Modern technological processes of conversion of agricultural raw materials are accompanied by changes in gas-liquid media in a wide range of humidity, temperature and pressure. Gas-liquid technology effectively influence the flow of raw materials, which acquires a new qualitative characteristics or can be separated into separate classes of chemical compounds. The analysis of the technological features of gas-liquid processing of agricultural raw material for producing high concentration of biologically active substances is conducted. Use as a process agent of carbon dioxide in sub- and supercritical state allows to solve a number of tasks on preparative division of chemical components of plant raw materials, activate the effect of the own proteolytic enzymes animal materials, achieve ultrafine grinding of raw materials method of gas-liquid explosion. The optimal regime parameters of the processes of extraction of CO2 for apparatus of different capacity, ensuring receipt of the extract of high quality, to reduce the duration of the process of extraction of valuable components from raw materials are defined. Elaborated theoretical base for the further development of the unified application of carbon dioxide in the sectors of the food industry, including: combined methods of analysis of thermodynamic efficiency of the process in the system “energy – economy – ecology”; methodology for the estimation of interrelated mode and technological characteristics developed for CO2-technology equipment; generalized approaches to the use of results of scientific research, experimental-industrial tests, chemical-physical and biological analyses of products produced using CO2-technologies; estimation of regularities of the functioning of the technological processes, based on the interaction of food carbon dioxide in stable or changing phase conditions.Keywords: carbon dioxide, sub- and supercritical CO2-extraction, vegetable raw materials, biotechnology.
Table of contents for # 4 (340), 2014
The analysis of patent and scientific and technical literature on various ways of production of hookah blends is carried out. Growth of popularity of hookah smoking to the Russian Federation and intensive development of the market hookah tobacco is noted. Features of the production technology of the hookah blends, the entering caused by need into them additional components are shown: humidifiers, amplifiers of taste, fragrances, preservatives. The receptions used for stabilization of properties of hookah blends, improvements of their qualitative characteristics are presented. Ingredient compositions of hookah blends depending on technology of their production are described. The main methods of research of their physical and chemical and organoleptic indicators are presented.Keywords: hookah, hookah tobacco, hookah blends, ingredient composition of hookah blends.
The main ways of hydrolysis of animal and vegetable raw materials and property of the enzymatic preparations applied to improvement of quality of animal raw materials are analyzed. Raw sources and ways of production enzymatic preparations, the directions of their use in many branches of the food industry are described. Prospects of the proteolytic complexes synthesized by various groups of microorganisms by production of hydrolyzates are shown. Their amino acid composition is investigated. High efficiency of influence amiloproteolysine on protein and carbohydrate components of barley and malt is noted. It is established that use amiloproteolysine raises an exit of alcohol to 2–3% and increases beer storage period, in the meat industry enzymatic preparations are used for mitigation of meat and manufacture new, better grades of sausage products. The way of manufacture protein hydrolyzates from protein-containing by-products of fishing industry is considered. The special attention is paid to ability of proteases to hydrolyze microbic protein that the amino acid of mixes of food, medical and fodder appointment can be used for manufacture digestible. Ways of manufacture protein hydrolyzates of an animal and microbic origin with low and average extent of conversion of protein are considered. It is revealed that bacterial and mushroom protein provides deeper extent of hydrolysis of protein. For receiving protein hydrolyzates with low extent of conversion usually use endopeptidazy. It is established that the enzymatic method of hydrolysis is economically effective when processing by-products of the food industry.Keywords: enzymatic preparations, protein hydrolyzate, enzymatic hydrolysis, meat and fish raw material, amiloproteolysine.
Economics of Food Industry
Scientific and organizational problems of innovative economy development of tobacco production in Russia
The questions of increase of stability and efficiency of economy development of tobacco branch of the Russian Federation are considered. The special attention is paid to scientific providing the innovative directions of functioning of tobacco branch. On the basis of monitoring stages of formation and the developments of the tobacco branch which have caused its efficiency are revealed. It is established that the most successful development of tobacco growing was during existence of territorial and economic system of domestic tobacco production which was provided due to rational placement of types and variety-types the tobacco, the tobacco-growing zones of regions adapted for natural and economic conditions. Need of reduction of import volumes of tobacco raw materials from foreign countries due to revival of the Russian tobacco growing in cooperation with CIS countries is shown. The regions of Russia optimum for tobacco cultivation best in world variety-types which can give in a year to 20–35 thousand tons of tobacco raw materials are noted. In VNIITTI researches on development of processing methods of improvement operating and creations of the new agro-industrial technologies providing increase of productivity of technological operations, improvement of quality and decrease in toxicity of a tobacco smoke, and also scientific bases of creation of new competitive tobacco production according to the principles of food combination theory are conducted.Keywords: tobacco industry, smoking products, tobacco raw materials, economy of tobacco branch, safety of tobacco production.
Chemistry of Food Products & Materials
One of the most perspective ways of purposeful change of starch properties is cryomodification. Features of production are considered and research of phase structure of the natural and cryomodification starch manufactured from grain of wheat of a grade Akmola-2 is conducted. It is established that natural wheat starch has an amorphous and crystal structure. Cryomodification as a result of short-term freezing at –70°С leads to formation of crystal sites. Crystallinity degree at the cryomodified wheaten 5% water and starched pastes is 2,7–3,6% more than at 10%. Mechanical crushing of the manufactured dry pastes increases crystallinity degree by 0,6 and 1,5%. Increase of concentration of water and starched paste to 50% leads to increase in degree of crystallinity in comparison with 5 and 10% pastes respectively for 10,6 and 14,2%. The value basic when forming phase structure of the cryomodification starched pastes belongs to water.Keywords: wheat starch, starch cryomodification, phase structure, starch granules, manufacture starch.
Influence of soil climatic conditions on biochemical features of a proteinaceous complex of sesame seeds
The comparative biochemical analysis of sesame seeds grown up in Krasnodar region and in Yemen Republic is conducted and consideration of opportunity to use sesame seeds of russion selection for of proteinaceous products production and proteinaceous components of bioactive additives production. The tasks which solved during researches were in experimental confirmation of the assumption that sesame seeds varietal features and soil and climatic conditions of its cultivation have impact on biochemical features of seeds. The objects of research were Kubanets 55 sesame seeds grade, and sesame grade mix grown up in Yemen Republic soil and climatic conditions. The oil, protein, cellulose and anitrogenous extractives content of studied sesame seeds were defined. High protein content and lack of anti-nutritious factors in a proteinaceous complex allowed to consider sesame seeds as a potential source of vegetable protein as a part of dietary supplement. The researches of fractional and amino acid composition, biological value and the degree proteolysis a proteinaceous complex of sesame seeds showed practicality of russion selection sesame seeds use as a source of the full-fledged proteins which is meeting the requirements of the food industry for dietary supplement commodity. The analysis of a proteinaceous complex showed distinctions in the proteinaceous fractions ratio, in biological value, in degree of comprehensibility of proteins and revealed quantitative distinctions of amino acid compositions of sesame seeds of compared grades.Keywords: sesame, proteinaceous complex, biological value, amino-acid structure, soil climatic conditions.
On the action on a live organism the succinic acid (SA) belongs to natural adaptogens. Use the SA in various foodstuff increases their biological value, strengthens treatment-and-prophylactic impact on an organism. Multidirectional action the SA and opportunity widely to use it as food additive cause need of development of available and economic ways of syntheses this substance and succinates food appointment. Existence in molecules the SA and its salts of hydrophilic and hydrophobic structural fragments allows to assume surface activity of these compounds. Various known ways of syntheses the SA are considered, their shortcomings are revealed. Author’s methods of SA and its sodium salt syntheses on the basis of furfural oxidation with hydrogen peroxide are adduced. The methods meet requirements of food additions. Data of the substances surface activity are given first. The results make it possible to expand use and purpose of SA as food addition of wide range of action. The revealed surface activity the SA and its sodium salt opens their new property – ability to stabilize heterogeneous food systems along with giving of the increased biological value to them.Keywords: succinic acid, sodium succinate, methods of syntheses, furfural, hydrogen peroxide, surface activity.
Food products fried in oil соntain а large аmount оf fat whiсh hаd been soaked in the process оf frying. However, fats thаt hаve been exposed to prolonged соntact with аir аre subjected to охidative destruction with formation оf peroхides, hydroperoхides, ерохidation, саrbo- аnd different роlymeric compounds, аs well аs compounds with соnjugate bonds; there takes рlace аs well destruction оf native рhysiologically асtive роlyunsaturated fatty асids, fat-soluble vitamins, рhosрholipids, еtc. The depth оf thermo-охidative сhanges in heated fats is reflected in changes оf their biological properties. We рresent the results оf biological tests оf influence оn а living оrganism оf separate fractions аnd соmplex оf аll fractions оf products оf thermo-охidative destruction, which hаvе еduced from heated fats. The tests have been саrriеd оut оn severаl generations оf laboratory аnimals. The рresented tests showed that аll samples оf fаts, ехроsed tо рrolonged high temperature, didn’t show аny саncerogenic properties. However, these samples had some metabolic еrrоrs showing the reduction оf biological value аnd аssimilability оf food ratiоn because оf рroducts оf thermo-охidatiоn оf fats. The reduction оf biological value оf ration, which соntained heated fats wаs thе result оf intеrасtion оf сhеmically асtive рroducts оf охidative destruction оf fatty асids with food рroteins аnd fryed products аs well аs with fеrments аnd рroteins in оrganisms оf the laboratory аnimals. It was marked that the аddition to the feeding ration оf tocopherol, whiсh hаs аntiохidizing еffесt, рrevented the reduction оf biological value оf feeding ration, whiсh соntained heat-treated oil; the аddition оf tocopherol еventually led tо the reduction оf impurity оf inner medium оf the living оrganism with сhemically activе аgents оf охidative destruction.Keywords: frying fats, роlyunsaturated fatty асids, products оf thermo-охidative destruction, biological value, аssimilability, tocopherol, аntiохidizing еffесt.
Chemical composition and active compound content in the muscle tissue of sea cucumber Stichopus Japonicus
In the muscle tissue of Far-Eastern trepang Stichopus japonicus cultivated on bases of Pacific Research Fishery Center and Far-Eastern Fishery University (Zapovednaya bay in the Lazo’ region of Primorye district and Severnaya bay in the Khasan’ region of Primorye district) was investigate the chemical compound and maintenance of biological activity substances. Was determined the concentrations of triterpene glycosides, amino carbohydrates, collagen and amino acids (free and proteinous). Containing of glycosides is very highed. Indispensable amino acids compose approximately the quarter part from total quantity of amino acids. Amount of biological activity amino acids (glycine, proline, glutamic and aspartic acids) total 54–56% from general amount of all amino acids. In general, the proportions of protein amino acids have the minor relatives for trepangs from different cultivation places. Toxic elements, pathogen microorganisms and chlorine-organic pesticides in the probes don’t contain or find in minor quantity. This results allowed to recommend the trepang of artificial cultivation for preparing of the pharmacological preparations, biological active supplements to food, and also functional food products.Keywords: trepang (holothurians), microelements, triterpene glycosides, amino carbohydrates, amino acids.
Development of bakery products formulations of gerodietetic orientation with use of non-traditional raw materials
To create a new food to gerodietetic orientation explore the feasibility of using in recipes of bakery products non-traditional kinds of raw materials: flour of whole-milled grain of wheat, chickpea, and additives from secondary products – powders of the fruits of hawthorn, dogrose, peppermint, holy thistle and paste from sugar beet, apple puree, Jerusalem artichoke. When designing a balanced formulation to the selection of optimal technological methods for obtaining the best consumer properties of new products using the method of mathematical modeling. On the basis of obtained results the developed formulations of bakery products of a mixture of wheat flour baking 1st grade and whole-milled grain of wheat with the addition of: powders of hawthorn, and mint paste and sugar beet – bread “Syurpris”; powders from the hips, holy thistle and paste from Jerusalem artichoke – bread “Mechta”; chickpea flour and paste of applesauce – bread “Musa”. Defined the chemical composition of developed finished products, their food, biological, energy value, the degree of satisfaction of the daily requirement of biopolymers, micro-components, vitamins and amino acids. All groups of nutrients products developed with the introduction of enriched of non-traditional kinds of raw materials are characterized by improved composition and high antioxidant activity and can be recommended for elderly persons nutrition.Keywords: bakery gerodietetic orientation, non-traditional food raw material, food nutrients, antioxidant activity.
For the purpose of the foodstuff production development enriched with irreplaceable components research of possibility of use of flakes from grain and bean crops in technology of bakery products is conducted. The technology of a roll “Obogashchennaya” with use of seven types of flakes grain (wheat, barley, rye, oat, millet, rice, buckwheat) and three types of flakes bean (pea, bean, lentil) cultures is developed. The optimum quantity of brought flakes made 15% to the mass of a flour. The chemical composition, nutrition and power value of the developed products, the content of amino acids is defined. It is established that enrichment of bakery products by flakes from grain and bean crops raises the contents in them food fibers. With flakes from grain crops it increased in rolls on the average for 36,2–61,7%, with flakes from bean – for 48,9–51,1% in comparison with a control sample. The amino acids structure of the received products improved. The coefficient of distinction of amino acid score decreased in comparison with a control sample for products with grain flakes by 5,05–10,23%, with flakes of the bean – for 23,84–27,0%. Respectively the biological value of the developed products increased, comprehensibility of protein increased. On the basis of the received results recommendations about use of the enriched rolls in baby and dietary food are developed.Keywords: bakery products, flakes of grain and bean crops, nutrition and biological value, amino acids structure.
Development of technology fermented products based on milk-vegetable mixture with additives arabinogalactan
Presents the results of the development of technology of fermented product using as a basis mixture of non-fat cow’s milk and soy-based food. Studied the characteristics of arabinogalactan extracted from Larix dahurica, which is produced under the brand name ”Lavitol–arabinogalactan” on JSC “Ametis” (Blagoveshchensk). The expediency of the enrichment of the fermented product of functional food additive “Lavitol–arabinogalactan” is defined in the application rate of arabinogalactan in lacto-vegetative composition. The influence of food additives on the physico-chemical, microbiological and organoleptic parameters of the fermented product. As a result of entering into the combined mixture of arabinogalactan is reduced fermentation time, thanks to the increased dry matter content in the mixture and the stimulating effect of the polysaccharide made by the microflora of starter cultures. With increasing doses of arabinogalactan is increased the number of viable microbial cells and modifying structural and mechanical properties of edible lactic clots. Additive arabinogalactan promotes the formation of a more viscous consistency. It is established that with increasing doses arabinogalactan amount liberated serum during centrifugation clots greatly reduced. The results showed that the introduction of arabinogalactan in the amount of 1,5% by weight of the composition framework can improve the physico-chemical, rheological and microbiological characteristics and give the prebiotic properties of fermented lacto-vegetative product.Keywords: products of functional purpose, biologically active additives, arabinogalactan, fermented product.
The technology of generation the vitamin polysaccharide additives (VPA) from a press of pumpkin of a grade Volga gray and pumpkin mashed potatoes is developed for enrichment of curd semi-finished products for cheesecakes. The chemical composition of additives is investigated. The received products of processing of pumpkin are characterized by high mass fractions of potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, sodium, vitamins, food fibers, including pectin, and can be used in technology of curd semi-finished products for cheesecakes as an additional source of these nutrients. Influence of stages of preparation and entering of products of processing of pumpkin into curd dough for the purpose of ensuring the maximum safety brought micronutrients additives is investigated. For improvement of functional and technological and organoleptic indicators VPА hydration was carried out. The hydration mode is defined: ratio VPА–water 1 : 2, temperature 20–25°C, duration of 20–30 min, allowing preserving the VPА native properties. It is established that for preparation of curd semi-finished products at partial replacement of wheat flour in a compounding of cheesecakes the dose of brought VPА has to make 5–7%, and pumpkin mashed potatoes of 1–3%. The additive of VPА and pumpkin puree in a compounding of curd semi-finished products in the established quantities improves structure, a consistence and taste of finished products, reduces their caloric content, impacts pleasant sweetish relish. The nutrition value of curd semi-finished products with additives raises, the product is enriched macro- and microelements, vitamins, food fibers, including pectin. At VPА addition in curd semi-finished products in number of 7% finished products can be carried to products of a functional food.Keywords: curd semi-finished products, vitamin polysaccharide additive from pumpkin, food fibers, enrichment of dairy products.
Improvement of digestion of meat protein possibly at the expense of an optimum combination to phytogenesis protein. It allows to enrich also in addition meat products with positive biologically active components. Inclusion in prescription composition of sausage forcemeats of vegetable proteins and food fibers allows to increase moisture-holding ability of forcemeat, to improve taste and aroma of finished products. Possibility of improvement of earlier developed production technology “Sausage in Bun” due to improvement of a compounding of dough and increase of its biological value is investigated. For this purpose in dough compounding besides wheat and rye flour the flour wholegrain, buckwheat and oat is used. The multicomponent structure of dough meeting the main requirements for a consistence, color and aroma for buns is as a result obtained. Preparation of dough was carried out in the unsponge method. Rheological properties of dough depending on composition of flour mixes, interrelation of physical and chemical, rheological and baking properties of semi-finished products and finished products are investigated. The advanced production technology “Sausage in Bun” is submitted, the technological scheme is provided.Keywords: sausage in bun, meat-vegetable products, unsponge dough, CO2-extracts.
New technology of raw dough gingerbread products of raised nutrition value with flour from chicory root crops
The results of development of technology and formulation the raw dough gingerbread products of the raised nutrition value with use of mix of a wheat baking flour and the flour received from root crops of chicory are presented. The chemical composition of root crops of the chicory possessing unique treatment-and-prophylactic properties is given. The technology of receiving a flour from root crops of chicory included preparation of root crops, drying in a microwave field and cryo-crushing in liquid nitrogen. The expediency of use of mix of wheat flour and the flour received from root crops of chicory by production of new grades the raw dough gingerbread products of the raised nutrition value is proved. The technology and formulation of preparation of a new grade the raw dough gingerbread products, including mixing of a wheat baking flour of the 1st grade and a flour from chicory root crops in the ratio on weight 8 : 1 is presented. Prototypes the raw dough gingerbread products on a break visually didn’t differ from a control sample, but had smaller density for 22–24% and bigger volume at the expense of increase in porosity. The assessment of a chemical composition and nutrition value of the raw dough gingerbread products developed is carried out. It is established that gingerbreads with a flour additive from root crops of chicory have higher nutrition value.Keywords: gingerbread products, wheat flour, flour from chicory root crops, nutrition value of product.
The chemical composition and properties of the food fibers produced from seeds of a cock’s head – a plant of family bean, the containing substance, favorably influencing physiological functions of an organism is studied. Possibility of these food fibers use is investigated by production of a new type of flour confectionery wafer crisp when replacing from 3 to 10% of wheat flour. It is established that food fibers from seeds of a cock’s head reduce humidity and water absorption of products that it is possible to explain with substantial increase of density of wafer dough with increase in a dosage of fibers and low humidity of the additive possessing lowered water absorbing ability. The optimum dosage of food fibers – 5% of the mass of flour is defined. The compounding wafer crisp “Zdorovye” is developed. Use of the food fibers received from seeds of a cock’s head, by production wafer crisp allows to manufacture the products having positive impact on physiological functions of human body, to increase taste and aroma of finished products.Keywords: cock's head seeds, food fibers, wafer crisp, formulation of flour confectionery.
Development of sheet wafers formulations of functional purpose with wholemeal flour from amaranth seeds
Possibility of enrichment of flour confectionery by flour from amaranth seeds for the purpose of a functional orientation to them giving is investigated. The flour from amaranth seeds macro- and microcomponents considerably surpasses the wheat flour of the premium which is traditionally applied in production of flour candy stores in the contents, including wafer products. When developing formulations of sheet wafers without the stuffing, not containing the sugar, intended for dietary food, various dosages of flour from amaranth seeds for the purpose of giving to finished products of functional properties due to optimum quantity squalene and other functional ingredients containing in an amaranth flour, and providing high technical and consumer characteristics on wafers investigated. It is established that an optimum ratio wheat flour: amaranth flour in formulations of sheet wafers 80 : 20. The main physical and chemical and structural and mechanical indicators of wafers prototypes, confirmed a choice of the specified dosage are investigated. The formulation of sheet wafers of “Amarantovye” is developed. The qualitative and quantitative structure in them functional ingredients taking into account ensuring daily requirement is defined. Sheet wafers “Amarantovye” in comparison with the traditional products made with use of wheat flour, are enriched with the proteins balanced on amino-acid structure, polyunsaturated fatty acids, B1 vitamin. They are recommended for inclusion in a daily diet to correct violations of metabolism of all kinds, primarily carbohydrate metabolism.Keywords: amaranth seeds, wholemeal flour, wafers sheet, squalene, products of functional purpose.
Cytochrome C is the most important enzyme that is included in any living cell and is responsible for oxygen transport. The tissue of the heart muscle marine mammal Caspian seal differs a high content of cytochrome C. Objects of research: the frozen heart of the Caspian seals, enzyme preparation “Cytochrome C” before and after purification by the method of gel filtration, dry enzyme preparation. Tested method for allocating heart cytochrome C from the Caspian seal by pre-grinding of raw materials, its extraction in an acid medium at a pH not less than 4,5 and a temperature not higher than 10°C, the mixture neutralized to pH 7,0 with sodium hydroxide, its subsequent centrifugation at speeds of 3000–4000 rev/min, centrifuged dry salting ammonium sulfate re-centrifugation and purified by gel filtration by passing through a series centrifuged columns filled with Sephadex G-25 brand in the presence of 0,9% sodium chloride solution, followed by drying with brine enzyme preparation. The content of pure cytochrome C in saline enzyme preparation was 234 mg/l, dry enzyme preparation – 76,5–76,7%, which can be used as an intermediate in the pharmaceutical industry.Keywords: enzyme preparation, cytochrome C, heart of the Caspian seals, sephadex, gel filtration.
The technology of supplements for sports nutrition is developed, based on fish scales hydrolyzate. The demand of specialized products featuring protein-carbohydrate composition on the sports nutrition market of the Kaliningrad region is shown. The chemical composition of dried sardine scales is define, the amino acid composition of bream and sardine scales proteins is studied, biological indicators of bioactive peptides, fatty acid composition of fats sardine scales are demonstrated. The process of obtaining scale protein hydrolysates using enzymatic method via collagenase into peppermint extract is studied and optimized. The processes of obtaining sardine scales hydrolysates using hydrothermal method are considered. The composition of protein-carbohydrate supplements based on fish scales hydrolysates enriched with flower pollen and other supplements, in gelatin forms is substantiated. The particularity of the sensory evaluation and the total chemical composition of the new supplement are identified. The presence of functional components and recommendations for using of finished product by speed-power sportsmen are justified.Keywords: sports nutrition, supplements, enzymatic hydrolysis, hydrothermolysis, gainer.
For getting from the mushrooms the dietary supplement with a wide range of biological activities it is effectually to isolate a biopolymer complex that includes the polysaccharides, for example glucan and amino-polysaccharide, and melanins. The purpose of this research was the characteristics of the composition and properties of a number of biopolymer complexes that are isolated from the cultivated mushrooms as a basis for forecasting their physiological effects. The biopolymer complexes from the cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) were obtained by sequential processing of the raw material with hot water, acid and alkaline agents. The concentration of the sodium hydroxide solution and time of the raw material treatment were varied. It was found the carbohydrates that are presented aminopolysaccharide and glucan in various ratios dominated in the composition of the obtained preparations. It is possible to change the degree of aminopolysaccharide acetylation by varying the conditions of the biopolymer complexes isolation. This allows obtaining the dietary supplements that include chitin or chitosan. Protein and melanins that mass content is different accompany to carbohydrates. The absorption bands that are typical for chitin, в-(1-3)-glucan and melanins were identified in the IR spectra of the samples. It is found the biopolymer complexes belong to the dietary supplement with a wide range of biological activities: they exhibit the antioxidant, the antacid properties, the bifidogenic effect, they are the enterosorbent. It is possible to regulate the intensity of specified properties by varying the ratio of biopolymer components in the complex. It is confirmed the effectiveness of these preparation in vivo experiments.Keywords: white button mushroom, biopolymer complex, antacid properties, antioxidant activity, bifidogenic effect.
Development of formulations and consumer properties assessment of dessert liqueurs based of cherry fruits and ginger root
The formulations of dessert liqueurs on the basis of cherry fruits and a ginger root are developed. According to requirements alcoholized juice, fruit drinks and water extracts of raw materials are prepared: cherry alcoholized juice, bilberry fruit drink of the first and the second drain, infusion of almonds of the first and the second drain, alcoholic solution of vanillin, sugar syrup, alcoholized infusion of a root of ginger of the first and the second drain, water extract of a root of ginger. When developing formulations were guided by the approved formulation of dessert liqueur Cherry. Instead of alcohol rectified the highest cleaning used alcohol the ethyl rectified Luxury for improvement of organoleptic properties. Reasonable formulation components of blends used for drawing up working formulations of dessert liqueurs. After correction of a formulation used for preparation of the main blend according to technological modes of production. Two types of dessert liqueurs are received: Ginger-Cherry and Ginger. The assessment of organoleptic indicators of liqueurs is carried out. Tasting carried out according to the recommended 10-point scale. The developed dessert liqueurs gained more than 9,5 points that allows to recommend them for production and realization. The analysis of physical and chemical indicators of the received dessert liqueurs showed their compliance to standard requirements.Keywords: dessert liqueur, cherry fruits, ginger root, alcoholized fruit drink, formulations of liqueurs.
Presents the results of development of new functional range kvass using mineral and vegetable raw materials Far East. In technology used digested kvass wort concentrate, mineral water of Shmakovsky region of Primorsky Territory (Russia) and syrups from the berries of the far Eastern wild plants: Rosa davurica, Vaccinium vitis idaea L., Schizandra chinensis and Viburnum sargentii. The required concentration of carbon dioxide in kvass provided by saturating them with carbon dioxide. Presents a new formulation of beverages. According to the results of physico-chemical analysis shows that the obtained kvasses meet the standard requirements of a given product group (GOST 51074–97). Microbiological parameters, the content of toxic elements and radionuclides in kvass meet regulatory requirements. New drink was developed and approved standard for the organization: «Kvass on mineral water “Vkus zdorovya”» (SO 02067942–10–2012). On results of determination of the basic organoleptic characteristics (appearance, aroma, sweetness and acidity), all kvass were attributed to sweet-sour. It is shown that the prepared drinks are full natural kvass, have new organoleptic characteristics (taste and aroma) and have the properties of functional foods due to the presence in its composition of vitamins C, P, macro- and micronutrients, organic acids, phenolic compounds. The new drinks received a patent of the Russian Federation.Keywords: kvass, syrups from the berries of wild plants of the Far East, mineral water, functional products.
The advantages of drying of agricultural raw materials for the purpose of long safety of its properties are described. Possibility of drying of the persimmon fruits which is grown up in the southern regions of Russia is studied. Technological peculiarities of the ways of drying of persimmon fruits of traditional and offered by the author are analysed. The innovative technology of removal of moisture from persimmon fruits on universal drying installation with use as the drying agent of inert gas of argon is developed. The developed equipment and way of drying allow to increase quality of dried persimmon fruits of due to application of a sparing way of drying. Fruits can be dried up in the whole look or cut on segments. Temperature of inert gas isn’t above 45°C, speed – 0,3 m/s. Duration of drying depends on a type of raw materials: for the whole fruits it makes 8–10 h, for 7,5–8 h cut by segments. The layout scheme of installation for drying of a persimmon fruits is submitted. The chemical composition of a persimmon fruits of the following grades is given: Dzhiro, Zendzhi-Maru, Nitari, Rossianka, Hiakume, Apple. The content of vitamin C and в-carotene in the samples of the persimmon which have been dried up on the offered way, is 10–15% higher, than in the fruits which have been dried up in the traditional way.Keywords: persimmon, drying of vegetable raw materials, chemical composition of fruits, drying installation, content of vitamins.
The technology of producing new types of processed products original DDGS are proposed. The scheme for production powdery product based on rational limits of the physical parameters of the drying process of the thin stillage are developed. This technology allows to get a high quality feed additive in animal rations. Evaporating and drying installations, as well as accessories, working in a closed thermodynamic cycle, results in reducing the consumption of electricity and heat energy as well as steam flow rate. The calculation of the material balance of the process of obtaining a powdered product from the thin stillage are performed. Nutrients and vitamins that saved in the finished product will come in handy to improve the quality of the powder itself. Energy costs were reduced in an average of 15% by using of steam jet installation and recirculation loop for drying agent. Energy consumption of the processes of evaporation and drying the thin stillage are reduced by using of waste heat steam ejector after heating the air before it is fed into the spray dryer. Efficiency of separation whole stillage on a suspended and a liquid fractions and quality of the finished powdery product are increased by using a spray drier with a drying agent with a low temperature in range 75–80°C.Keywords: thin stillage, spray dryer, evaporation of thin stillage.
Use of electroactivated water solutions for hydrolysis extraction of pectic substances out of vegetable raw materials
The questions of preparation of pectine contained raw materials (PCR) to hydrolysis extraction according to the equation of process of hydrolysis of protopectin are considered. Possibility of use of the electroactivated water solutions (EWS) is investigated by preparation of PCR and hydrolysis extraction of the pectic substances (PS) from it. As PCR are used dried apple and citrus marcs. Efficiency of process was estimated on extent of extraction of PS, a constant of speed of hydrolysis extraction and the main quality indicator – jelly-forming ability of the extracted pectin. The comparative analysis of the pectin obtained with use by extragent EWS, hydrochloric and lemon acids is carried out. Besides jelly-forming ability the ash-content and organoleptic properties of the obtained pectins were investigated. It is established that PS greatest an exit and a constant of speed of hydrolysis extraction are reached when using by extragent hydrochloric acid. On 3–4% lower these indicators at the pectins obtained with use of anolytes, prepared on different initial water solutions with various salinity. The lowest an exit of PS and a constant of speed of hydrolysis extraction – when using lemon acid. It is established that EWS application for PS extraction from vegetable raw materials allows to raise an exit and purity of pectins, to simplify process due to preliminary washing of raw materials. Optimum parameters of raw materials preparation processes and PS hydrolysis extraction from it are determined.Keywords: pectine, obtained pectic substances, hydrolysis extraction, electroactivated water solutions, swelling, washing.
Domestic preparations of proteolytic action for the purpose of the directed choice of enzymes for modification of сollagen-containing raw materials which after preliminary processing used as a substratum are investigated. It is established that enzymatic hydrolysis during 6 hours leads to considerable dissolution of the processed raw materials. Physical-chemical characteristics of enzymatic preparations are provided. The maximum solubility of сollagen-containing raw materials is noted at Savinaza’s use (80,6%) and proteases “C” (82,7%). This indicator is of great importance at mass industrial processing of collagen for the purpose of fuller utilization of raw materials. Savinaz’s enzymatic preparation hydrolyzes a protein substratum in the wide range рН. It is investigated that the enzymatic preparation shows lower activity in a neutral zone that is in area of its isoelectric point.Keywords: enzymatic preparations, сollagen-containing raw materials, enzymatic hydrolysis, Savinaza, temperature optimum.
Processes & Apparatus
Analysis of kinetics of the drying process of potato and vegetables (carrots and beets) superheated steam at atmospheric pressure in a pulsed fluidized bed indicates the presence of the following periods: warm-up period, constant speed and the period of decreasing speed. Were considered the basic laws of heat and mass transfer process of drying food plants (potatoes, carrots and beets) allowing for the change in the kinetic characteristics of each period. In the warm-up period, which is characterized by condensation of vapor on the surface of the product and water absorption, there is an intensive moisture transfer on the surface of the interfacial section “solid – liquid” as a result of thermal diffusion caused by the temperature gradient. Revealed that during the drying intensity oscillate heat exposure is directly proportional to the product of the increment of enthalpy values irrigation steam flow per unit area of the gas distribution grid, the pulsation frequency and inversely proportional to the duty cycle of the steam. Some reduction in the impact velocity superheated steam heat in a period of decreasing drying rate due to the changing nature of the moisture transfer. In this period there was a slight decrease in the beginning of heat transfer coefficient, followed by a sharp decline at the end of the period. The basic laws of heat and mass transfer during drying edible raw superheated steam. Criterial equations obtained to determine the heat transfer coefficient in the periods constant and decreasing the drying rate. The change of temperature and humidity of potatoes and vegetables superheated steam at atmospheric pressure in a pulsed layer.Keywords: drying of vegetables, drying kinetics, superheated steam, laws warmly-exchange.
The melon seeds are the olive raw materials which processing allows to produce valuable vegetable food oil and cake. Existing technologies of processing of melon seeds have a number of shortcomings: two-stage crushing of seeds; the long moisture thermal treatment worsening quality of produced oil and cake; processing without separation of a fruit cover that doesn’t allow to produce high-protein cake. For the purpose of improvement of processing technology of melon seeds of technical, physicomechanical and chemical characteristics on seeds of a melon of grades “Asian oval” and “Amiri” were studied. Highly effective methods are proved and features of processing of melon seeds with preliminary separation of a fruit cover and receiving high-quality products are investigated. The linear sizes of seeds, limits and nature of their changes, volume weight, mass of 1000 seeds, coefficient of external friction depending on humidity and a material of a surface of friction are determined, specific work of destruction of melon seeds is investigated. Fractional and amino-acid compositions of proteins of melon seeds of the studied grades are defined. For improvement of quality of obtained products it is offered to use short-term IR-radiation of the seeds, allowing to reduce durability of a fruit cover and to reduce the maintenance of insoluble fraction of proteins. On the basis of the conducted researches the technological line is developed for processing of melon seeds which distinctive feature is the dehulling of seeds in single blow in a centrifugal hulling mill, separation of a fruit cover and IR-heat treatment of an olive material.Keywords: melon seeds, dehulling of seeds, oil extraction, IR-radiation.
Analyzed the effect of particle size of milled grain wheat on energy costs of cooking. By numerical simulation based on the solution of the nonstationary diffusion performed by the implicit scheme grid method based on the swelling of the starch granules, changes in temperature during the cooking of starch and separation of external layers of cooking time specified for the circuit mode and mechanical- enzymatic treatment of starchy raw materials in accordance with norms of technological design enterprises alcohol industry NTD 10–12976–2000*. The particle size is assumed to be grit 0,5; 0,75; 1; 1,5; 2 mm. Adopted as a basic embodiment for grit particles with a size of 1 mm, are widely used in Russia distilleries. Identification of the model held in the parameter – the activation energy. This parameter is included in the equation of the diffusion coefficient on temperature. According to the results obtained by numerical simulation of cooking time graphical representation of the particle size of corn grits. Calculated energy cost for crushing grains to a particle size of 0,5 to 2 mm. The quantity of heat losses in proportion to the time of cooking calculated process. Energy costs are defined as the sum of energy crushing and loss of heat during cooking of. Found that the minimum energy correspond to a particle size of 1 mm. The final solution of the problem requires knowledge of the effect of the degree of grinding on the yield and quality of alcohol.Keywords: milled grain wheat, low temperature cooking, mathematical modeling, cost of crushing.
Investigation of boundary conditions of the rotor mass-transfer apparatus without external energy supply in technological processes of food productions
Defined hydrodynamic characteristics of one of the structures of the devices that use rotating contact devices energy, gas and steam flows. These characteristics are the basis for carrying out engineering calculations mass transfer unit without external energy supply. These devices create the possibility of intensification of technological processes of the food industry while ensuring environmental and industrial safety. The processes of hydrodynamics in contact devices device with a rotating nozzle and defines extreme conditions of the work were investigated. The research was carried out consistently in comparable conditions first single-phase flow in dry fixed nozzle, then when rotating heads, but also in the absence of irrigation. Next were received and summarized the results of experiments with the introduction of the apparatus of the second phase at different loads of gas and liquid. The equations for calculation of hydrodynamic processes in the contact device with a rotating nozzle, allowing to carry out engineering calculations of the device with sufficient precision in the entire investigated range of loads of gas and liquid phases. The analysis of the research results limit conditions of work of the device with a rotating nozzle shows that changes limit the phase velocity, ensuring its safe and efficient operation can be achieved by changing the distance between the contact device for height, and the changing diameter outlet nozzles and their number that is selected depending on the process conditions.Keywords: rotor mass transfer unit, gas vapor flow, heat and mass transfer processes, hydrodynamic processes.
Food Engineering, Proesses, Equipment & Automation of Food Production
It is shown that for an intensification of chemical and food processes except vibro-mixing devices it is expedient to use reciprocating rotary mixing devices. These devices, thanks to a reciprocating rotary motion of working bodies, have executive mechanisms simple and convenient in operation that does them perspective for application. Use of reciprocating rotary mixing devices restrains because of insufficient development of their executive mechanisms. The conducted researches showed prospects of application of cogwheels as executive mechanisms for reciprocating rotary mixing devices. For obtaining a reciprocating rotary motion it is expedient to use transfers with not round cogwheels. The carried-out analysis of kinematics (the transfer relation) couples of not round cogwheels allowed to formulate a condition under which the unidirectional rotary motion of an entrance link will be transformed to a reciprocating rotary motion of an output link. The original design of the planetary gear mechanism, as with round, and not round cogwheels, for receiving a reciprocating rotary motion is offered. With application of a method of Kutzbach–Smirnov the kinematics of this executive mechanism is investigated, the law of change of the transfer relation is found and is proved that the output link makes reciprocating rotary motions. The offered executive mechanism contains only cogwheels and is the classical planetary mechanism and consequently, has all advantages of tooth gearings and is perspective for mixing devices.Keywords: the converter of a rotary motion in reciprocating rotary, vibro-mixing devices, executive mechanism, transfer relation, round and not round cogwheels, elliptic cogwheels.
The advanced complex of processing equipment for a washing of sugar beet is developed. The cylinder sugar beet washing machine (СBW) of “Maguin” (France) and the brush washing the machine for root crops of “Unimasz” (Hungary) were objects for modernization. In the proposed constructive solutions intensive factors of impact on beet (raw materials vibro-delivery, hydraulic and hydrodynamic processings), directed on improvement of quality of washed objects and reduction of losses of sugar due to decrease in fight of mass-beet are used. Developed CBW consists of three consistently established sections of a rotating drum: preliminary washing of root crops in mud suspension with simultaneous removal of mineral impurity when vibro-loading raw materials in the machine, raw materials tertiary treatment by a screw-brush drum and fair rinsing by centrifugal nozzles by the water prepared in an ozonizer. The advanced design of the brush washing the machine for root crops can be equipped with various systems of loading and unloading (scraper, screw, tape and other conveyors) with system of adjustment of intensity of loading of technological lines. The developed installations with a productivity of 4,5 thousand tons of the processed beet per day are compact and can be established at standard beet sugar plant.Keywords: cylinder sugar beet washing machine, brush sugar beet washing machine, centrifugal atomizer hydrodynamic plate transducer, hydraulic and hydrodynamic processing of raw materials.
Possibility of use in gingerbread products of a functional purpose of the beet dietary fibers (DF) – clarified and not clarified and DF Camecel FW 30 is investigated. Physical-chemical indicators of quality of studied DF, their granulometric structure, being characterized are defined by heterogeneity that has impact on ability of DF to absorb and hold moisture and fat. The conclusion is drawn on high functional and technological properties and expediency of application as functional ingredient for gingerbread products of not clarified beet DF. The scheme of the advanced hardware and technological line on production of gingerbreads of the raised nutrition value is presented. For improvement of a stage of preparation of DF as a part of the technological line for production of gingerbread products of a functional purpose it is offered to use in addition in front of dough mixing machine rotary windrower disintegrator, a grinder, and behind it – a homogenizer. Enriched DF gingerbreads can be recommended as the food functional product which consumption in number of 100 g allows to satisfy 16,6% of daily requirement of an organism in dietary fibers. Introduction of the beet DF allows to increase a period of storage of scalded gingerbread products till 40 days. The used equipment allows to reach high degree of and dehydration of beet DF that promotes receiving dough with high plasticity and uniform distribution of prescription components, as a result of a product have the bigger volume and porosity.Keywords: gingerbread products, dietary fibers, product enrichment, functional product, crushing, homogenization.
Methods of Investigation, Quality & Safety of Food Products
Dependence analysis of critical shear stress of the combined masses on basis cottage cheese from quantity of protein and moisture
The correlation-regression analysis for determination of dependence of critical shear stress (CSS) from quantity of protein and moisture in the combined masses on the basis of cottage cheese is carried out, degree and a form of their correlation are studied, and narrowness of their communication is estimated. Results show that the more value of a ratio of moisture and protein, the value of CSS is lower, and, on the contrary, the more protein less moisture, than the values of CSS are higher. Positive correlation communication between CSS and protein content is revealed, whereas between moisture content and CSS – negative. The carried-out correlation and regression analysis allowed to obtain statistical mathematical model in the form of the equation of regression of dependence of CSS from protein content and moisture in the combined masses on the basis of cottage cheese, to define efficiency of the obtained equation, to confirm rectilinear dependence between the studied parameters, allowed to assume that between experimental data of the structural-mechanical analysis there is a high correlation communication.Keywords: critical shear stress, moisture, protein, linear dependence, correlation, regression, combined masses on the basis of cottage cheese.
At breakdown of agronomical and technological processes for obtaining of tobacco raw material it is formed to a different defects, one of which is the presence of “dark green” on the leaf, due to the remnants of chlorophyll, not destroyed during the drying of tobacco. The influence of the remnants of “dark greens” on the tobacco leaves on the characteristics of the grade and smoking properties of raw tobacco is investigated. The object of the study were tobacco leaf types Dubek aromatic groups of raw materials, obtained by the technology adopted in the production. The possibility of disposal of the residues “dark green” under the influence of optical radiation in the artificial conditions, result in photochemical oxidation of chlorophyll to reveal. The result is higher grade raw tobacco and improves smoking properties. Based on the results of conducted study of the independent influence of chlorophyll on smoking properties of raw tobacco. The tasting evaluation of samples confirmed the negative impact of chlorophyll on smoking properties of tobacco as well as forming the safety performance and consumer properties of tobacco products.Keywords: tobacco, tobacco raw materials, plastids pigments, quality and safety of tobacco products, optical radiation, drying of tobacco, green leaf processing of tobacco.
Use of traditional ways of heat treatment by manufacture of boiled products from PSE-pork is given to serious destructive denaturation to changes by the myofibrillar and the sarcoplasmic of proteins of meat that promotes considerable losses of vitamins, mineral substances and mass of a ready-made product, and also negative changes of taste and aroma. The effect of different modes of LT–LT processing ham made from NOR- and PSE-pork on the degree of degradation of proteins, vitamins and mineral loss is investigated. The optimal LT–LT mode minimizes the loss of essential nutrients in ham: temperature is 50–55°C, duration 390 min.Keywords: pork, NOR, PSE, protein, digestibility, vitamins, minerals, low temperature–long time.
When processing grapes of wine varieties it is formed from 18 to 25% of by-products which not always are rationally used. Possibilities of rational processing of by-products of winemaking for the purpose of use of useful substances containing in them – fatty acids, amino acids, flavonoids – in technology of foodstuff as natural food additives are investigated. On CO2 extraction to installation of JSC “Caravan Company” prototypes of CO2-extracts from seeds and a thin skin of different varieties grapes are obtained. Installation differs included in its scheme of the generator of an electromagnetic field of the low frequency that allows to intensify process of extraction of valuable components by 1,2–1,3 times. Process of CO2-extraction was carried out at a temperature of 20–25°C, pressure of 6,4 MPa, duration of process of 180 min. The yield of CO2-extracts averaged 4,3%. The fatty acids composition of CO2-extracts from grapes seeds is defined. Possibility of their use as a natural food additive is established. The amino acids composition of CO2-meal of seeds of grapes of variety “Pervenets Magaracha” is investigated. Rather high contents in it irreplaceable amino acids is revealed. Research on enrichment by the obtained CO2-meal of meat and fish pastes and forcemeats is conducted. It is established that introduction of the specified additive allows not only to balance amino acids structure of these products, but also it is essential to reduce their prime cost.Keywords: grapes, by-products of grapes processing, grape seeds, husks of grapes, CO2-extract.
Researches of features of joint enzymatic hydrolysis of proteins of haricot and fish raw materials are conducted. It is established that haricot consists of two main globulins. Enzymatic bioconversion of protein of haricot and fish raw materials in the tight bioreactor is carried out. The ratio of vegetable and fish raw materials in the bioreactor made: flour from haricot of 30%, the cut carcass of small fry of 30%, secondary resources of cutting of a carp, a whitefish and a trout of 40%. The influence multi-enzymatic a proteolytic complex on hydrolysis depth is investigated. Size regulation рН by means of gaseous dioxide of carbon is carried out. Optimum value рН process of hydrolysis makes 6,1, and the temperature optimum fluctuates from 30 to 45°C; the maximum value of extent of hydrolysis of proteins of haricot is observed in 550 min at рН 3,5 and temperature of 45°C. It is established that use of the processing methods allowing by production of proteinaceous fish-vegetable of hydrolysis to displace temperature and рН to optimum values for effect of proteolytic enzymes, expediently.Keywords: enzymatic hydrolysis, haricot proteins, fish raw material proteins, multi-enzymatic proteolytic complex, bioconversion of protein, carbon dioxide.