity, thermal conductivity and heat capacity of the beer mash in the temperature range of 20–60°C and concentration of dry substances 10–60%. The empiric dependences enable one to calculate viscosity and surface tension of beer mash in the temperature of the process of concentration of mash in the RFA at various concentrations of dry substances. On the grounds of the realized research was received the criterial equation, allowing put into practice the heat calculations for a device.Keywords: concentration process, beer mash, thermal characteristics.
Discusses the main issues of risk management and technological complex enterprise sugar factory. In the new concept management the uncertainties and risks deserve special attention. In conventional control logic uncertainty regarded as inevitable losses that may be visible or hidden. Manager tries to avoid or to minimize the uncertainty and risks through detailed planning, regulation and precise execution of the plan. With the new approach to the management of uncertainty is explicitly recognized as part of the real world and regarded as the most important part of management and planning. After analyzing and considering the speciality of technological processes of beet-sugar production, the authors highlighted the internal risks that directly affect the technological component of profit. The authors propose a mathematical model of risks identification of technological processes of sugar production, which directly affect the technological component of profit. Also, the authors propose a fuzzy cognitive model of risk management technological complex sugar factory. This model makes it possible to identify the sources of risk events in the external and internal environment of the company, the degree of their effect on business performance, as well as the definition of actions to avoid risks.Keywords: risks, risk management, technological complex, strategic management, enterprise sugar industry.
Modeling of nonstationary diffusion by cooking of grain grits by grid method and on basis analytical solutions
Analyzed the accuracy of the numerical simulation of unsteady diffusion during cooking of grain grits, made by the grid method by comparing the results with analytical solutions. Use the known analytic solutions of nonstationary diffusion at saturation grain grits. Analytical solutions are obtained by the method of divide of variables and solutions, which are based on the Laplace transform, Fourier transform and complex sine-Fourier transform on semi-infinite interval. Numerical solution fulfilled by the grid method for the implicit scheme. The diffusion coefficient of bound moisture in the material is calculated from the known Arrhenius equation, which takes into account the activation energy and pre-exponential factor, account of its temperature dependence. In the boundary conditions, the initial concentration of diffusing assumed to be zero. Tenderize particulate material thickness is 1 mm, which corresponds to a degree of grain refinement at a 90% confidence pass through a sieve of 1 mm diameter. Shows the resulting simulation graphics depending on the concentration distribution of diffusing coordinates for various periods of time, showing good qualitative and quantitative agreement between the numerical results with analytical methods for solving the equation of unsteady diffusion. It is shown that the known solutions do not take into account analytical example of cooking with the temperature change, swelling of starch granules and detachment of the outer layers, which take place in the actual process. To describe the process of cooking grain grits recommended grid method for the implicit scheme, taking into account the change in the temperature of the process, the swelling of the starch granules and starch separation of layers, the results of calculations which are consistent with experimental data on the cooking of grain grits.Keywords: nonstationary diffusion, grid method, implicit scheme, analytical solution, method divide of variables, Laplace transforms.
Numerically-analytical decision of three-dimensional model non-stationary heat transfer in process convective drying of food vegetative raw materials
Mathematical modelling of process of drying is resulted and the algorithm of the numerical decision of a non-stationary regional problem of heat conductivity with variable heat and mass transfer coefficients of a dried product, boundary and entry conditions, and also phase transition with mobile phase boundary is developed. Substance transfer in a firm phase was carried out besides mass conductivity also by thermodiffusion, and warmth carrying over to a considered particle is caused by phase transformations during drying. For the solution of mathematical model the zone method of the solution of a problem of the non-stationary three-dimensional equation of heat conductivity for a parallelepiped taking into account internal sources of warmth when drying process broke into zones is used. To solve the problem the following sequence of steps was carried out: 1) it was supposed that on some time grid values of the moisture content of a dried up product and the sizes of the parties of a particle of a dried up product are known; 2) their values were accepted to initial values of temperature and moisture content of a dried up product in the loading beginning in a dryer; 3) the time site broke into intervals, for each of them constant thermal parameters of the product were assumed; 4) calculation of temperature was carried out and the average value of temperature of a particle of a dried up product was calculated; 5) the average values of temperature and moisture content of the drying of the product in the previous time interval was taken as the initial conditions. The simulation results verified by experimental data of the potatoes drying process. The correspondence of calculated data with the experimental values of the relative error modeling was shown 8–10%.Keywords: mathematical model, drying, vegetative raw materials, heat conductivity, internal sources of warmth, a zone method.
Short-term impact of IR-radiation on oilseeds allows to prepare them for effective processing, promotes an inactivation of anti-nutrients, receiving high-quality cake and vegetable oil. Results of research influence of IR-processing on change of solubility of protein fractions of seeds of a melon are submitted. On the basis of experimental data authors receive the equation of regression for calculation of temperature of seeds of a melon at IR-heat treatment depending on a specific heat flux, distance from IR-lamps up to bed of seeds, duration of the IR-radiation, dampness of initial seeds of a melon. Ranging factors in a zone of the best yield is executed and character of change of solubility salt-, water-, alcohol- and alkali-soluble proteins is determined depending on temperature of the IR-radiation. It is established that the salt-soluble fraction of the proteins is most sensitive to IR-processing, which contents sharply decreases with increase in temperature to 90–110°C and then also sharply increases with temperature growth to 130°C; changes of the contents of alkali-soluble fraction of proteins of melon seeds have the return character.Keywords: IR-radiation, thermo-denaturation of proteins, fractional composition of proteins melon seeds, solubility of proteins.
Industrial vacuum apparatus with the closed scheme for production of mint oil-rectificate is described. The apparatus consists of a cube evaporator with an oil bath, a double-thread dephlegmator, reflux capacity, a three-running cooler of mint oil and the oil-rectificate collection. The operating mode of apparatus and the main results of a rectification of mint oil raw are given. Results of definition of qualitative composition of the produced oil-rectificate showed its compliance to the accepted standards.Keywords: mint oil, rectification, vacuum, production apparatus.