Food technologyIssues → № 1 (343), 2015

Table of contents for # 1 (343), 2015

Chemistry of Food Products & Materials


Comparative research of grape seeds lipidic complex isolated by mechanical expression and extraction

S.V. Tarasov, V.I. Martovshchuk, Yu.A. Belyaeva

The results of researches of grape seeds lipidic complex of the different varieties of grapes which are grown up in Krasnodar region: Byanko, Riesling, Sauvignon, Muscat are presented. Extraction of a lipidic complex was carried out by an mechanical expression method, extraction by lightly volatile organic solvent and liquid carbon dioxide.The obtained results showed that the composition of the lipidic complex depends on the method of oil production and on the grape variety. The oils produced in the press way, extraction by ethyl oxide and CO2-extract were analysed by method of a thin layer chromatography. It is established that the fatty acid composition of the extracted triglycerides depends only on grapes variety. The content of linoleic acid is influenced only by grapes variety. The fatty acids prevailing in composition are stearic and palmitic from saturated, linoleic and oleinic from nonsaturated. Irrespective of a grapes variety in oil of grape seeds the maximum contents is the linoleic acid. The oils of grape seeds produced in the different ways can be considered as independent products. Press oil can be applied to food without additional refining, and extraction it is necessary to refine. CO2-extract can be recommended for use in the cosmetic industry.

Keywords: grape seeds oil, fatty acid composition of oil, lipidic complex, extraction.

Production, phase analysis of the natural and cryomodification barley starch

Yu.F. Roslyakov, V.V. Litvyak, D.A. Shaymerdenova, G.Kh. Ospankulova, E.V. GrabovskaYa, O.V. Polubotko, I.V. Melsitova

Features of production are considered and research of phase structure of the natural and cryomodification starch manufactured from barley grain of variety Tselinniy is conducted. It is established that native barley starch possesses an amorphous and crystal structure, polymeric chains of this starch are organized in granules. Cryomodification of starch carried out by freezing at –70°C. Degree of crystallinity of the modified samples of starch is defined. At impact of freezing thawing the phase and morphological structure of barley starch significantly changes. These changes indicate effect of retrogradation of barley starch in the course of which the importance belongs to molecules of water and their quantity.

Keywords: barley starch, starch cryomodification, phase structure, starch granules, retrogradation of starch.

Features of chemical composition and antioxidant activity of cherries and products its processing

N.V. Makarova, M.S. Voronina

The research results of chemical composition and antioxidant activity of cherries and products of their processing are presented: puree, concentrated juice and marc received after production of juice. For the analysis of chemical composition and determination of antioxidant activity the following methods were used: measurement of the total content of phenolic substances by Folin–Ciocalteu reactant, the total content of flavonoids and anthocyans, level of radical-trapping antioxidant DPPH (2,2’-diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl), the total antioxidant power on FRAP method and measurement of antioxidant activity in system with linoleic acid. The highest values of contents of phenolic substances, anthocyans and the antioxidant power on FRAP method are revealed in cherries puree. According to the content of flavonoids the best indicators at marc. Antioxidant activity on method with DPPH and in system with linoleic acid in berries is much higher, than in products of their processing. The concentrated juice has low values of the studied indicators. It is established that marc of cherries is perspective source of antioxidants and can be used in technology of foodstuff.

Keywords: cherries, cherries puree, concentrated juice, antioxidant activity.

Species and quantitative composition of surface microorganisms of tropical mango fruits

Yu.F. Mishanin, G.I. Kasyanov, A.A. Zaporozhskiy, V.S. Korobitsyn, J.-F. Karikurubu

Results of microbiological researches of soil and surface of tropical mango fruits are stated. Distinction of species and quantitative composition of microorganisms in the soil and on a surface of mango fruits is established. On fruits the total of colonies of microorganisms was 23,13% less, than in soil; ammonifying bacteria of Bac. mycoides, Bac. mesentericus is 45% less; denitrifying microorganisms of Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa are 3,5 times less; nitrogen-fixing microorganisms of Azotobacter chroococcum and Clostridium pasterianum 5 times smaller; colonies of Actinomices are 2,5 times less; thermophilic microorganisms on a surface of fruits it isn’t revealed. On mangoes allocated more by 33,3% acetic acid fermentation of microorganisms Bact. aceti and Acetobacter aceti, 23,3% of putrefactive microorganisms Bact. herbicola, Bact. subtilis in comparison with indicators of the soil microorganisms. Colony count of butyric acid fermentation Clostridium butiricum and Pseudomonas fluorescens, fungi Aspergillus, Mucor, Penicillium in soil and on surface of mango fruits had no essential quantitative distinctions. The obtained results of microbiological researches of the soil and surface mango fruits need to be considered by production of fruit juice and mashed potatoes that will allow to make safer and qualitative products.

Keywords: mango fruits, species composition of microorganisms, contents of microorganisms in soil.

Investigation on adsorption of polyphenol mix on activated carbons for beer improvement of quality

T.A. Krasnova, N.V. Gora, N.S. Golubeva

The paper deals with the investigation results on adsorption of phenol compounds on activated carbons of different nature. The mix adsorption of gallic acid, quercitin and rutin from water solutions on sorbents of AG-OV-1, ABG and Purolat-Standard grades has been examined. Modifications of received adsorption isotherms have been analyzed and regularities of the extraction process have been established. The comparative analysis of adsorption isotherms of polyphenols from solutions of individual substances and their mix has been carried out. It has been stated that during the adsorption of phenol compounds from solutions containing the polyphenol mix their extraction degree is lower than during the adsorption from solutions of individual substances. It is connected with the interaction of polyphenol mix components and structural features and size of the given phenol compound molecules. It has been shown that apart from the carbon nature the highest adsorption takes place during the quercitin extraction both from solutions of individual substances and from their mix. The main adsorption parameters have been calculated. The parameters obtained – Gibbs energy, characteristic energy, adsorption heat, isotherm form – allow to propose a mechanism of the extraction process of organic substances with sorbents. Adsorption occurs due to Van der Waals’ forces and interaction of functional groups on the activated carbon surfaces with phenol compounds forming hydrogen bonds. Besides, it is possible to form complexes between quercitin, gallic acid and solvent. Taking into account physical, chemical and technological characteristics and cost, semi-coke Purolat-Standard is recommended to improve the quality of beer in brewing industry.

Keywords: wort, polyphenol compound, carbon adsorbents, adsorption.

Mathematical model of equilibrium of citric acid in solutions and its experimental check

O.N. Sheludko, N.K. Strizhov, T.V. Guzik, A.I. Sukhacheva

Studying of regularities of organic acids dissociations in solutions is necessary for justification of approaches to production identification on a certain sign, and also for development of a technique of definition as specific characteristics of some food objects at an assessment of their quality and authenticity, and total of organic and mineral acids in wine, wine drinks. Experimentally and on the basis of the analysis of literary data it is shown that the citric acid (CA), though is on modern representations the three-basic, but in purely water solutions and in the presence of strong electrolytes smoothly titrate without jumps in one step. In work the new model of the dissociation which has shown is offered that experimental data on balance in CA solutions are well described on the basis of that the main form of existence of CA and its anions are dimer, which titrate as hexa-basic acids. The analysis of a configuration of possible structures of the CA dimeric forms in water solutions and their changes in titration process is carried out. The corresponding step constants of dissociation are found and the assessment on change of Gibbs energy upon transition to the subsequent step of dissociation is given.

Keywords: citric acid, dimerization, equilibrium constants, mathematical model, coulometric titration.



New food products using biomass kefir grains

D.V. Zipaev

The research results of quality indicators of novel foods: pickled cheese, wheat bread and whey drink are presented. These foods have been developed using as a component of the formulation of homogenizate biomass kefir grains. The cultivation process was carried out on the developed model medium consisting of whey with a comprehensive mineral supplement. Each product was tested for organoleptic and physico-chemical parameters. Validity periods of the samples brine cheese, wheat bread and whey drink have defined. The developed technology contribute to the wider range of products for diversified food industry enterprises of medium and small capacity, reduce possible losses in primary production and identify ways of using recycled products refinery. Manufactured food successfully has been tested in industrial conditions at the enterprises of the Samara region.

Keywords: biomass kefir grains, pickled cheese, wheat bread, whey drink.

Use features of pectin in the manufacture of confectionery products

G.N. Goryacheva, E.V. Kazantsev, N.B. Kondratev, T.V. Savenkova

In the production of fruit jelly an essential influence on its quality has properties used gel-forming components, in particular pectin. In the process the classical technology of production of marmalade on the pectin is necessary to consider that the gel-forming components are not dissolved in an environment where there are conditions for their gelation. The main problem with the dissolution of pectin, is the agglomerating particles, it is possible to prevent. The aim of this study was to investigate new technology for the production of marmalade masses on pectin using a disperser brand GID-100/1. The receiving container of the dispenser with the water jacket, according to the recipe prepaid desulfited applesauce with sugar, then here is dosed pectin. The mixture is treated at the intensive interaction of the body for mixing with prescription mixture at 5000 rpm for 5 min, after which the dispersant through the dosing funnel added the sugar-treacle syrup prescription solids content of 72% and after 1 min citric acid. Total processing time was 7 min, marmalade mass is molded in silicone moulds, jelly strength 1264 g, pH = 2,92. Studies of the infrared spectrum of the obtained mass show a qualitative description of the interaction of hydroxyl groups from pectin molecules. It has been established that hydroxyl groups of the water, carbonyl and carboxyl groups of pectin more fully interact due to the use of dispersant, which affects the increase in strength marmalade jelly. The proposed technology of production of marmalade with the considered technological methods of preparation of pectin significantly reduce the duration of the production process marmalade mass in comparison with classical technology, increase economic impact and ensure the production of competitive marmalade.

Keywords: pectin, confectionery, dispersant GID-100/1, marmalade, infrared spectroscopy.

Development of technology food additives enriched with flavonoids

V.V. Sadovoy, A.A. Aralina, T.V. Shchedrina

The use of chicory root and grape pomace from red grapes “Levokumsky” for the production of biologically active additive were substantiate. The chemical composition and molecular characteristics of flavonoids berry grape skin were studied. Defined reaction centers of flavonoids and cholesterol, and investigated the mechanisms of their interaction. Technological modes of extraction of flavonoids from grape marc with alcohol-water solutions were established. By the method of molecular docking investigated the interaction probability of inulin with flavonoids. It is found that the interaction of these molecules forms a solid complex compound. The technology of food additives enriched in flavonoids with preventive properties was developed. With laboratory animals bioavailability and safety of the resulting formulation are studied. Inclusion in diet of the developed food additive promotes decrease in level of cholesterol in blood, normalizes metabolism, improve physiological condition of organism. The obtained food additive possesses antioxidant action and can be used for prevention of various diseases, first of all, of the cardiovascular.

Keywords: food additive, flavonoids, inulin, molecular docking, biological value.

Use of stabilizing protein ingredients in production of serum-free cottage cheese products

A.N. Ponomarev, E.I. Melnikova, E.G. Korotkov

Given the shortage of raw milk scientific and practical problem of development and implementation of resource-saving technologies not only relevant, but also tends to expand, because the RF volumes of milk produced annually reduced. The main purpose of research is to create technologies for milk processing, which will maximize the use of composite components of raw milk and get the resulting product with high nutritional and biological value. The authors proposed the use of various stabilization systems technology in serum-free cottage cheese product. We studied the functional and technological properties of the ingredients of protein nature with regard to this technology. It has been established that a concentrate of microparticulated whey proteins characterized better functional and handling properties in comparison with other stabilization systems. Its application allows to enrich the native milk protein product and get a finished product with a homogeneous structure and soft consistency by retaining moisture proteins in the volume of product that prevents separation of serum. Implementation of the technology will expand the range of products on the market demand on the basis of cheese, cut rates of the raw materials in the production of cheese products, as well as simplify the process by eliminating the operation serum separator that simultaneously solves the problem of its disposal.

Keywords: stabilization system, concentrate of microparticulated whey protein, AT-cottage cheese, water-holding capacity, syneresis.

Improvement of frozen crab technology with use of ultrasonic treatment

E.N. Kim, E.P. Lapteva, N.A. Poroshin

The work is devoted to solving the problem of reducing losses in production of frozen products from the Far Eastern species of crab. The aim of the work was to improve the technology of frozen crab based on the use of ultrasound in the treatment of muscle tissue crab polyphosphates. The objectives of the studies was to examine the process of muscle tissue saturation crab polyphosphates and changing their techno-logical characteristics. We used the organoleptic, physico-chemical and mathematical methods of research. Experimentally established effect of intensity ultrasound treatment limbs king crab on the rate of saturation of muscle tissue phosphorus oxide. Shows the total impact of ultrasound and polyphosphates to maintain water-holding capacity of muscle tissue extremities king crab and saving them in vitamin B12 and non-protein nitrogen during thermal processing of raw materials. Established statistical relationships are described by mathematical equations. Set of rational parameters sonication king crab fishery species using polyphosphates are defined. Developed and tested in a production environment technology frozen crab with the use of polyphosphates and ultrasound. Implementation of the developed technology to accelerate the process of saturation of muscle tissue crab phosphorus oxide 18–20 times and increase the yield of frozen crab legs by 4–5%.

Keywords: crab, muscle tissue, polyphosphates, ultrasonic treatment, phosphorus oxide, water-holding capacity, vitamins, non-protein nitrogen, production yield.

Complex processing technologies of tomatoes with use of drying various ways

A.M. Gadzhieva

The periods of storage of tomato production in the natural form are limited. For the purpose improvement of processing tomatoes technology of possibility of their drying at the sparing technological modes allowing to keep as much as possible valuable components of raw materials – food fibers, pectin substances; macro- and microelements, vitamins is analysed. The researches results on development of innovative technologies of complex processing of tomato raw materials with use of electromagnetic fields of the lowest and superhigh frequencies (EMP LF and SHF) and CO2-extractions are presented. It is established that the organization of SHF drying of tomatoes in the environment of inert gas promotes increase of efficiency of process. The technology of drying of tomato raw materials with use of EMP SHF in the environment of nitrogen is developed. The scheme of installation for drying of tomato residue by means of EMP LF and SHF is submitted, the principles of its work are described. The technology of manufacture tomato powder from tomato juice with pulp is developed, its chemical composition is studied. Possibility of use of tomato powder as the enriching additive in compoundings of various food is investigated. The way of production from a dry tomato residue, seeds and thin skin of tomatoes of the CO2-extracts containing significant amount of biologically active agents is developed.

Keywords: tomatoes, dried tomatoes, jerked tomatoes, tomato residue, tomato powder, CO2-extracts, SHF drying.

Extracts manufacture from fruits of wild-growing plants with microwave energy use and their application at production of fruit liqueurs

B.M. Guseynova

Possibility of manufacture high-quality extracts from fruits wild-growing blackberries, sea-buckthorn, mulberry and dogrose is revealed. For the purpose of an extraction intensification from the extracted raw materials of biologically active substances applied preliminary processing of initial raw materials by microwave energy by power 0,5 mW/cm2 with frequency 1667 MHz within 20 min. The extractant was an aqueous solution of ethanol 40% concentration. Ratio raw materials–extractant 1 : 3. Biocomponents yield in extract from the fruits submitted influence of microwaves in comparison with control option (without microwave processing) increased. Concentration of sugars increased on average by 17,5%, titratable acids for 11,6%, phenolic substances for 28,5%, vitamins C and P for 14,3 and 9% respectively. Use of microwave energy promoted also to considerable reduction of extraction time. The produced extracts were used when manufacture new types of multicomponent fruit liqueurs of a functional purpose “Vostochnaya noch” and “Purpurnaya fantaziya”. The fruit liqueurs are balanced on the main nutrients, possess high food and organoleptic properties, have the increased power value.

Keywords: extracts from vegetable raw materials, fruit liqueur, microwave processing, biochemical structure, nutrients.

Use of untraditional raw materials by production of gluten-free wafer crisp bread

N.K. Danovich, I.B. Krasinа, O.I. Kazmina

Perspective types of raw materials for creation of gluten-free foodstuff which not only contain all micronutrients, necessary for human body, but also have good tastes are the phytogenesis ingredients, including the multifunctional food additives received on the basis of secondary raw material resources. Buckwheat flour has higher nutrition value, than wheat, according to the content of vitamins and micronutrients, and also possesses the lowered glycemic index. As raw materials for production of gluten-free wafer crisp bread instead of wheat flour it is offered to use mix of buckwheat flour and powder from grapes seeds in the ratio 1 : 0,3. Technologically functional properties of the obtained mix are investigated. It is established that the highest water connecting ability of mix is shown at temperature from 20 to 50°C. For definition of possibility of dough preparation for wafer crisp bread with use of buckwheat flour and powder from grape seeds influence of mix on formation of structure of dough was defined. Initial durability of structure, or structural viscosity, dough for wafer crisp bread depends on concentration of firm phase in water suspension. By means of an applied mathematical Statistica package parameters of optimization of structure and conditions of dough preparation for the gluten-free wafer crisp breads are established. The assessment of organoleptic and physical and chemical indicators the gluten-free wafer crisp breads manufactured on the basis of buckwheat flour and powder from grape seeds showed that these products don’t concede to the traditional wafer crisp breads prepared with use of wheat flour.

Keywords: gluten-free products, wafer crisp breads, buckwheat flour, powder from grape seeds.

Development and quality assessment of soft wafers with lowered fat content

Yu.N. Nikonovich, N.A. Tarasenko

At creation of confectionery of functional purpose the purposeful change of their chemical composition which is most approaching the obtained products to requirements of the theory of the balanced food thus is necessary it is important to keep traditional organoleptic indicators, properties and structure of products. In work research results of possibility of use of orange food Citri-Fi fibers in a compounding of soft wafers for the purpose of decrease in their power value and reduction of the content of fat are presented. The food fibers brought in gel form which obtained by addition of water to them with temperature of 100°C in the ratio 1 : 7 respectively. As control sample soft wafers without introduction of food fibers served. For definition of optimum dosage of orange gel it was brought in dough, replacing from 5 to 20% of fat. The main physical and chemical, structural and mechanical and organoleptic indicators of quality of soft wafers with various dosages of orange gel are studied. The maximum positive effect at introduction of 15% of orange gel of the mass of fat is established, thus improves not only quality of soft wafers, but also their power value decreases by 9,3% and the content of fat in them for 13,1%. On the basis of researches results the technical documentation set on production of soft wafers is developed and approved, patents for the invention are taken out.

Keywords: soft wafers, orange food fibers, structural and mechanical properties of products, quality of wafers.

Use of secondary resources of grapes processing for enrichment of foodstuff

O.L. Vershinina, M.D. Nazarko, G.I. Kasyanov, P.R. Tagirova, V.T. Khristyuk

The researches results on rational use of by-products of processing of grape berries are presented. From grape seeds obtained valuable food oil, data on its fatty acid composition are provided. The chemical composition of CO2 meal from grape seeds remaining after production oil is investigated. The high content in it of protein and lipids is established. Thus CO2 meals from seeds of different grapes varieties slightly differ from each other. The technology of manufacture CO2 extract from grapes seeds is developed. Possibility use of meal of grape seeds after CO2-extraction for enrichment of grain products of ethnic Chechen cuisine is investigated. The technology of the Chechen flat cakes with an additive of CO2 meal of grapes seeds is developed. Positive influence of additive on quality and nutrition value of finished products is established. It is also offered to use CO2 meal from grapes seeds for replacement of part of meat raw materials in formulations of sausages for the purpose of decrease in their caloric content and improvement of functional and technological properties. The obtained results testify to increase of biological value of ready sausages and possibility of their use for special food.

Keywords: by-products of grapes processing, CO2 meal from grapes seeds, CO2-extraction, enrichment of foodstuff.

Development of technology of functional food products based on Jerusalem artichoke and feijoa

A.V. Chernenko, M.K. Altunyan

The possibility of use for production of functional food products non-traditional raw materials of plant origin – Jerusalem artichoke tubers and fruits feijoa, allowing to enrich the above products are biologically active substances. Jerusalem artichoke tubers are a rich source of inulin, which is effective in the treatment of diabetes, and the introduction into the recipe fruit feijoa allows you to adjust the composition of vitamins, macro- and microelements, as well as improve the organoleptic properties of the finished product. Proposed the method of pre-IR-processing of Jerusalem artichoke tubers under vacuum at a temperature of 70–80°С for 10–15 min to the maximum preservation of its physiologically functional ingredients. Received 5 samples of functional products in the form of puree with various proportions of Jerusalem artichoke tubers and fruits feijoa. On the basis of the determination of organoleptic and physical-chemical parameters of the samples obtained the optimal content of compounding components of the raw material. Designed puree-shaped product on the basis of vegetative raw material has functional properties, good taste, high in vitamin C and inulin. Recommendations for the use of developed functional product dietary and diabetic food.

Keywords: food products of functional purpose, Jerusalem artichoke, feijoa, organoleptic characteristics of product, nutritional value.

Oxidation stability of vegetable oils depending on fatty acid composition

A.V. Birbasova, T.I. Timofeenko, S.N. Nikonovich, A.I. Sheyko

The researches results of oxidation stability of wide range of the vegetable oils of domestic production developed on traditional technologies, and also method of cold-pressed are presented. It is established that the quantitative composition of fatty acids of the studied oils varies in the wide range; information that all oils which are almost used in traditional food, except for soy, don’t correspond to polyunsaturated fatty acids w-6/w-3 ratios recommended to the Russian Academy of Medical Science is confirmed. It is shown that the induction period increases among oils: linen, refined sunflower high-linoleic, not refined sunflower, false flax, grape, soy, mustard, walnut kernels, sesame, corn, amaranth, high-olein sunflower.

Keywords: vegetable oils, induction period, storage life of oil, fatty acid composition, essential fatty acids, w-6/w-3 ratio.

Use of activated water with alkaline neutralization of oils

A.P. Gyulushanyan, E.V. Martovshchuk, A.V. Zabolotniy, A.N. Drozdov, V.V. Illarionova

The researches results of possibility of use of the water activated in electromagnetic field of the ultraviolet rays for alkali solution preparation with neutralization of vegetable oils are presented. The chemical composition and technical characteristics of activated water are investigated. It is established that at pH 8,5–9,0 the total hardness of activated water makes 0,5 mg-eq/l that classifies it as very soft. For an assessment of use effect of activated water carried out alkaline neutralization of the sunflower hydrated “frozen” oil the alkali solution prepared on the activated water. For comparison used samples of the oil neutralized on traditional technology. Influence of activated water used at neutralization stage on duration and completeness of division of phases system “neutralized oil–soap stock” is investigated. It is established that the offered technology promotes decrease in duration of full division of phases twice: 36 min against 72 min with neutralization on traditional technology. Physical and chemical indicators of the produced neutralized oils and soap stocks are investigated. Use of the activated water at sodium hydroxide solution preparation stage for alkaline neutralization allows to improve considerably physical and chemical indicators of neutralized oils and soap stocks. In oils considerably decreased the content of soap and ions of metals, and in soap stocks – the content of the total fat at simultaneous improvement of ratio of fatty acids to neutral fat.

Keywords: vegetable oil, free fatty acids, neutralization of oils, activated water, acid number.

Research of technical characteristics and quality indexes of coals for hookah

E.V. Gnuchikh, O.A. Zhabentsova, S.D. Glukhov

The researches of physical properties of the fast flamed coals for hookah made by various producers, and toxic properties of smoke of hookah for definition of coal with the most uniform properties and the least toxic for the purpose of its use when smoking and in further researches of smoke of hookah are conducted. The objects of researches were 5 brands of coals made in the form of tablets with various diameters, productions of China, Poland and USA. The weight, density of coals and ranges of dispersion of their average values are determined; the maximum value of temperatures in the course of decay of coals without hookah (statics mode); duration of decay of coals in the statics mode; toxicity indicators (content of carbon monoxide) of the smoke which is formed at decay of coals in the course of hookah smoking without hookah mix (dynamics mode). It is established that the studied coals have various maximum temperature and duration of decay, ignition process that is caused, apparently, by various chemical composition of coals differently proceeds. Various content of carbon monoxide in gas phase of smoke which is formed in the course of decay of coals of various brands is revealed. The most uniform in physical properties are defined and the least toxic samples of coal recommended for further researches of hookah smoke at tobacco smoking.

Keywords: coal for hookah, physical properties of coal, coal density, hookah smoke, carbon monoxide, smoke toxicity.

Processes & Apparatus


Distribution of temperature fields in the particle with triangular symmetry when drying superheated steam

A.N. Ostrikov, D.S. Sayko, L.I. Lytkina, S.A. Shevtsov

The analytical solution of a problem of non-stationary heat conductivity in the course of drying of the particles having a tetrahedron form is received. On an example of convective drying of grain of a buckwheat superheated steam of atmospheric pressure proposed the solution allowing to define fields of temperatures in a particle with triangular symmetry in the wide range of change of parameters of the heat carrier. The sequence of the solution of a symmetric task in new system of coordinates when constant value of one variable sets the sizes of an equilateral triangle is established, and the second variable answers change of coordinate of a point on its perimeter. The differential equation of change of temperature of a particle in new system of coordinates is presented in the dimensionless form. For the considered task rather simple approximate solution of the equation of Helmholtz in triangular area is received. On this basis the version of the approximate solution of mathematical model for research of the objects of drying having symmetry of a triangular prism is offered. It is discussed qualitative features of decisions in triangular area. The method of modeling can be extended to the solution of three-dimensional tasks for objects with symmetry of a tetrahedron. Thus, the mathematical model which analytical decision allows to predict distribution of temperature fields in the course of drying of a particle in the form of a tetrahedron is offered. It is shown that it is possible to use the decision when determining heatphysical characteristics when drying grain. In the long term the received decision should be used for definition of fields of moisture content in a particle with triangular symmetry.

Keywords: mathematical model, drying, superheated steam, particle, triangular symmetry, prism, tetrahedron.

Features of convective drying of the husks of grapes when production food powders

V.V. Derevenko, V.A. Kovalev, A.A. Sidorenko

The husks of grapes (HG) after drying and removal of seeds is valuable raw materials for production food powders which can be used as a food additive in bread baking. Authors generalized results of the researches conducted earlier and the received technological and kinetic parameters of convective drying of HG of the red and white varieties, allowed to establish the main features of process. Graphic dependences of moisture content and the speeds of the drying which have revealed the main periods of drying and feature of evaporation of moisture in them are received. It is established that HG is a colloidal capillary and porous body. On the basis of the obtained results on convective drying of HG shares of forms of free and connected moisture in HG made in various ways are defined. The generalized dependences for calculation of duration of drying HG of the first and second periods are offered. The obtained results are used when developing the equipment for convective drying in which the technical solutions providing a loosening of a moving layer of HG are proposed that allows to reduce process duration.

Keywords: husks of grapes, convective drying, drying time, drying speed.

Research of coefficient of elastic recovery of dough in the device for its rolling and simultaneous heat treatment

A.G. Melikov

In the manufacture of some of the national dishes of flour as a semi finished product, rolling out of dough and heat treatment are used. As it is known reeling and thermal processing of dough is performed in various machines, thus, to obtain the desired size and quality of the semi finished product first reeling out and then heat treatment of the dough mass is used. This increases the costs of labour and energy. Analysis shows that these disadvantages can be eliminated by combining these two operations in one working body. For this purpose, we have created a device that simultaneously performs two operations: reeling out and heat treatment of the dough in one working body. The device used a roller rolling working body inside of which there are heating elements. The apparatus according to the required technical parameters of dough semi-finished product can regulate the temperature of the rolls when rolling. An object of the pilot study was to investigate the dependence of the coefficient of the elastic recovery of dough from various factors such as the temperature of the rolls, the dough moisture, rolling number, the gap width between the rolling rolls. The obtained results show that at increase in temperature and distances between rolls the coefficient of elastic recovery of dough decreases and at 70°C irrespective of distance between rolls its size becomes a constant.

Keywords: rolling of dough, heat treatment of dough, dough semi-finished product, coefficient of elastic recovery of dough.

Kinetic dependences of drying process rice grain

S.A. Podgorniy, V.S. Kosachev, E.P. Koshevoy

The questions of modeling of drying process kinetics rice grain are considered. For relevant mathematical models of heat and mass transfer, we have introduced a convertion mode which allows to get a mathematical model as a system of normal equations. Identification of parameters was carried out using Nelder–Mead method, also known as a downhill simplex method or amoeba method. For identified parameters we considered dependences on the main factor – the speed of the drying agent. With use of experimental data curves of drying and heating are obtained in thin layer of rice grain at a speed of air 2,5 m/s, weight of rice seeds 1,32 kg, air temperature of 50°C, initial humidity of seeds 0,25 kg/kg. Regarding considerable non-linear nature of kinetic parameters and a high model validity in the studied intervals of experimental drying modes, we made a decision to use interpolating multidimensional splines to describe these dependences. On the basis of the splines presented we drew conclusions about the nature of changes in kinetic parameters according to various drying modes. The obtained data allow to operate actively deformation of seeds, changing the temperature and high-speed conditions of the drying agent, being guided only by one of these indicators.

Keywords: mathematical modeling, rice drying, moisture transfer, seed deformation, spline, kinetic dependences.

Features of the kinetics of ice formation on freezing grape must in the production of sparkling wines

T.I. Guguchkina, V.E. Burda, M.V. Antonenko

The results of the establishment of the kinetics of ice formation during freezing of grape must in the production of sparkling wines. The data presented were obtained with a specially designed three-step installation of an effective block freezing. The optimal mode of freezing grape must was chosen following: rapid decrease of its temperature of the must to –3,5°С in the reactor and the subsequent slow decrease in temperature down to –8°С. The constant factors for all modes of freezing were identified: the temperature of the refrigerant –14°С and resting state is frozen must. Variables were the duration and stage of the process of freezing. The kinetics of ice formation was determined by measuring the thickness of the ice near the middle of the cooling jacket installation. Established experimentally that in the process of freezing grape must to install characterized by a significant and intensive increase thickness of the block of ice in the initial stage of the process at all levels of freezing. It is shown that the kinetics of ice formation in the preparation cryo-concentrate grape must used in the production of sparkling wines, largely influenced by both the duration of freezing and growing ice thickness and the non-aqueous portion of the must, the main component of which is sugar.

Keywords: sparkling wines, freezing of grape must, cryo-concentrate, ice formation.

Modeling of controlled mass transfer process during microalgae cultivation in the film-type photobioreactor

A.A. Shevtsov, A.V. Drannikov, E.A. Shabunina

Mathematical model of the mass transfer process during blue-green microalgae cultivation in the film type photobioreactor under the following simplifying assumptions was developed: biomass accumulation in the suspension is determined by the diffusion-parameter model, which takes into account, in general, the distribution of power components and microbial cells in height of tubes of the film-type bioreactor; the expiration of the suspension flow pattern is represented by an equation similar to the molecular diffusion; the diffusion model parameter is the coefficient of the longitudinal mixing or turbulent diffusion coefficient. In accordance with the law of conservation of mass the equation of material balance was made up taking into account the accumulation of substance in the present element of transparent tube due to the difference between incoming and outgoing flows of culture fluid. We used a kinetic equation taking into account the influence of culture conditions and interference of microalgae populations of cells, or the effect of tightness that results in a lack of individual cells to the substrate. The equation coefficients characterize maximum growth rate of the cells in the population both in the absence of interaction, and in interrelation of cells due to lack of nutrients and metabolic products inhibiting effect based on inhibition of potentially possible rate of culture growth. Combining the Galerkin’s method and finite elements method, we obtain an analytical solution. Identification of the parameters of the proposed model on experimental data yielded satisfactory convergence of modeling results and using of them to control the process parameters. An algorithm for management of photo-autotropic biosynthesis in the film-type bioreactor was suggested by us.

Keywords: model, cultivation process, microalgae, photo- and bioreactor, parameters control.

Food Engineering, Processes, Equipment & Automation of Food Production


Design of the convection apparatus with a swirled heat-transfer agent for the juice concentration

V.V. Kharkov, A.N. Nikolaev

The paper presents calculation technique of convection apparatus with a swirled heat-transfer agent for the vegetable and fruit juices concentration. This apparatus allows us carrying out process of the concentration in more sparing mode (at lower temperatures in comparison with evaporating) which provides saving vitamins and nutrients of the initial raw materials. The main problem of convection apparatus design is too much factors and the goal of this article is to construct the real method of the calculation reflecting industrial function, specifics of design features and internal processes. Taking into consideration the aerohydrodynamics principles of the two-phase twirled flows in the camera and disregarding the reverse influence of disperse phase on gas flow, interaction of drops among themselves, their crushing and coalescence an equation for equilibrium radius of a single drop of liquid in swirl gas flow is derived. Equations of weighing all liquid drops in full apparatus has defined with glance to major factors such as geometrical parameters, amount and blade’s inclination of an air tangent swirl diffuser, average consumed velocity of gas, input liquid-gas ratio, physical and chemical phase’s properties. Have basing on analytical calculations engineer nomographic charts are constructed in the range of the recommended values of major parameters to select constructive parameters of the convection apparatus, an air tangent swirl diffuser and operate regime.

Keywords: concentrated fruit juice, concentrate, convection apparatus, air tangent swirl diffuser, nomographic chart.

Development and research of the device for formation of dough semifinished product of oriental sweet “Bamiya”

A.G. Melikov

Technical means for dough formation used in production of oriental sweetness of “Bamiya” type were developed and substantiated by experimental and theoretical research. Forms, constructive parameters and working conditions of the operating of the devise for formation of dough semi-finished product by extrusion were substantiated by carrying out experimental research. For optimization process of forming semi-finished product “Bamiya” empirical equation in dependence of design, technological data of the equipment is found. It is established that with increase in the relation of productivity of the device Q, g/s, to the square of active section of forming disk S, mm2, quality indicators of test semi-finished product increase in the beginning, during a certain period reach the maximum values, and then sharply decrease. This regularity is traced at all investigated the humidity of dough. Thus with increase in humidity of dough the maximum value of an indicator of quality becomes less. However at all considered the humidity (W 38–42%) the maximum value of quality of samples turns out at ratio Q/S = 0,12 g/(s • mm2). Quality indicators of dough semi-finished products are caused by the speed of an exit of a dough plait from openings of the forming disk. After certain size of speed of a release of the dough from openings of the forming disk the semi-finished product surface roughness not inherent in an original product is observed. It is established that at Q/S = 0,12 g/(s • mm2) and humidity of the dough W = 38,4% quality of semi-finished product makes 95,3%.

Keywords: formation of dough, dough semi-finished product, oriental sweets, “Bamiya”.

Improvement of the technological line for production of praline candies

S.N. Nikonovich, N.A. Tarasenko, V.Yu. Arkhipov

Causes interest of use in the form of concentrating additive to traditional products of amaranth flour as source of amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids containing significant amounts of squalene and tocopherols. Possibility of use of the developed biologically active additive (BAA) consisting of mix of the fried amaranth flour and the concentrated fat-free phospholipids in the ratio 1 : 1, by production of the praline candies possessing the raised nutrition value at the expense of the content of functional ingredients. Whereas praline masses represents the viscoplastic structured disperse systems, added BAA is necessary to crush previously to dispersion 160 microns. For this purpose it is offered to improve the existing technological production line the praline candies by number of the constructive changes allowing to reach at the expense of increase in degree of dispersion of firm particles uniform distribution of the brought additives on all volume of praline masses and to increase degree of bioavailability of functional ingredients. The scheme of the advanced hardware and technological line on production the praline candies of the raised nutrition value is submitted. The mechanism of its work is described.

Keywords: praline candies, amaranth flour, technological line, products of functional purpose.

Optimization parameters of tobacco leaves transportation technology in roll type container

E.I. Vinevskiy, N.N. Vinevskaya

Preparation the tobacco leaves after harvesting for curing is very labor intensive process. They have to be yellowed and then formed in proper way for artificial or natural curing. In order to decrease labor and energy expenses new way for accumulation transporting and short-term storage of the tobacco leaves in transport package was developed. Optimization the parameters for accumulation and transporting the tobacco leaves in a roll type container was the aim of the researches. Specially developed equipment was utilized for carrying the researches in VNIITTI’s. The tobacco leaves accumulation parameters between surfaces of flexible and permeable material while winding it into roll were theoretically proved. Equations for defining critical rolling velocity of material, normally distributed pressure on tobacco leaf were obtained. Optimal parameters for roll type accumulator and initial data for calculation its working body were defined. Basic parameters, operation conditions of roll type accumulator and its working body (number of leaves in a pack, tensile strength and permeability quotient of the material) were experimentally optimized. Leaves accumulation in roll type equipment can be adapted for manual harvesting. This way is suitable for farmers and leads to mechanization the unload process and fixing the leaves on curing elements. Compared to existing manual harvesting technology the new way decreases labor expenses in 2,6 times.

Keywords: tobacco, tobacco leaves, roll container, tension.

Methods of Investigation, Quality & Safety of Food Products


Development of basic formulations chewing candies

A.N. Kurakinа, I.B. Krasinа, D.B. Galtelov

Researches results on development of basic formulations of chewing candies for creation on its basis of new functional confectionery with use of natural sweetener isomalt are presented. Analyzed the existing formulations chewing candies on the Russian market. When designing a balanced formulation to tradeoff prescription components used the method of mathematical modeling and software package Statistica. To characterize the dependence of quality chewing candies on the share of each component of the prescription and optimization of the formulation was conducted univariate experiment planning and established factors and their levels of variation. The optimum dosage of prescription components, you always get the products with the necessary elastic-plastic properties and good organoleptic characteristics. Analysis of elastic-plastic properties of chewing candies prepared according to recipes developed showed that all the samples are similar, the plastic properties dominate over elastic. According to the analysis of organoleptic properties of different samples of chewing candies indicate significant differences with the texture of these products, indicating that differences in formulations, and technology. Selected recipe that further studies was used as the base and on the basis of which the optimization of the formulation and process parameters for manufacturing chewing candies with functional ingredients. It is established that the candies prepared on the chosen formulation have good taste and chewing characteristics.

Keywords: basic formulation of product, chewing candies, prescription ingredients, elastic-plastic properties.

Research of consumer preferences in assortment of bakery products of functional purpose

N.B. Koptelova, E.O. Ermolaevа, V.M. Poznyakovskiy

Article is devoted to identifying consumer preferences in the market of bread and bakery products of Kemerovo for the purpose of forecasting of demand for expansion of the range of bakery products of functional purpose. Using survey identified characteristics of bakery products, which determine consumer choices, determined by the level of satisfaction with the current range of products among various groups of the population depending on sex, age and the level of the income. Identified the need to develop a new product – bread from wheat and rye flour, enriched with vitamins and minerals.

Keywords: consumer opinions and preferences, range of bakery products, enrichment of products, functional product.

Analysis of consumers’ preferences in choice of the smoked-cooked fowl meat rolls

K.F. Mirnaya, E.O. Ermolaevа, V.M. Poznyakovskiy

Market researches were conducted to identify the target consumer and to analyze consumers’ preferences in the choice of the poultry semi-finished products among population of Kemerovo. The respondents’ preferences by gender and the attitude of the consumers of different ages, and also according to the average monthly income on one respondent were studied. On the basis of the obtained results the target consumer of smoked-cooked poultry meat rolls is revealed.

Keywords: smoked-cooked rolls, consumers’ preferences, market researches.

Research of quality indexes of vegetable oils of domestic producers

A.V. Birbasova, T.I. Timofeenko, S.N. Nikonovich, A.I. Sheyko

The researches results of organoleptic, physical and chemical indicators and safety indicators of vegetable oils of domestic producers are presented: unrefined, refined and deodorized, produced by the methods of pressing, forpressing-extraction and cold-pressed oil from the common in Russia’s oil-containing raw materials: sunflower seeds, corn germ and from seeds soybean, rape, flax, sesame, false flax, grapes, mustard, amaranth and walnut kernels. It is established that the studied samples irrespective of production process oils conform to requirements imposed to food oils.

Keywords: vegetable oils, organoleptic indicators of oils, physical and chemical indicators of oils, ways of production oils, cold-pressed.

Effect of synbiotic products on biological indicators of the laboratory animals organism

E.I. Melnikova, E.S. Rudnichenko, E.I. Timofeeva

The results of a study of hematological, biochemical and scatological indicators laboratory animals are presented. Male rats of the Wistar, subjected to quarantine and induction of dysbiosis, divided randomly on 5 groups of 8 individuals, the experimental groups were skim cottage cheese with dietary fibers and synbiotic drink within 70 days. Analyses carried out on samples of animal wastes, and counted the CFU. It is established that synbiotics products contribute to the restoration as the industry of bacterial community intestines, activation of hemopoiesis and the normalization of immune status, including lymphocytic level (specific immunity) and the monocyte-macrophage link (nonspecific immunity). Marked cholesterol-lowering effect manifesting itself in the reduction of the oxygenations total cholesterol and bilirubin, and functional status of the liver, pancreas and hepatobiliary system has not changed. The studied products with sinbiotic properties can be used for normalization of structure and biological activity of intestinal microflora and improvement of functional condition of gastrointestinal tract.

Keywords: synbiotic products, hematologic indicators, biochemical indicators, scatological indicators.

Development of degustation evaluation method of hookah mixes

E.V. Gnuchikh, O.A. Zhabentsova, M.V. Shkidyuk, N.N. Matyukhina

The Russian market of the mixes for hookah which are containing and not containing tobacco, possessing various tastes and aromas considerably extends in recent years therefore development of technique of tasting assessment of such mixes is actual. The similar technique of a tasting assessment of a smoke of mix is developed for a hookah in laboratory of the production technology of tobacco products VNIITTI. The technique of a tasting assessment of cigarettes which is earlier developed by institute applied in the industry and in scientific researches is the basis for technique. The organoleptic indicators of a smoke of mix for hookah determined by method of tasting assessment which are located as the importance are revealed and proved and estimated depending on intensity degree. The main characteristics of the offered indicators are described, their numerical score is given. The technique can be used for quality control and safety of the issued production and when developing new compoundings.

Keywords: hookah mixes, tobacco for hookah, hookah smoke, aroma, taste, force for puff, smoke density, strength, method of degustation evaluation.
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