Food technologyIssues → № 2-3 (344-345), 2015

Table of contents for # 2-3 (344-345), 2015

Chemistry of Food Products & Materials


Production and research of starches by modified extrusion method

K.G. Paskaru, V.V. Litvyak, O.N. Musskaya, YU.F. Roslyakov, G.KH. Ospankulova

Now production of the modified starches with the physical and chemical properties which are purposefully changed as result of influence of the physical, chemical or combined factors extends. The purpose of the current work – production physically modified starches by extrusion method and research of their properties. Native and extruded potato, corn and tapioca starches were objects of researches. By means of methods of differential thermal and thermogravimetric analyses properties of the obtained starch products are investigated. It is established that extrusive processing is resulted by final fracture of starched granules, the amorphous and crystal structure of native starch collapses and extruded starch passes into an amorphous state. Most expressed endo-effect (removal of free and connected moisture) at native and extruded potato starch it is noted at 87°C, at the native corn – at 87°C, at extruded corn depending on the extrusion modes at 75 or 87°C, at native and extruded tapioca starch – at 83°C. The main loss of weight (12–13%) at native and extruded starches were observed at 150°C.

Keywords: starch, modified starches, extrusive processing, amorphous and crystal structure of starch.

Assessment of carbohydrate-amylase complex of baking wheat flour of the Russian producers

M.P. Bakhmet, N.V. Matsakova, S.B. Meretukova, E.E. Dikolova, D.G. Gritsenko

The researches results of carbohydrate-amylase complex of baking flour of the Russian producers for the purpose of development of modern methods of quality control of grain raw materials and semi-products of baking production are presented. 8 samples of baking wheat flour of the premium which are selected in large distribution networks of Krasnodar are investigated. For carrying out researches Amylograph-E of Brabender® firm was used. The data characterizing carbohydrate-amylase complex of studied samples are obtained. The amylogram reflecting rheological properties and fermentative activity б-amylase in flour are constructed. The results of the conducted research allowed to reveal samples of baking flour of the Russian producers with the best baking properties, and also to optimize raw materials methods of quality control taking into account a ratio of the main structural components and activity of own enzymes of raw materials.

Keywords: baking wheat flour, carbohydrate-amylase complex, assessment of flour quality, bakery products.

Food value of fruits Japanese persimmon which sold in the food market of Primorsky krai

O.N. Samchenko, O.G. Chizhikova

The researches results of two samples of fruits Japanese persimmon, imported from the Republic of China and realized in the market of Primorsky Krai are presented. Samples were selected in the stage of consumer maturity, normal amount and coloring suitable for fresh consumption. On the basis of morphological characteristics and tasting assessment of samples their pomological variety are identified: Tamopan and Hyakume. Chemical and vitamin and mineral structures of studied persimmon samples are defined. Use of fruits persimmon as source of the essential micronutrients in technologies of products of functional orientation is recommended.

Keywords: Japanese persimmon, organoleptic indicators of fruits, pomological variety, chemical composition of fruits.

Protein secretion during fermentation and wine aging on the yeast deposit

N.M. Ageeva, M.G. Markovsky

Impacts of yeast strain, method and conditions of fermentation in a sugar-containing environment – grape must – on the protein secretion by the wine yeasts were revealed during fermentation and subsequent autolysis of cells in the process of wine aging on the yeast deposit. Inhibiting effect of the sulfur-containing compounds precluding protein and amino acids secretion into environment was determined. It has been shown that amino acids can be separated by a speed of their elimination from the cell wall. Three groups of amino acids not dependent on the yeast strain can be separated. The role of calcium and magnesium cations in the phosphorous-containing compounds and protein secretion from the cell wall to environment was revealed.

Keywords: proteins, fermentation, yeast strain, conditions and methods of fermentation, enzymes, amino acids.

Effect of alanine and valine on biosynthesis of isobutyl and isoamyl alcohol during fermentation of grape must

I.V. Oseledtseva, T.I. Guguchkina, N.M. Ageeva

Higher alcohols are essential parts of cognac flavor. They produced from carbohydrates as well as a result of the deamination or transamination of amino acids followed by decarboxylation and reduction keto aldehydes in alcohol fermentation process, so the concentration of certain groups of compounds of higher alcohols depends on the content of particular amino acids. Conducted research aimed at determining the degree of influence of alanine and valine introduced in must at the stage of fermentation, to change the ratio of the concentration of isoamyl and isobutyl alcohols during the fermentation of grape must yeast genus Saccharomyces. It was established experimentally that the introduction of the wort before fermentation valine and alanine increases the concentration of isobutyl, isoamyl alcohol, and propyl alcohol. When increasing the insertion amount of alanine portion formed of isobutanol in comparison with synthesized by isoamyl increases, however even with the introduction of alanine in the amount of 100 mg/dm3 ratio izoamilol/isobutanol is 3,2 to 4,8. With the introduction of valine as the share of introduced amino acid ratio izoamilol/isobutanol and decreases when you make 10 mg/dm3 is 2,9–3,8, but when you make 100 mg/dm3 – 1,9–2,2. It was established experimentally that in the case of strains for fermentation Oenoform C2 and Actiflore cerevisiae decrease the concentration of 2-phenylethanol in making both the analyzed amino acids in concentrations exceeding 100 mg/dm3. At the same time a significant impact on the change in concentrations of butanol-1 and hexanol-1 introduction of alanine and valine was not there. The obtained results can be used as additional identifying indicator for quality control and to detect signs of falsification cognac.

Keywords: higher alcohols, alanine, valine, fermentation of grape must, wine.

Hydrolyzates properties of keratin-containing raw materials obtained under influence of microorganisms destructors consortium

O.V. Kriger, A.V. Izgaryshev, I.S. Milenteva, P.V. Mitrokhin

The possibility of production of full-fledged forages for farm animals from secondary raw materials of poultry industry, in particular from the feather-down raw materials making 30% of the mass of all waste of an imboweling of bird is investigated. It is offered to use the hydrolyzates of keratin-containing feather-down raw materials received under the influence of consortium of microorganisms destructors for this purpose. The feather-down raw materials from hens of different breeds were used: Lohmann LSL-Classik, Lohmann Brown, F-15 Isa. The following indicators of hydrolyzates are investigated: mass fraction of crude protein, crude cellulose, ashes, calcium, phosphorus, sodium; molecular-mass distribution of peptides in hydrolyzate; amino-acid structure; digestibility. It is established that fermentative hydrolyzates of keratin-containing raw materials are characterized by the high content of crude protein, calcium, phosphorus, sodium and the low content of crude cellulose and ashes. The high content of low-molecular peptide fractions and free amino acids in hydrolyzate of feather-down raw materials is established, digestibility of a hydrolyzate – 82% is calculated. The obtained results testify to expediency of use the fermentative hydrolyzates of keratin-containing raw materials as the high-protein, balanced on nutrients forages for farm animals.

Keywords: waste of poultry industry, keratin-containing raw materials, hydrolyzate, chemical composition, digestibility.

Chemical composition and properties of young cognac distillates from grapes Risus and Pervenets Magaracha

R.A. Sokolin, V.Т. Khristyuk

The researches results of must, wine materials and cognac distillates produced from grapes of grades Risus and Pervenets Magaracha used in cognac production, various period of maturing are presented. Grapes were grown up in the conditions of JSC “Fanagoriya” and gathered in the course of maturing in process of increase in sugar content. The content of volatile components in wine materials and cognac distillates is defined. The results testify that the content of volatile substances in wine materials and cognac distillates depends on grapes of grade, place of its growth and sugar content, causing thus quality of the produced cognac.

Keywords: cognac, graded factor, Risus, Pervenets Magaracha, sugar content of grapes, volatile substances.



Effects of low temperature – long time (LT–LT) treatments on technological and consumer characteristics of cooked ham of NOR and PSE pork

I.M. Chernukha, О.A. Kovalevа, M.V. Radchenko

Prolonged heat treatment of meat at low temperature (LT–LT) becomes popular in catering and meat processing industries. We have investigated the influence of different modes of low temperature – long time treatments on technological, mechanical, organoleptic properties and microbiological safety of cooked hams of NOR and PSE pork. Selected optimal LT–LT mode which minimizes the loss of nutrients to increase the product yield, reduce weight loss during heat treatment to improve the consistency and obtain microbiologically safest product has high sensory characteristics.

Keywords: pork, NOR, PSE, low temperature – long time, product yield, consistence, microbial quality, sensory quality.

Technology raw dough gingerbread products using flour from yacon roots

YU.F. Roslyakov, V.V. Gonchar, O.L. Vershinina

The article is devoted to development of technology raw dough gingerbread products of high biological value, using a mixture of baking wheat flour and flour obtained from yacon roots. Presents the chemical composition of yacon roots having unique curative properties. The expediency of using a mixture of wheat flour and flour obtained from yacon roots in the production of new varieties of raw dough gingerbread products of high biological value. The technology of production of flour from the yacon roots is developed. It includes the preparation of roots, drying in the microwave field and cryo-milling in liquid nitrogen. Presents the technology of preparation of new varieties of raw dough gingerbread products including mixing baking wheat flour 1 grade and flour obtained from the yacon roots in the ratio by weight of 8 : 1. Test samples of raw dough gingerbread products on the fracture visually did not differ from the control sample, but had a lower density and increased capacity by increasing their porosity. It was found that obtained raw dough gingerbread products had a higher biological value.

Keywords: yacon roots, flour from yacon roots, inulin, raw dough gingerbread products, biological value.

Rheological properties of biscuit dough using isomalt

I.B. Krasina, T.S. Khandamova, A.A. Fadeeva

For the development of science-based technology of bakery confectionery products for diabetics to manage the process and directional product with predetermined properties is necessary to know the structural and rheological characteristics of biscuit dough prepared using isomalt. The article presents the results of study on the impact of quality and structural and rheological properties of dough mechanical effects, as increase in operating voltages and the corresponding velocity gradients leads to disruption of the binding forces between the particles and weaken the structure. The data on the influence of mechanical stress on the viscosity and structural-mechanical properties of the test and the change of the air phase are given. Found that the viscosity of the dough is reduced not only because of the orientation of the air bubbles in the direction of the force, but also by their failure. It is shown that the density of the test varies substantially with minimum strain rate, and the subsequent increase in shear rate and subsequently destroying the air phase – slightly. The change of structural and rheological properties of biscuit dough allows not only to control the regularities of its formation and parameters of technological processes, but also determines the quality of finished products.

Keywords: biscuit dough, structural and mechanical properties, viscosity, density.

Use of potato food fibers by production of sugar wafers

N.A. Tarasenko, T.M. Gukasyan

The research results of possibility of use of the potato food fibers (PFF) by production of sugar wafers are presented. In prototypes of wafers made replacement of part of the PFF wheat flour in number of 5, 7, 10, 12% of flour mass in test. Influence of PFF on physical and chemical and organoleptic indicators of quality of sugar wafers, and also on structural and mechanical properties of wafer dough is investigated. It is shown that replacement from 5 to 12% of wheat flour in compounding on PFF leads to improvement of quality of sugar wafers, raises their nutrition value, increases duration of freshness preservation and fragility. As result of complex assessment of consumer properties of prototypes of wafers with various dosage of PFF the sample with the best organoleptic indicators is revealed. On the basis of the obtained results the compounding of sugar wafers “Vostorg” with replacement of 7% of the PFF wheat flour is developed.

Keywords: potato food fibers, sugar wafers, enrichment of foodstuff, quality of wafer products.

Processing methods of regulation quality and yield of cocoa butter

I.A. Chernykh, E.A. Verbitskaya, S.A. Kalmanovich, P.S. Krasin, I.B. Krasina

Processing crushed cocoa special reagent is an effective way to improve the quality of semifinished products of cocoa consequently finished chocolate products. By grinding crushed cocoa must more fully destroy tissue and to ensure free access of the cell contents and first of all the yield of cocoa butter. It has been established that effective method of destruction of cell structures is the method of mechanical activation. In work the effect of mechanical activation on quality cocoa resulting from the processing of crushed cocoa in rotary roller disintegrator (RRD) is investigated. It was established that during mechanochemical treatment increases б-amylase activity that promotes hydrolytic degradation of starch, and reduction of its content in the cocoa mass. Determined that that the grinding of crushed cocoa in RRD reduces the content of tannins, such as (–)-epicatechins and (+)-catechins and improves the organoleptic characteristics of cocoa mass. Revealed that mechanochemical treatment has a positive effect on the structural and mechanical properties of cocoa mass and provides the optimum particle size distribution. It is shown that the processing of crushed cocoa in RRD cocoa mass allows to obtain the optimum moisture content and viscosity values, by reducing the proportion of the starch content, as well as by increasing the degree of grinding. Given that even when processing a crushed cocoa in RRD cannot achieve a significant reduction of the content of organic acids, together with such treatment, an additional effect on its specific reagents allow to reduce the content of organic acids.

Keywords: cocoa mass, cocoa butter, mechanochemical treatment, yield cocoa butter, cocoa products.

Effect of mechanochemical processing on extent of phospholipids excretion from vegetable oils

V.I. Martovshchuk, S.A. Kalmanovich, A.A. Bagrov, E.V. Martovshchuk, E.A. Verbitskaya, O.S. Kruglaya

The effect of mechanochemical processing on extent of phospholipids excretion from unrefined sunflower oil at the expense of increase in extent of contact with the hydrating agent as which use of water solution of whey is rational is studied. Classical way of extraction of phospholipids from vegetable oils is hydration which essence consists in mixing of the hydrating agent, most often waters, with the subsequent exposition and division of oil and phospholipids. The efficiency of this method is estimated by quality of oil and phospholipids and depends by nature vegetable oil, the applied hydrating agent, the modes and hardware registration of technology. Thus the special attention is deserved by the devices providing a sufficient surface of contact and degree of dispersion of the reacting systems. The researches showed that for carrying out hydration use of the water solution of whey increasing polarizability of phospholipids, including not hydrated forms is rational. Mixing reacting oil and whey in the mechanochemical three-stage activator with ultrahigh shift efforts intensifies of phospholipids excretion, increases extent of their hydration at simultaneous improvement of quality of the hydrated oil and phospholipids.

Keywords: vegetable oil, phospholipids, whey, mechanochemical activator, shift efforts, quality of oil.

Selection of the starter culture for yogurt enriched with easily digestible form of selenium

E.A. Skripleva, T.P. Arseneva

The researches results on selection of optimal starter culture for fermented milk product – yogurt enriched with selenium are presented. As bioadditive it was used “Selenium Alga Plus” which contains microelement selenium in bioavailable form. As selenium in the presence of sugar isn’t acquired by an organism in compounding of yogurt phytogenesis sugar substitutes – syrup of Jerusalem artichoke and stevioside were used. The starter culture was prepared on the sterilized skim milk, sterilization was carried out at temperature of 121°C within 15–20 min. 8 samples of starter culture and their compositions were investigated. Optimum temperature, duration of ripening and acidity of the developed starter culture are determined. Physical and chemical and organoleptic properties of the produced yogurt samples and also syneresis and rheological indicators of starter culture and yogurts are investigated. As result of experiments it is established that the most suitable is the composition of starter culture Str. thermophilus (viscous strains) and Lbm. Bulgaricus (viscous strains) in the ratio 2 : 1. This starter culture gives to ready-made product clean, pronounced sour-milk flavour, sweetish taste without foreign smacks and smells, clot moderately dense a creamy consistence. Duration of ripening of yogurt makes 3,5 h.

Keywords: yogurt, selenium, starter culture for yogurt, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus.

Use of ancient recipes of Russian cuisine in modern technologies of restaurant dishes

T.A. Dzhum, M.V. Ksenz, O.A. Korneva

For expansion of range of sweet dishes of Russian cuisine it is offered to actualize ancient recipes taking into account modern technologies and tendencies of development of the industry of food. The results of development of the production technology of dessert “Guryev porridge on grape juice” are presented. In compounding of new product used grape juice from technical varieties of grapes for the purpose of increase of dish nutrition value. The changes of technological process of dessert production with application of shock freezing technology are proved. Use of shock freezing technology allows to reduce time of dish production, to keep almost invariable structure of semi-finished product, to reduce the period of activity of bacterial environment, to reduce loss of weight. Thus tastes of dish remain invariable, the period of storage considerably increases, there is possible use of the developed technology in network of the enterprises fast food.

Keywords: public catering, Russian cuisine, Guryev porridge, shock freezing.

Improvement of fish preserves technology based on the analysis of consumer preferences

A.L. Bocharova-Leskina, E.E. Ivanova, O.V. Kosenko

Consumer preferences of respondents from Krasnodar when choosing fish preserves, in particular preserves of fish of inland water and coastal fisheries were studied. The majority of respondents (80%) consume fish preserves. Analysis of questionnaire data has determined the consumer preferences when buying preserves of fish of inland waters and aquaculture. The taste close to the traditional “herring” is at the first place among consumer preferences. Analysis of questionnaire data has shown the need to further improve the technology and recipes for manufacturing of preserves from these fish species. The composition and production technology of preserves from the combined forcemeat has been developed. A distinctive feature of the developed technology is the combination of minced fish, which ripens and weakly-ripens at the salting in the single composite forcemeat system, the introduction of dry salt into the composition of forcemeat, the introduction of sugar in rational quantities for the formation of organoleptic and functional properties of forcemeat and also the compressing and the exposition of forcemeat to form it’s structural and mechanical properties. The addition of the forcemeat of Pacific herring into the forcemeat of carp fish species allows getting preserves with delicate texture, taste and smelling typical of mature “herring” bouquet.

Keywords: preserves from fish, silver carp, carp, consumer preferences, forcemeat products from fish.

Determination of optimal drying parameters for wastes of pumpkin fruits processing

N.YU. Istoshina, E.V. Soloveva, A.A. Idiatulina

Investigated secondary plant material on the base of pumpkin fruits processing waste. Shown that the waste – valuable material for the future processing and utilization in forage production. Material has high forage value, includes nitrogen free extractive substances, organic acids, sugar, vitamins, minerals, pectin substances. Studied chemical composition of the waste of fruits processing pumpkin “Muskatnaya”. High humidity pumpkin fruits waste processing is the root cause of extreme instability during storage. Proposed the most effective method for the preservation of the waste – heat drying. The kinetics of the drying process under different temperature parameters is shown: 85, 100, 120°С. It was established experimentally that at 120°С after 10 min the process of charring wastes began. The optimum drying parameters: 85°С for 30–35 min up to final moisture content (10,0 ± 1) . Higher temperature degrades the quality of raw materials, promotes intensive depolymerization of pectin compounds. A method is developed to produce forage from wastes of pumpkin fruits processing. The technological scheme of process is presented. Investigated the increase of moisture content in the pumpkin flour with different initial moisture content during storage. Increase in moisture of pumpkin flour after 1 month of storage did not exceed 0,5, which confirms the correctness of chosen drying parameters.

Keywords: secondary plant raw materials, waste of pumpkin fruits processing, drying parameters for wastes, forage flour, forage food.

Effect of wine yeast race on composition of volatile compounds during the fermentation of grape must

N.M. Ageeva, R.V. Avanesyants, G.F. Muzychenko, S.D. Burlaka

The researches results of influence of fermentation conditions of grape must and wine yeast race on synthesis of volatile impurity are presented. In experiences used a must from grapes of variety Bianka and various yeast races, including active dry yeast. Fermentation was carried out in aerobic (with air access), anaerobic (without air access) conditions, and also the cages of yeast immobilized on polyethylene filling. The yeast races more promoting accumulation of volatile components of must are allocated. The education mechanism the flavor-forming of substances caused by features of the fermentative design of yeast cells is described. The data on influence of fermentation way on concentration of volatile components in cognac wine materials are submitted. The analysis of the obtained results testifying to possibility of management of structure the flavor-forming of components of cognac wine materials by variation of ways of fermentation and the yeast races applied for this purpose is made.

Keywords: wine yeast, way of fermentation, volatile components, highest alcohols, acetoin, diacetyl.

Improvement of manufacturing tobacco for hookah reduced toxicity with use of hydrothermal treatment

O.A. Zhabentsova, E.V. Gnuchikh

The various ways of toxicity reduced of tobacco for hookah lowering the content of nicotine in it are analysed. The researches results of way of toxicity reduced of tobacco for hookah with use of hydrothermal treatment (HTT) and development of its optimum parameters are presented. Influence of the HTT parameters – water temperatures, durations of process and the water duty on decrease in the content of nicotine in tobacco and nicotine content in damp condensate of hookah smoke is investigated. Object of researches was variety tobacco Virginia 202 and tobacco for hookah, made on its basis. Statistical processing of experimental data was carried out by method of the two-factorial dispersive analysis. Dependence between the content of nicotine in damp condensate of hookah smoke and lasting HTT is established, the regression equation is obtained. The optimum parameters of tobacco HTT are determined: temperature 50°C, duration 2 h, water duty 1 : 20. It is revealed that HTT of tobacco is effective way of decrease in the content of nicotine, at the HTT optimum parameters the content of nicotine in tobacco decreases by 70,59%, in hookah smoke – for 92,67% that allows to obtained tobacco for more quality hookah and the reduced toxicity.

Keywords: tobacco, hydrothermal treatment, tobacco for hookah, nicotine, damp condensate, toxicity reduction.

Development of compoundings of liquid toilet soap of the premium class

V.V. Illarionova, N.V. Smirnova, D.G. Gritsenko, E.N. Guba, M.V. Filenkova

Compositions of liquid toilet soaps with the specified consumer properties are developed. Texapon ALS 70, Plantapon SF and Lamesoft PO 65 were chosen as components of foam-forming formulation by manufacturers Basf and Cognis that allowed gaining the additional softening effect when washing hands and bodies, providing moisturizing and super fatting effect, improving tactile perception while taking water procedures. Foam-forming ability of the examining composition bases was analyzed according to the key indicators: foam number and stability of foam. The conducted researches confirmed high efficiency of the applied components and allowed to choose their optimum concentration in the composition of liquid toilet soaps. Appearance attractiveness of liquid soap and preservation of a ready-made product are ensured by such additives as Euxyl K 727, Neokheliopan BB. The extracts of tutsan and chamomile with brightly expressed moisturizing, antibacterial and regenerating effects were added into the developed compositions of liquid toilet soaps for enriching them with vitamins. The conducted researches have allowed working out compositions of liquid toilet soaps with the specified properties taking consumer preferences which meet the requirements of technological production process.

Keywords: liquid toilet soaps, foaming, foam stability, viscosity, consumer requirements.

Processes & Apparatus


Analytic solutions of the field distribution moisture content of particles with triangular symmetry

A.N. Ostrikov, D.S. Sayko, L.I. Lytkina, S.A. Shevtsov

An analytical solution of the field distribution of moisture content in the particle with a triangular symmetry. When this preference micro-kinetic based on the analysis of differential equations A.V. Lykov describing heat and mass transfer processes related to particle wet material in the form of tetrahedron under the influence of moisture content and temperature gradients. Previously obtained analytical solution for the distribution of temperature fields in particle with a triangular symmetry, for example, a single grain buckwheat, regarded as a given field to find moisture content. Taking into account the phase transition as the water evaporates from the free surface formed by the boundary conditions for the moisture content, the comparison of which with the boundary conditions of the third kind for the temperature distribution indicates that there is a material flow, whereas previously considered appropriate that flow heat transfer through the interface. On the assumption of the constancy of the rate of evaporation from the surface of the particles is proposed universal approach, according to which the system of equations of the drying process takes into account the dependence of the mass-transfer coefficient on the type and condition of the surface of the particle. It is shown that the solution of the resulting system of equations is the second mixed problem of the heat equation H.S. Carslaw and J.C. Jaeger and makes up ± 10% to calculate the variation of the differential moisture content from time to time. Analysis of the dependencies it possible to propose a method for calculating the kinetic laws of mass and heat transfer between the particles of the material being dried, tetrahedron-shaped, and a drying agent, which is used as superheated steam at atmospheric pressure.

Keywords: mathematical model, drying, particles in the form of tetrahedron, field moisture content.

Improvement of dried fruit processing using an apparatus with oscillating plate

P.P. Ivanov, A.F. Sorokopud, V.G. Lyakhovskiy

The possibility of using a batch-type apparatus with an oscillating plate for the intensification of dried apple extraction has been proved. The apparatus is a vertical cylindrical vessel, equipped with a coaxial rod, executing back-and-forth motions in a vertical plane. The oscillating plate, made in the form of a perforated disk, was fixed to the rod. Flanging was made along the periphery of the plate. The temperature of the water, used as an extracting agent, varied from 30 to 60°С. The parameters of plate operation were the following: the frequency of oscillations 16,7 Hz, the amplitude of oscillations 6 mm. The analysis of qualitative and quantitative parameters of extracts, obtained within 11 min of boiling in the apparatus, has proved the possibility of extraction in the apparatus at 50°С without extra losses of dry soluble substances, but preserving valuable thermolabile substances, which are usually destroyed while boiling. It has been established that compared to the traditional technology the outcome of dry soluble substances was 26% higher, the losses of vitamin C were 5,5 times lower and the losses of polyphenols – 29% lower. The rational temperature of extraction in the tested apparatus as 50°С is determined. The obtained extract was used as a semi-finished product for the production of non-alcoholic beverages with the mass-fraction of dry soluble substances 9,5 ± 0,2%. Produced drinks represented transparent pale yellow liquid without any sediment and foreign particles. Insignificant opalescence was observed in several samples.

Keywords: apparatus with oscillating plate, extraction, extract, dried apples, dried fruit drink.

Influence of the control parameters on throughput ability to filters for purification of sea water

A.I. Fedorova, S.D. Ugryumova

The experimental research of filtration of sea water in the Peter the Great Gulf used at the fish-breeding and fish processing enterprises is conducted. For the purpose to determining the impact of control parameters on throughput of bulk granular filters the experimental bench containing devices of the increased accuracy is developed. Measured temperature in the surface layers of the Peter the Great Gulf, mechanical impurities content, calcium, magnesium and salinity of filtrate. On experimental values of optimality criteria the corresponding most effective values in technological and economic related of the operating parameters and the maximum productivity of the filter are defined. Based on the obtained experimental data developed patent-clean 1-layer device for purification of sea water. The application for utility model of the multilayered device for purification of sea water is submitted.

Keywords: filtration, seawater, control parameters, experimental bench.

Food Engineering, Processes, Equipment & Automation of Food Production


Exergy analysis of cereal concentrate production line

S.A. Shevtsov, A.V. Ponomarev, E.A. Ostrikova

Cereal concentrates production method using superheated steam as a heat carrier with direct involvement of secondary energy resources in the boiling-drying process using compression heat pump is suggested. Functioning of complex technological production system of cereal concentrates implemented using microprocessor control of process parameters. For the preparation of heat carriers of different temperature potentials it is suggested to use refrigeration compressor unit operating in a heat pump mode. Halocarbon 12B1 CF2ClBr with a boiling point in the evaporator of –4°C and condensation temperature of 153,7°C should be used as a refrigerant. It is shown that the use of compression heat pump expands the boundaries of objects of different temperature potentials energy efficient integration based on recycling and recovery of waste energy. At the same time universal approach in creation of competitive heat pump technology for the production of heat and cold for simultaneously running processes of washing, boiling, drying and cooling of cereals was fully implemented. Exergy analysis was performed to estimate the energy efficiency of boiled and dried cereal production lines based on the method of Brodyansky, in accordance with the Shargut’s environmental model. Boiled and dried cereal heat production system was conventionally separated from the environment by the closed reference surface, and the inside of the system based on occurring heat transfer processes reference surfaces of washing, boiling, drying, cooling, industrial water preparation, heat carriers preparation in vapor compression refrigerating machine were separated. The scheme of exchange of material, thermal and energy flows with the environment, as well as between the reference surfaces is compiled. Internal and external exergetic losses in system and exergy capacity of material and energy flows are calculated. Exergetic efficiency of a high value in comparison with the known technology indicates the energy efficiency of the proposed cereal concentrates production line.

Keywords: exergy analysis, washing, boiling, drying, cooling, cereal, energy efficiency, exergy capacity.

Research of technical characteristics of device for solution proportioning

SH.M. Babaev, A.A. Askerova

The results of pilot studies of the device for solution proportioning are presented. The technological scheme of the portioning device is adduced, the principle of its work is described. Are defined dependence of specific weight and coefficient of solution consumption from its concentration, dependence of solution consumption at different angles of rotation of shaft of the device. Analytical expressions for determination of coefficient of regulation of solution concentration at various design data of the device and the modes of operation are received: pressure in system 0,05 MPa, liquid concentration 8%, temperature 25°C. The obtained results can be used at design of portioning devices for regulation of solution concentration.

Keywords: solution proportioning, equipment for solution proportioning, regulation of solution concentration.

Increase level ecological safety process cleaning paddy rice from the impurity by LLC “Southern rice company”

A.P. Donenko, T.G. Korotkova, O.V. Melekhina

We consider the one-step processing technology paddy rice at the reprocessing enterprise LLC “Southern Rice Company”. Plant rice processing capacity of 40000 tonnes per year is intended for acceptance, post-harvest handling, drying, grain storage, production, packing and storage of cereals. Particulate air pollution in the process of paddy rice is one of the main disadvantages of deterioration of working conditions and environmental pollution. Measurements of harmful impurities in the aspiration networks AN-1–AN-10 first stage of cleaning carried out in accordance with the methodology handbook on the calculation, regulation and control of emissions into the atmosphere with a differential pressure gauge digital DPG-01M, gas sampling probe OP-221 TC and sample probe PZ BM “Atmosphere”. The characteristics of aspiration systems as air pollutants before and after reconstruction: grain dust concentration at the inlet and outlet of the aspiration network, air flow, the efficiency of cleaning, pollutant emissions. It was found that after the reconstruction of aspiration networks and the introduction of bag filter cyclone total emissions of air pollutants have decreased from 121,673 to 22,164 tons in year. At the output of AN-7 grain dust concentration was 1,59 mg/m3 versus 569,5 mg/m3 prior to reconstruction. However, emissions of pollutants into the AN-1, AN-2, AN-3 and AN-6 remain significant, and requires modernization of outdated or installation of new equipment.

Keywords: cleaning paddy rice, grain dust, aspiration, ecological safety.

Optimization service processes of catering establishment

M.P. Malykhina, I.V. Kakubava

The automated system (AS) for the catering establishments (CE) for the purpose of optimization service processes of clients is offered allowing clients to obtaine quickly information on the services provided CE, independently to make the order and to pay it by means of the mobile phone. The catering establishment can be connected to system, having registered in it and having provided information on menu offered them. It is enough to clients to install once mobile application and after that to make the order in any CE, using services considered the AS. The offered AS allows: to reduce an order waiting time, to reduce working load of the personnel, to use one applications for service in several CE, to define preferences of client thanks to database.

Keywords: mobile application, catering establishments, Wi-Fi, QR-code, NFC.

Methods of Investigation, Quality & Safety of Food Products


Rice quality assessment using modern methods of single grains color characteristics analysis

V.A. Ziyatdinova, A.Yu. Shazzo, S.V. Usatikov, I.I. Pogorelova

This paper provides express-analysis algorithms in machine vision systems of number of factors having influence on objective rice consumer quality and safety assessment: estimation of color characteristics uniformity on single grains surface, recognition of local areas defining defective condition or damage occurrence caused by cereal’s pests, spontaneous heating effect in rice windrows or during silo storage, drying process, etc. Data acquisition and color characteristics analysis at RGB and HSL scales were made for momentary flat video images of machine vision systems using wavelet spectrum approximating coefficients, on basis of statistical distribution both on single grains surface and grain mass at sampling or continuous inspection.

Keywords: computer vision, RGB and HSL color characteristics, wavelet analysis, rice kernel.

Research of dough rheological properties with use of simplex lattice method

A.YU. Shazzo, M.P. Bakhmet, N.V. Matsakova, S.B. Meretukova, E.E. Dikolova

For the purpose of improvement of bakery products quality researches of dough rheological properties from the wheat baking flour obtained from the grain which is grown up in Omsk and Novosibirsk areas and Krasnodar region are conducted. With Farinograph-E (Brabender) use are defined water absorbing ability of flour, education time, stability and extent of fluidifying of the dough obtained from separate samples of flour and their mixes (50 : 50). It is established that the stability of dough with the smallest extent of fluidifying is characteristic for sample of the flour obtained from grain of wheat which is grown up in Krasnodar region. The simplex lattice method of planning studied interaction of flour samples by drawing up mixes on the studied technological indicators obtained on Farinograph-E. The results of the conducted researches can be used when developing methods of management of manufacture processes of bakery products.

Keywords: baking wheat flour, dough rheology, structural and mechanical properties of dough, farinograph, simplex lattice method.

Comparative assessment of biological value of nontraditional types of plant raw materials

T.M. Gukasyan, N.V. Ilchishina, N.A. Tarasenko

The work purpose – an assessment of biological value of cock’s head seeds in comparison with other types of nontraditional plant raw materials by method of biological testing with use of infusorians Tetrahymena pyriformis. The relative biological value (RBV) of proteins of cock’s head seeds, grape seeds, spelt grains and orange fibers is determined. It is established that RBV of protein of cock’s head seeds makes 58% in relation to casein that surpasses RBV of other studied samples for 11–13%. Thus, by biotesting method with use of infusorians Tetrahymena pyriformis it is proved that cock’s head seeds can be used for increase of nutritional value of product as components of compounding of confectionery.

Keywords: nontraditional plant raw materials, cock's head seeds, Tetrahymena pyriformis, relative biological value.

Choice substantiation of fat for production of confectionery glazes

Z.A. Baranova, I.B. Krasina, T.I. Timofeenko, P.S. Krasin

The regularity of formation of fatty confectionery glazes on the basis of substitutes of cocoa butter of non-lauric and lauric groups: Ekolad 1401-33 and Ekolad 3001-35 S is proved. Technical and consumer characteristics and physical indicators of quality of the studied fats are provided. It is established that for fats Ekolad 3001-35 S and Ekolad 1401-33 temperature of full fusion doesn’t exceed the recommended value, and temperature of full fusion of confectionery fat Ekond 1402-36 is slightly higher that can promote refractoriness and formation of tallowy taste of glaze. The smallest period of hardening at substitute of cocoa butter of lauric type Ekolad 3001-35 S. The similar characteristic of crystallization testifies to technological effectiveness and simplicity of use this type of fats. Extent of shrinkage of substitutes of cocoa butter of lauric type is slightly more, than non-lauric type, the smallest extent of shrinkage the sample of confectionery fat Ekond 1402-26 possessed. Definition of mass fraction of solid triglycerides in the studied fats with use of nuclear magnetic resonance method in the range of temperatures from 10 to 35°C allowed to establish that the greatest hardness characterizes fat Ekolad 3001-35 S. It is established that in comparison with fats of non-lauric group substitute of cocoa butter of lauric type Ekolad 3001-35 S has advantage thanks to existence of sharp profile of melting that will provide more intensive crystallization of glaze on product surface. Use of the studied fats in production of confectionery glazes provides increase of production safety at standard indicators of quality.

Keywords: cocoa butter substitutes, lauric fat, non-lauric fat, fatty glaze.

Mechanisms of hydrosulphuric tone formation in table grape wines

N.M. Ageeva, G.F. Muzychenko, S.D. Burlaka

The hydrosulphuric tone is frequent defect of grape wines. Formation of hydrogen sulfide during fermentation is caused as concentration and the nature of the present sulphurous connections, and races of the yeast used at fermentation. In work research results of mechanisms of hydrogen sulfide formation in grape wines are presented, the assessment of role of fermental systems of yeast in these processes is given. Fermentation of grape must from white grapes of variety Bianka was carried out in anaerobic conditions distributings of various races of domestic cultures of yeast, and also cells of active dry yeast. Concentration of hydrogen sulfide was defined upon termination of fermentation of sugars and after long endurance of wine material on yeast deposit. As a result of the conducted researches influence of yeast race on formation of hydrogen sulfide and its carbothiolic derivatives is shown. Possible mechanisms of process which basis knowledge of fermental systems activity are presented. Classification of the studied races of yeast by ability to synthesize hydrogen sulfide is given.

Keywords: wine yeast, hydrosulphuric tone, alkyl sulphide, fermental systems.

Consumer properties complex assessment of new samples of liquid toilet soap of the premium class

V.V. Illarionova, E.O. Vnukova, D.G. Gritsenko, E.N. Guba, E.A. Verbitskaya

The consumer properties complex assessment of liquid toilet soaps manufacture on the formulations developed by authors is carried out. The assessment of quality indicators of the developed liquid toilet soaps was carried out according to requirements of the existing normative and technical documents. In addition were accelerated aging of the developed samples of liquid toilet soap for confirmation of stability of consumer properties is carried out for long time. Tests of the accelerated aging showed that samples of the developed liquid soap can be stored without loss of quality indicators within 24 months. The assessment of consumer characteristics of samples of the developed liquid toilet soaps was carried out with involvement of consumers. Tests showed that the developed soap better looks after skin of hands, than the control samples released by the industry. Consumers noted the good moistening and softening properties of the developed liquid soaps, improvement of appearance of hands skin. The carried-out complex assessment of consumer properties of the developed liquid toilet soaps of the premium class confirmed their high quality and compliance to requirements of the existing normative and technical documents.

Keywords: liquid toilet soaps, soap qualitative characteristics, shelf life of soap, consumer requirements.

Short Reports


Use of flour from vegetable oyster in technology of bakery products

O.L. Vershinina, YU.F. Roslyakov, V.V. Gonchar

Article is devoted to development of technology of the improved bakery product with use of mix of premium wheat baking flour and the flour obtained from vegetable oyster. The chemical composition of the vegetable oyster possessing unique treatment-and-prophylactic properties is given. On the basis of experimental data the technological scheme of obtaining flour from vegetable oyster including washing, cutting, drying in microwave field and cryo-crushing in liquid nitrogen is developed. The flour ratio from vegetable oyster and premium wheat flour in prototypes was varied from 1 : 5 to 1 : 13. The expediency of using a mixture of baking wheat white flour and flour obtained from vegetable oyster the production of new and improved varieties of bakery products is substantiate.

Keywords: flour from vegetable oyster, microwave drying, quality of bakery products.

Influence of joint introduction lupine seed flour and improvers on bread quality

A.S. Zyuzko, A.A. Bashtovaya

The additive in bakery products for increase their biological value of lupine seed flour in number of more than 5% to mass of flour worsens the main indicators of bread quality. Therefore influence on quality of bread from wheat flour of general purpose of introduction of lupine seed flour together with the fermental preparation “Fungamil Super AX” and complex improver “Magimix. Relaxation of gluten” is investigated. By results of the analysis of the baked samples positive influence of each of the improving additives on the main indicators of bread which are at the level of control sample is established. The total compressibility of crumb of prototypes at dosage 10% lupine seed flour increased for 3%, and their plasticity in comparison with control increased from 50 to 100%. Thus, expediency of introduction of lupine seed flour increasing the nutrition and biological value of bakery products together with the additives lowering physical properties of gluten and dough is shown.

Keywords: lupine seed flour, fermental preparations, complex improvers, bread quality.

Use of high-temperature thermal sterilization and electromagnetic field microwave in the production technology of quince compote

A.F. Demirova, G.I. Kasyanov, A.M. Darbisheva, M.M. Akhmedova, T.N. Daudova

The researches results on development of modes of high-temperature rotational sterilization of compote from quince with use of two-level microwave processing before and after pouring the fruit syrup are presented. New modes of thermal sterilization of compote from quince in banks of 0,35, 0,5 and 1 l with preliminary heating in microwave field are established. It is revealed by the conducted researches that the developed modes provide essential reduction of duration of thermal treatment of preserved products and improvement of quality of finished goods.

Keywords: compote from quince, sterilization mode, microwave heating, high-temperature heating, sterilizing effect.

Development of ketchup formulation with cherry plum puree additive

E.N. Tsarakhova, F.L. Kudzieva, V.P. Tsotsieva

The results development studies of a formulation of ketchup with cherry plum puree additive are presented. At introduction to structure of ketchup of cherry plum puree need of use of vinegar for giving of piquancy and as preservative, and also synthetic structure-forming agent disappears as the pectin containing in a cherry plum is a thickener and promotes increase of viscosity of a product and uniformity of its consistence. Optimization of a components ratio in formulation was carried out on the basis of an assessment of organoleptic indicators of ketchup samples with various contents of cherry plum puree. It is established that the most harmonious taste had a product at addition of cherry plum puree in quantity from 2 to 5 kg on 30 kg of tomato puree. Besides, thanks to the raised contents in a cherry plum of organic acids, vitamins, micro and macroelements the developed ketchup possesses the increased nutrition and biological value.

Keywords: cherry plum, ketchup, tomato paste, cherry plum puree.
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