The modern data on the dietary fibers (DF) of vegetable raw materials, their action on an organism caused by the DF various properties are analysed. Various classifications of DF from vegetable raw materials are given: on raw sources, on chemical structure, on allocation methods from raw materials; ways of their obtaining are considered. The physical and chemical and technological properties DF and their influence on technical and qualitative characteristics on foodstuff with DF are analysed. Various vegetable raw sources of obtaining DF are considered: wheat grain, sugar beet, citrus fruits; the special attention is paid to by-products of processing of vegetable raw materials: to production wastes of juice, beet bagasse. Features of use of DF depending on their physical and chemical and technological properties in different foodstuff, in particular, in bakery and flour confectionery, for increase of their biological value, enrichment by vitamins and mineral substances are shown.Keywords: dietary fibers, vegetable raw materials, enrichment of food, by-products of processing of vegetable raw materials.
Table of contents for # 5-6 (341-342), 2014
Economics of Food Industry
Social and economic and technological aspects at stages of preparation, acceptance and processing of oil raw materials
The questions of various branches integration of the agrarian and industrial complexes (AIC) connected with cultivation, harvesting, transportation, storage and processing of agricultural oil raw materials are considered. It is shown that increase of production efficiency demands optimization of interaction of all links of AIC on the basis of financial and economic relationship between structural divisions of production and consumption of oil raw materials and quality control of operations at all stages of technological process. Improvement of productive and economic communications in an oil and fat subcomplex, first of all, has to be directed on reduction of losses of raw materials and preservation of its quality. It can be reached due to rationalization of raw streams and transport communications, improvement of preparations system of agricultural production, increase of efficiency of oil raw materials processing. The possible directions of a solution of the problem of reduction of losses of raw materials and end products in the course of production of vegetable oil are offered due to optimization and coherence of terms and duration of harvesting of oilseeds taking into account their technological properties – humidity, dirtiness, oil content; climatic conditions; technologies and organizations harvesting and transportation. By improvement of system of acceptance, underworking, storage and processing of seeds of sunflower it is possible to achieve reduction of losses of useful substances of seeds that will increase quality of vegetable oil manufactured from them. The proposed technical and economic solutions will allow to reduce prime cost of finished goods also.Keywords: oil raw materials, system of raw materials preparation, processing of sunflower seeds, quality of vegetable oil, economic effect.
Food Raw Materials & Ingredients
The processing prospects chick-pea with obtained chick-pea flour from the raw materials which have been grown up in the Saratov region are considered. The data on cultivated areas and crop volumes chick-pea in the Saratov region during 2009–2013, increases in the specified indicators showing a tendency are submitted. These activities of trypsin inhibitors for chick-pea varieties “Krasnokutsky 28”, “Privo-1”, “Krasnokutsky 123”, testifying are given that carrying out an inactivation or destruction of trypsin inhibitors when processing chick-pea it isn’t required. The chick-pea whole-milled flour and flour from the beans cleared of covers chick-pea is in laboratory conditions obtained. Researches results of physical and chemical indicators of the obtained flour and by-product – covers of the beans which are perspective raw materials for production of food fibers are presented. It is established that prevailing fractions of a flour from chick-pea beans are starched and proteinic. It allows to use it as an enriching protein-bearing additive in compoundings of various food systems. The high content of proteins and the polysaccharides capable to swelling, define high moisture-holding properties of a chick-pea flour. The perspective directions of application of chick-pea flour are analysed. The technical standard document TU 9293–005–05286136–2014 “Chickpeas flour” have been developed, approved and registered, based on the investigation results.Keywords: chick-pea flour, fortified and functional foods, anti-nutritional substances.
The researches results of technological properties of the vegetable preparation “Hips (powder)” (HP) for the purpose of studying of its use possibility in compounding of fatty stuffing for wafer products for increase of its nutrition value are presented. Moisture-bound and fat-bound abilities of vegetable preparation HP, and also influence of various dosages of a preparation on adhesive characteristics of a stuffing for wafers were investigated. It is established that moisture-bound ability of vegetable preparation HP reaches the maximum value at temperature of 25°C, fat-bound ability increases before achievement of temperature of 65°C. The maximum extent of swelling of vegetable preparation HP in water of 195% is reached on the 35th min, in fat – on the 30th min; swelling speed in water makes 2,7% a minute, in fat – 0,8% a minute. Force of separation of a stuffing from a wafer sheet increases with introduction of a vegetable preparation that is caused by plasticity increase; at increase of preparation dosage higher than 5% force of a separation starts decreasing.Keywords: vegetable preparation from hips, wafer products, stuffing for wafers, technological properties of stuffing.
Chemistry of Food Products & Materials
The rape seeds different from seeds of other oil-bearing crops rather high protein content can be a perspective source of food protein of a phytogenesis. Application of food protein additives promotes not only to increase of nutrition and biological value of products, but also formation of their structural and plastic properties. Therefore development of ways of receiving protein additives with the set functional and technological properties is actual. In work results of researches of a chemical composition and functional and technological properties of the protein products obtained from rape seeds of perspective varietes of modern selection are presented: summer rape of variety “Tavrion” and winter rape of variety “Meteor”, grown up in soil climatic conditions of Krasnodar region in 2012–2013. Features of fractional structure of a protein complex of rape seeds of the studied varietes are investigated. Protein and lipid fractions of various fineness from rape seeds of variety “Meteor” are obtained, their chemical composition and functional and technological properties are investigated. It is established that high-quality features of rape seeds and type of a protein product obtained from seeds significantly influence its chemical composition and functional and technological properties that it is necessary to consider when using food protein and lipid products as additives in production of bakery, meat and other products.Keywords: rape seeds, protein products from rape seeds, functional and technological properties, enrichment of food.
Features of production are considered and research of phase structure of the natural and cryomodification starch manufactured from rice grain of variety Akmarzhan is conducted. The analysis of granulometric composition of native rice starch is made. It is established that it has an amorphous and crystal structure. Cryomodification of rice starch carried out by freezing at –70°C. Degree of crystallinity of the modified samples of starch is defined. Under the influence of freezing the morphological and phase structure of rice starch essentially changes. There is a full destruction of starched granules. Changes of phase structure of starched paste of rice starch testifies that there is its retrogradation (the form of transition dissolved starched polysaccharides in the insoluble form as a result of their aggregation at freezing and thawing).Keywords: rice starch, starch cryomodification, phase structure, starch granules, retrogradation of starch.
Addiction blackberry’s chemical composition and antioxidant activity from variety and drying methods
It was investigated blackberries growing in the Samara region. Selection of local raw materials associated with the greatest economic benefit to the production, including to support local producers. Fresh blackberry samples of five species (Natchez, Gaj, Polar, Thornfree, Chester) harvest in 2013 from the collection of Balabaev L.V. smallholdings compared among themselves and with wild collected in the Samara region. It was considered the results of studies the chemical composition (total phenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins) and antioxidant activity (antioxidant system activity lenolic acid, the restoring force method FRAP, antiradical activity). The chemical composition of wild blackberry competes with varietal, but their antioxidant properties less pronounced than varietal blackberry. Blackberry was dried 2 ways (convection and infrared methods). It was studied for similar parameters. As a result of studies have concluded that it is advisable to dryness blackberry any of the presented methods. The research results argue that the blackberries growing in the Samara region, is a promising material for the food production with antioxidant properties.Keywords: blackberry, chemical composition of blackberry, antioxidant activity, convection drying, infrared drying.
The comparison of experimental titration curves of the initial and diluted table wines with alcohol addition is carried out. It is established that percentage of wine щ rectilinearly depends on time of pH change on an interval from 7 to 8 units. The corresponding correlation equation of a look щ = bДt – a. The statistical assessment of an error from the accuracy of parameters a and b is given. It is shown that wine dilution by alcohol-water mix with addition of wine acid practically has no impact on the accuracy of determination of percentage of original wine. The analysis of 30 samples of domestic and import wines showed that value of parameter b varies within 2%. The obtained results of researches can be used in techniques by determination of wine authenticity.Keywords: table wines, wine dilution, determination of wine authenticity.
It is known that the introduction of marine invertebrates extracts at meat stuffing recipe products increases the retention period. Protein-containing additives used in the food industry with the aim of increasing the biological value and improve the technological properties of products. Previously it was shown that the introduction extracts of marine invertebrates at meat stuffing recipe products contributed to the increase of term of storage of biological values. Development of formulations of meat stuff combined products is one of the ways of creation of new food products with functional purpose. On the basis of organoleptic evaluation justified making some tissues of aquatic organisms in meat stuffing recipe products in the amount of: cucumaria – 3%; corbicula – 1%; ascidia – 2%. Making tissues of aquatic organisms influenced the increase of dynamic viscosity and strength of products. The reason of increase of the values of dynamic indicators is different content of collagen proteins characteristic of the tissues of aquatic organisms and, as a consequence, the dynamic viscosity. Making the recipe stuffing products tissues of cucumaria allows to prolong the shelf life of products to 9 days. Sublimated ascidians tissue possessed the most effective bacteriostatic properties. Studies perspectivity of use of aquatic organisms tissues in the technology of meat stuffing products are shown.Keywords: stuffing products, protein-containing additives, tissues marine invertebrates, rheological parameters.
The results of development of production technology semi-finished product in the form of paste from root crops of the table beet allowing as much as possible to keep all native components of initial raw materials are presented. The steam way of cleaning of root crops allows to reduce raw materials losses. The block diagram of production of paste from table beet is provided. The technology of production paste is approved under manufacturing conditions at cannery in the Voronezh region. The chemical composition of paste from table beet with the maintenance of a mass fraction of solids of 42% is defined, degree of satisfaction of daily requirement for feedstuffs is calculated. At the use of 100 g of product it makes: in food fibers – 37,5%, in potassium, magnesium and iron – 33; 15,8 and 26,9% respectively. Paste from table beet can be used as a semi-finished product in the confectionery, baking, food concentrates industry for obtaining products of the raised nutrition value, and also in the form of a ready-made product instead of jam and fruit paste.Keywords: table beet, nutrition value, semi-finished product from table beet.
Influence of thermal treatment on structural-mechanical properties and nutrition value of semi-finished products from jerusalem artichoke tubers
For the purpose of definition of a rational way of preparation of Jerusalem artichoke tubers for use in production of the formed culinary products investigated influence of thermal treatment by traditional way (blanching in water) and thermal treatment in convection steamer on structural-mechanical properties, and also on the contents irreplaceable food nutrients in a semi-finished product from Jerusalem artichoke tubers. It is established that rational way of preparation of tubers of a Jerusalem artichoke tubers for use in production of the formed culinary products is thermal treatment in convection steamer lasting 5 min. Thus tubers are characterized not by watery moderately soft and strong structure, have average values of deformation. Thanks to features of technological process of thermal treatment in convection steamer – to a constant temperature mode and the maximum saturation by steam of a working chamber – is uniform heating of a product that promotes faster softening of fabrics, and also reduction of duration and decrease in temperature of thermal treatment is carried out. The samples processed in convection steamer owing to sparing thermal impact on a product have higher nutrition value, than the samples scalded in the traditional way. It is established that losses of vitamins when blanching in convection steamer are 10–15% lower, than at thermal treatment of tubers in water.Keywords: Jerusalem artichoke tubers, structural and mechanical properties, nutrition value, blanching, deformation, duration of thermal treatment.
Intensification of drying process of fruits and seeds papaya at the combination of microwave and solar energy
The scheme of the combined laboratory installation for the microwave- and solar-drying of vegetable raw materials is submitted. Installation consists of three main blocks: generator of microwave energy, generator of solar energy and block of giving and reception of inert gas (argon). Dried-up product is as much as possible protected from oxidation, also synergetic effect of technological modes of drying guarantees the absence of undesirable micro flora in the finished product. Physical-chemical researches of products of the combined drying showed the best preservation in them of nutrients and vitamins, than in dried up by a traditional way – convective drying. Results of research of a chemical composition of pulp of fruits and the seeds of the papaya which have been dried up in various ways are given. It is established that structural-mechanical changes of cages in objects of drying are less expressed at microwave drying and much less at solar drying. The conducted researches confirmed practical and economic feasibility of use combined by the microwave and solar energy for drying of products of processing of a papaya at preliminary short-term microwave processing of raw materials at 80–90°C with the subsequent drying at a temperature of 30–60°C that allowed to reduce drying time to 3 h and to lower energy consumption.Keywords: pulp of papaya fruits, seeds of papaya, the microwave energy, inert gas, solar energy, combined drying.
The results of technology development of obtaining powdery substitute of coffee from raw materials of a phytogenesis of the Kaliningrad region are presented. In researches also set a task of possibility of use of developed drink in diet of diabetic food. As raw materials for drink the Jerusalem artichoke tubers containing in the structure fructooligosaccharides and inulin were chosen. The chemical composition of raw materials, semi-finished products and quality of finished goods determined by the standard methods. The technology of preparation of Jerusalem artichoke tubers, including a fermentation, drying and frying of the crushed material is developed. Fermentation after cleaning of tubers and crushing carried out dry and damp in the ways. Drying of the fermented material carried out at a temperature of 80–90°C to humidity 10% with further frying. Sparing impact on raw materials, the maximum preservation of valuable nutrients and formation of organoleptic characteristics of a product due to melanoidins formation process chose so that to provide a mode of frying. Results of definition of chemical composition of raw materials and ready-made product are presented. Optimum modes of duration of a fermentation are established. On the basis of researches results the technological scheme of production of new substitute of coffee “Bietola” is offered. Recommendations about the use of new product taking into account existence in its composition of inulin are developed.Keywords: coffee substitute, Jerusalem artichoke, inulin, fermentation of vegetable raw materials, chemical composition of product.
Production of fast-restored natural food additives demands application of modern technologies of low-temperature drying, superthin homogenization of fruit and berry raw materials. Grades of fruits and berries – apricots, a sea-buckthorn, black currant, pumpkin and the apples growing in the foothill regions of Dagestan, suitable for production of cryo-powders are selected. The technology of cryo-crushing of the dried-up products in the environment of liquid nitrogen is developed. The technological production line of natural food additives in the form of cryo-powders is improved. Influence of temperature of scalding on the content of vitamins and activity of enzymes of raw materials is estimated, modes of an inactivation of oxidation-reduction enzymes are established by various ways of scalding. The way of ultrasonic drying of fruit and berry raw materials in a microwave field with the subsequent final drying in the helio-dryer is offered. Drying of fruits and berries in ultrasonic chamber takes place at lower temperature in comparison with drying in an ordinary drying camera with an atmospheric pressure and smaller thermal load of raw materials. Productivity of the ultrasonic drying chamber higher in comparison with the convective dryer. It is established that when drying fruit and berry raw materials in ultrasonic drying chamber not only cost of drying in comparison with drying in vacuum and infra-red dryers decreases, but also higher quality of drying of raw materials is provided.Keywords: drying of fruits and berries, natural food additives, cryo-powders, low-temperature drying, infra-red dryer.
For improvement of stability and organoleptic properties wines are important for heat treatment of raw materials and wine materials. Use of rather low temperatures causes the deep physical and chemical and biochemical processes which part in usual conditions are similar to maturing and wine aging. Possibility of use of infra-red (IR) radiation for improvement of quality and stability of grape wines is investigated. Wine materials from grapes of grades of Saperavi and Rkatsiteli were object of research. Key parameters of IR-radiation are determined by previously made program and a technique, optimum technological modes of process are established: density of radiation is 0,45 kW/m2, distance between wine material and IR-generators of 20 cm, duration of process 72–78 s, a type of radiation – bilateral, continuous. Results of definition of physical and chemical and organoleptic indicators control and prototypes of wines testify that the wine materials processed in the field of IR of beams, surpass the wine materials received after a classical method of heat treatment. Processing by IR-radiation allows to reduce process duration, most to keep valuable substances of raw materials in the processed product, to increase stability of ready grape wines.Keywords: heat treatment of wine materials, infra-red radiation, radiation density, physical and chemical indicators of wines, stability of wine.
The results of researches on development of new type of wafers – SPA-wafers are presented. SPA-wafers are specially made for use at water procedures for the purpose of achievement of the maximum relax and for the general tonic action. The mineral water which is their part thanks to the curative properties well influences health, raises a tone. The structure of SPA-wafers includes wafer sheets and stuffing. Enter a compounding of wafer sheets: semi-finished product from vegetable raw materials (mix of wheat flour and oat bran), the sweetening agent – stevioside, powdered milk, phospholipid product, melange, food salt, mineral water; in stuffing compounding: flavoring filler – mix of stevioside, the crushed cola nut and vegetable oil in the ratio on weight 1 : 25 : 70, dry whey, soy lecithin. At an assessment of quality of finished products physical and chemical indicators of the control were determined by standard techniques and skilled is exemplary. The experimental model of SPA-wafers prepared with addition of functional ingredients on the main indicators differ from control sample, in them completely there is no saccharose, protein content is twice higher, also they possess the antioxidant and tonic properties due to introduction to compounding of cola nut and phospholipid product “Feis”.Keywords: SPA-wafers, oat bran, stevioside, phospholipid product.
The technology is improved and the technological line is developed for processing of gymnospermous pumpkin seeds of variety “Styrian oil” for produce pumpkin oil and valuable high-protein cake which can be used as an additive in food of functional purpose. The main technical characteristics, important are investigated when processing seeds of pumpkin. Their chemical composition from the point of view of the biological value of obtained products is defined. In advanced technology for the purpose of increase of its efficiency when frying seeds heat treatment by IR-radiation is used. Key parameters of process are established, thermo-denaturation influence by IR-radiation on change of solubility of group composition of proteins of pumpkin seeds is revealed. The offered technological line of processing of gymnospermous pumpkin seeds of variety “Styrian oil” includes stages of cleaning of pumpkin seeds from weed impurity, the convective drying which is carried out in the developed dryer, heat treatments of seeds by IR-radiation, an oil extraction on a press extruder, primary purification of oil.Keywords: gymnospermous pumpkin seeds of variety “Styrian oil”, chemical composition of pumpkin seeds, IR-radiation, technological line of pumpkin seeds processing.
Seeds of a lupine possess a number of advantages before other bean cultures, they are source of protein with all irreplaceable amino acids, в-carotene, food fibers, oligosaccharides, oils, fat-soluble vitamins and pro-vitamins, mineral substances. Influence of an additive of flour from lupine seeds on quality of bread from wheat flour of general purpose is investigated. Influence of various dosages of a flour from lupine seeds on quality of bread estimated by results of trial laboratory pastries. It is established that flour addition from lupine seeds to 5% to the mass of a flour probably without deterioration of the main indicators of quality of bread. At higher dosages improvement of technology or joint introduction with other additives is necessary.Keywords: flour from lupine seeds, food additives, flour of general purpose, product enrichment, quality of bread.
The seeds of new varieties – Berezansky, Peresvet, Albatross – and hybrids – Hermes (domestic selection) and Ferti (foreign selection) – sunflower are investigated. Their technological properties playing an important role in processes of processing are defined: the weight of 1000 pieces of seeds, volume weight, mass fraction of husk, and also mass fraction of the oil containing in seeds and husk. It is shown that seeds of modern varieties and hybrids of sunflower are characterized by the improved technological properties. It is established that the fatty-acid composition of oils from seeds of modern varieties of sunflower considerably differs from indicators of oils from seeds of traditional varieties. The content of oleic acid significantly increased in oils at simultaneous decrease in the contents linoleic that more approaches them to oils with optimum fatty-acid composition. Seeds of new varieties of sunflower can be carried to olein-linoleic type. Oils from seeds of new hybrids of sunflower are characterized by the high content of oleic acid that gives the chance to carry these seeds to oleic type. The advantage of seeds of new selection varieties and hybrids of sunflower is rather high contents of tocopherols in the oils developed from them – from 66,69 to 96,67 mg/100 g oil. The greatest contents of tocopherols characterized by oils from hybrid seeds Hermes and variety Berezansky. The high contents of tocopherols increases the vitamin value of oils and their durability to oxidation.Keywords: sunflower seeds, technological properties of sunflower seeds, oil from sunflower seeds, fatty-acid composition of oil, oleic acid, linoleic acid, tocopherols.
The researches results of possibility of sorbent creation of flax seeds products processing for the purpose of its use for restoration of transformer oils are presented. Hydrophilic ability of the modified and not modified proteins of flax seeds is investigated; search of options of the modifications directed on increase of water-retaining ability of a studied material is carried out; practical possibility of creation of sorbent with introduction in its structure of protein products of oilcakes and extraction cakes of flax seeds and other oil-bearing crops is studied. On the basis of researches results of influence of hydrolysis and a thermal denaturation on a protein complex of oilseeds two ways of the directed modification of native seeds proteins of the flax at stage of their preparation for processing are developed: by limited hydrolysis and germination of seeds during 48 h and by a thermal denaturation of seeds. Biochemical modified protein products with the improved functional properties are as a result obtained. Schematic diagrams of ways of structural modification of proteins of flax seeds are submitted. It is established that the received modified protein products possess higher water-retaining ability and can be used as a compound of sorbents for restoration of transformer oils.Keywords: flax seeds products processing, sorbents, hydrophilic ability of proteins, water-retaining ability, thermal denaturation of proteins.
The results of development of technology of gentle drying of the fruit raw materials providing fuller saving of the initial contents of valuable components at the expense of use of energy of a pulse electromagnetic field are presented. For researches the compact drying installation allowing at the same time to dry diverse types of fruit raw materials is designed; rational modes of removal of moisture from raw materials with use of the vacuum microwave dryer are developed; the choice of processing methods of preparation of raw materials and drying duration are proved. As raw materials used apricots, pears, plums and grapes of seedless. Drying modes for the sliced raw materials in the range from 35 to 65°C are established. Influence of two ways of drying – convective and vacuum – on change of physical and chemical and biochemical characteristics of processed raw materials is investigated. Ranges of process parameters of moisture removal are set: density of a radiant stream is from 1,2 to 12 kW/m2, temperature is 35–65°C, depth of vacuum 1,99 • 104 Pa, speed of movement of air of 0,3–0,8 m/s. The obtained results show that vacuum microwave drying allows to lower extent of degradation of biochemical structure in the course of removal of moisture from raw materials in comparison with drying under usual atmospheric conditions. Possibility of decrease in humidity of vegetable raw materials to critical at the expense of a combination of effects of vacuum and electromagnetic processing to the minimum losses of nutrition and biological value of initial raw materials is experimentally proved.Keywords: drying of vegetable raw materials, convective microwave drying of fruits, drying speed, rate of dehydration.
The analysis of researches of water properties with the modified isotope compositions and its influences on live organisms and various technological processes, in particular, on gas-production property and baking strength yeast, germinating seeds and growth rate of plants is carried out. Various ways of isotope separation of hydrogen are described: gas and liquid diffusion, gas and aerodynamic separation, distillation and electrolysis. The special attention is paid to the most economic of them. The results of development by authors of way production water with the modified isotope compositions, based on different temperature freezing point of heavy and light water at the expense of what from drinking water the fraction with the raised contents of a deuterium is taken are presented. Light protium water with the residual contents of a deuterium of 115 mg/dm3 is as a result received. The directions of use of light water in various technological processes of production of foodstuff are offered.Keywords: water with the modified isotope compositions, light water, content of deuterium in water.
Processes & Apparatus
Optimization of thermal treatment process of carrot pulp in the production of carrot direct extraction juice
In this paper, investigations were carried out to study the effects of heat treatment of shredded carrots on qualitative and technological characteristics of carrot direct extraction juice. The apparatus of mathematical experiment planning was used in the study. Content of vitamin-like substances and yield of carrot juice, obtained with different modes of thermal processing of carrots with defined degree of pulping, were rated out. As a result of the research and mathematical data processing the model of heat treatment of carrot pulp was received in as a regression equation of the second order. The reproducibility of the experiment was conducted, the adequacy of the polynomial was evaluated. The described model make possible to determine the optimal temperature and duration of the thermal processing of carrot pulp. Obtained data are scientifically proven and can be used in forecasting technological and qualitative characteristics of carrot juice in its production.Keywords: carrot juice, pulp, thermal processing, mathematical planning, optimal parameters.
The process of pulse-width control for the oven with a gas heating release in the food industry, concerning baking, takes into account the temperature of the baking chamber during the experimental baking, obtaining data from measuring sensors which are mounted there. Since the process of warming up the baking chamber requires raising the temperature of the heating gas to create a temperature gradient, the temperature of the test piece of dough increases due to deviation of temperature, as a consequence of which the surface of dough quickly loses moisture and overheats. This paper presents a method of accounting for the characteristics of the baking oven at implementation of its temperature control sequence. The result of the analysis of industrial ovens established that baking in ovens primarily uses heat which is accumulated by the fillers and armature of the oven. The process of baking in the oven starts with products that have the highest baking temperature followed by those with a gradual decrease of temperature. Тhe next challenge of baking is only to maintain the temperature zones. This means that the use of standard control laws cannot be implemented autonomously as a result of significant thermal capacity and limitations of temperature gradient within oven chambers. Specification of accumulative capacity of the oven is represented by differential operators of temperature characteristics. Structural change of the model is implemented by the use of reference points. The technique is applicable to thermal processing of products in a convective oven heating raw materials, whose characteristics are significantly dependent on application of gradient temperatures during a heat transfer. This particular case of application of the methodology is the changing of baking zones temperature.Keywords: oven, accumulative capacity, assortment of production, temperature gradient, automation control.
Paper is to define the permissible air velocities in convective drying of wild berries. As the object of the investigation used berries honeysuckle, shadberries and cowberries with a moisture content of 85,2; 74,5 and 84,3% respectively. Used range of air temperatures ranged from 50 to 80°C in increments of 10°C. By calculation determined the critical air velocity for fresh berries. Speed of onset of fluidization is about 1,85–2,0 m/s for honeysuckle and shadberry and 1,16–1,2 m/s for the cowberries. The rate at which the product is possible carryover 16,6–18,1 m/s for honeysuckle and shadberry and 11,4–11,9 m/s for the cowberries. Experiments on convective drying of wild berries, set the time of dehydration and determined the change in the size of the berries as moisture removal. Based on the research determined the critical air velocity for wild berries with the volumetric shrinkage of the product at different air temperatures. Permissible air velocity for convective drying of berries in the fluidising bed are recommended: for honeysuckle and shadberry – 3–9 m/s, for cowberry – 2–6 m/s at temperatures from 50 to 80°C. These experimental results may be useful in the development of appropriate technologies of convective drying berry raw materials.Keywords: convective drying, drying of berries, fluidization, critical speed.
An engineering method for calculating the time of cooking corn grits, proved on the basis of data on the cooking of corn and wheat groats in a production environment for the two-stage scheme as well as low temperature according to the cooking of wheat grits, made in accordance with NTP 10–12976–2000*, and the data of low-temperature cooking of highly enzymatic mixtures of barley grits, obtained under laboratory conditions. Checking engineering calculation method is based on the comparison of the obtained results on it with the simulation results by rigorous mathematical models of cooking grits obtained by numerically solving the equation of unsteady diffusion method of grids for the implicit scheme, taking into account changes in temperature, the phenomenon of swelling of the starch granules and their rupture, accompanied by separation tenderize the outer layer of the particles. The proposed empirical relationship presented a quadratic equation ф = Aд2, where ф – of cooking time, min; д – particle size of corn grits, mm. The numerical value of the proportionality coefficient A may be determined by one experimental point A = ф/д2. As this experimental point is done in the grinding grits with the degree corresponding to a 90% passage through a sieve of 1 mm diameter. Estimated particle size of groats is then equal to 1 mm. It is shown that the estimates of the quadratic dependence on the size of the length of cooking corn grits are in satisfactory agreement with the experimental results.Keywords: grain groats, time of cooking, method of calculating the time of cooking.
Expressions are obtained for the calculation of the coefficients of the activity of the components of the binary mixtures “ethanol–triglycerides” which can be used in the determination of composition of the extracts in the processes of extraction and separation. The results of calculation of oil solubility in ethanol on the phase equilibrium equations and expressions for the activity coefficients showed that the mean relative error fat solubility in ethanol is 8,1% and the error calculation of the solubility of alcohol to triglycerides is less than 10%, with a solubility of 0,2–2% of the mass in the temperature range 313–338 K.Keywords: oil, ethanol, solubility, activity of mix components.
Food Engineering, Processes, Equipment & Automation of Food Production
Mixing devices are widely used in most of the chemical and technological processes of food productions. The most known devices are classic rotational mixing devices. A number of papers devoted to researches of more perspective vibromixing devices. Proposed using reciprocating rotational mixing devices, which differ from classic rotational and vibromixing devices by higher intensity and equability of mixing, and missing vertical vibration. The structural synthesis of complex reciprocating rotational mixing device actuator using structural mathematical models of mechanisms and machines is presented. Complex mechanism satisfies the conditions of the synthesis. It consists of two connected simple mechanisms: a crank-rocker mechanism and the gear. Crank-rocker mechanism converts the rotational motion of the crank into reciprocating rotational motion of the rocker. The gear transmits the motion to the shafts with the working bodies. The use of gear produces a set of reciprocating rotational mixing devices structural schemes that differ in the number of working bodies and their location. The advantage of the proposed mechanisms are that they are formed from a well-known, well-established and highly reliable devices, have no vertical vibration and use standard gaskets. Also proposed reciprocating rotational mixing devices have well configured throughout the reactor volume working bodies, that create required heat and mass transfer.Keywords: actuator, reciprocating rotational mixing device, working body, structural synthesis, structural mathematical model.
The possibility of increase of fire and explosion safety of elevator complex at arrangement of the fan of aspiration network before cyclone is investigated. For the analysis of possible emergencies failures and events trees are constructed. Three initial events which modernization can be the most effective from the point of view of safety are as a result marked out. Actions for increase of fire and explosion safety of aspiration network of elevator complex are developed. Introduction of the offered actions will reduce probability of equipment failures and emergencies, will increase reliability of an aspiration network.Keywords: grain processing enterprises, elevator, fire and explosion safety, dust explosions, grain dust, air duct, aspiration network.
Calculation of parameters of metering device for the intensification of regulatory process of solution concentration
The results of development of the metering device for obtaining solutions with different concentration of components are presented. The scheme of the device is given. The mechanism of its work, including preparatory operations is described. Calculation of parameters of the developed metering device is carried out. The device allows quickly and stepless to regulate the mass of liquid in solution, providing the necessary level of concentration of each component.Keywords: liquid metering device, concentration of solution, liquid consumption rate.
Methods of Investigation, Quality & Safety of Food Products
Influence of the multienzyme complex condition of heart muscles of perching ducks on quality indicators of obtained meat
The researches results of influence of the contents of microelements in a diet of perching ducks on a condition of kinetic properties of a 2-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDC) in a cardiac muscle are stated. At a lack of an organism of microelements (selenium, cobalt, iodine, manganese) KGDC, obviously, is functionally less perfect at the level of the first and second components of a complex, but at the same time possesses signs of positive cooperativity of the active centers of the third component which however doesn’t limit the speed of total process of oxidizing decarboxylation 2-ketoglutarate. The obtained results testify that inclusion in a diet of ducks of premix with the stabilized microelements in the form of salts of iodine, cobalt, selenium and manganese positively influences morphological and biochemical indicators of blood of perching ducks, and also meat productivity: live weight, muscular weight, commodity assessment of carcasses.Keywords: perching ducks, microelements, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, cardiac muscle, meat productivity.
The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used for the production of top-fermenting beers. This type of yeast will have provided a rich range of sensory characteristics depending of the technology. In work results of comparative research of various strains of top-fermenting yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the purpose of detection of their features and a choice of technological parameters of each strain use are presented. 5 strains examined dry compressed yeast Safbrew WB-06 (France), Safbrew S-33 (France) Safale S-04 (France), Coopers (Australia), Munich (Denmark). The main technological characteristics on yeast are defined, their activity during fermentation is investigated. Parameters, fermentation and storage conditions are selected. The organoleptic evaluation of the obtained samples of top-fermenting beer is given. Recommendations about use of the studied strains of yeast are submitted. The WB-06 strain showed the best organoleptic and technological characteristics, also marked with a fruity aroma strains S-04 and Coopers and with the pure taste Munich. Strain S-33 proves to be the quickest fermented. These will make the selection of the preferred yeast strain without material and time costs, and get a beer with the expected taste aromatic profile.Keywords: top-fermenting yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, wheat beer, brewing, organoleptic evaluation.
When developing innovative technologies of food of a functional purpose it is necessary to consider competitiveness of developed products in the market, their compliance to requirements of the consumer. Within system functioning “science and education – production – market” is offered to expand the list of the factors forming quality of the new foodstuff (NF) at a development stage, and to add factors “idea” and “shots” to known earlier – “raw materials”, “demand”. The model of formation of the consumer properties (CP) and expansion of the assortment NF is presented. On the basis of the developed model influence of the offered factors on formation of CP of fruit and berry syrups is investigated. As object of researches “Kalinovy” syrup is chosen. For detection of the importance and ranging of the traditional and entered factors used cognitive modeling. It is shown that at introduction of the new factors forming CP of syrups, parametrization of these factors, and also selection of techniques is necessary for an assessment. Expediently also at a design NF stage carrying out an assessment of innovative potential of the enterprises enabling the realization of the project.Keywords: syrups, formation of product properties, cognitive models, assessment of factors, innovative potential.
The results of complex researches on definition of influence of various brands antiscales on a scale formation on evaporation of the cleared diffusive juice of beet sugar production and quality of received syrups are presented. The most famous brands antiscales are investigated: S-10, Polystabil VZK, DEFOSCALE VZK and KEBO-DS. The results of monitoring of use antiscales at sugar plants of Krasnodar region are presented. The analysis of the main characteristics investigated antiscales is made. Influence antiscales on the following indicators of syrups is defined: рН, chromaticity, content of sucrose; are defined also filtrational ability of syrups, efficiency of inhibition of scale formation dispersing ability antiscales in terms of active agent. It is established that all investigated antiscales don’t influence falling рН syrups and unaccounted losses of sucrose at evaporation of juice; the greatest dispersing ability possesses antiscale KEBO-DS, smallest – DEFOSCALE VZK; the greatest effect of inhibition of scale formation on salts of calcium possesses antiscale KEBO-DS, smallest – DEFOSCALE VZK; DEFOSCALE VZK has essential impact on decrease in speed of a filtration of syrups; on increase of chromaticity of syrups the smallest impact has antiscale KEBO-DS. The conducted researches showed that the best and approximately identical results showed antiscales KEBO-DS, S-10, Polystabil VZK.Keywords: scale formation, antiscales, efficiency of inhibition of scale formation.
Considered in relation to the interfacial equilibrium of oil and fat, alcohol and sugar beet production. The description of a phase equilibrium in food technology are previously developed theories based on the methods of statistical physics. The experimental and calculated equilibrium data in the “porous solid – liquid” on the extraction of oil from oil-bearing material (sunflower petal, sunflower grains, granules from the seeds of the castor bean) hydrocarbon solvent (benzene extraction), the extraction of sugar from sugar beet pulp with water to saturate the pumpkin sugar syrup in the production of candied fruits and desorption of ethanol from yeast cells in the mash. It was established that the concentration of the target component at equilibrium in a porous solid and a solvent (liquid) are not equal. Experimental dependence show that the concentration at equilibrium extractable component systems “oilseed material – solvent” above the liquid in the pores of the material (interstitial fluid) as compared with the liquid, washing the material (outer liquid). By contrast, in systems “beet chips – extractant”, “pumpkin pulp – sugar solution”, “yeast alcohol – mash” extractable component concentration above the liquid in the outer than in the pore. This can be explained by the fact that in the case of oilseeds, the solvent is a alien material (the extraction petrol), while in the case of beet chips, candied fruit, and yeast, water (solvent) is a direct participant operation of these environments. This assumption applies to both plant materials and living systems.Keywords: interfacial equilibrium, oilseed material – solvent, beet chips – extractant, pumpkin flesh – sugar solution, alcohol yeast – mash.
The problems of use of a quantitative assessment of quality of first dishes are analysed. The complex criterion of an assessment of quality of culinary dishes on the basis of dimensionless complexes and coefficient of removal of uncertainty of touch estimates is offered. The algorithm of calculation allowing to correct a compounding of a dish towards reduction or increase in its energy value, depending on needs of the consumer is presented.Keywords: mathematical modeling, complex assessment of product quality, optimization of energy value of dishes.
The modes of thermal sterilization of canned compote from apricots with use of preliminary heating of fruits in jar before syrup filling by an electromagnetic field of superhigh frequency (EMF SHF) are developed for fuller preservation of biologically active components of initial raw materials. The technology allows to increase significantly the reference temperature of product before sealing jars, considerably to lower a microbial population of a product by the beginning of process of thermal sterilization, to reduce duration of thermal treatment. The technological scheme of production of compote from apricots in jars of 1 litre with use of preliminary heating of fruits in EMF SHF and rotational and step sterilization is submitted. The compote samples obtained on the developed technology surpassed the samples received with use of traditional thermal sterilization in organoleptic indicators and the content of vitamin C.Keywords: apricots, compotes, tinned foods, sterilization mode, preliminary heating.
The composition of petunia’s corolla volatile aromatic substances complex from set of samples with distinctive flower aroma is defined. It is established that aroma of petunia is defined by difficult mix of 10 components of an aromatic complex of various chemical nature. The prevailing components in group of volatile aromatic substances are methyl acetate and ethyl acetate (on 34%), and also acetaldehyde (about 26%); in group of organic acids – malic acid (84%). In petunia’s corollas the substances potentially capable to cause an allergy in the person aren’t not found.Keywords: petunia, aromatic substances, flower aroma, Solanaceae family.