The analysis of current trends in development of the range of wafer products is carried out. It is shown that the wafers taking an essential place in the market of flour confectionery thanks to existence in their structure of two components, possess considerable assortment potential. Growth of interest in products of healthy food, preventive appointment opens big prospects in development of new types of wafer products. One of the priority directions of expansion of the range of wafer products is manufacture of dietary production with use of sweeteners – an isomalt, xylite, stevioside. Good prospects are opened by possibility of enrichment of wafer stuffings various biologically active agents, dietary fibers and valuable natural nutrients. Diabetic wafers, wafers with the low content of gluten, with the raised nutrition value, the containing natural antioxidants are produced. Possibilities of use in compounding of wafer products of non-traditional vegetable raw materials are shown.Keywords: wafer products, range of wafer products, enrichment of products, functional products.
Table of contents for # 4 (346), 2015
Chemistry of Food Products & Materials
Effect of growth factors and mineral additive on the component composition and quality parameters of apple wine
During the fermentation of apple juice that contains an insufficient amount of assimilable forms of nitrogen compounds, an important problem is the choice of an optimal vitamin and mineral supplements for the wine yeast. The possibility of using of growth factors and mineral additives to accelerate the fermentation of apple juice and improve the organoleptic characteristics of apple wine was investigated. As growth factors and mineral additives used diammonium phosphate, nicotinic acid, thiamine hydrochloride, folic acid, this was added in the samples of apple juice in an amount of 50 mg/dm3. The fermentation of apple juice was carried out at a temperature of 20°C with the addition of wine yeast company Red Star Star Pasteur Champagne in the amount of 2%. Fermentation was carried out under the hydraulic valve. Duration of fermentation is 12 days. It was installed that all the studied additives have a positive effect on the completeness of the sugars fermentation in apple juice. The greatest increase of the speed of sugars fermentation is observed with the addition of diammonium phosphate. Nicotinic acid and thiamine hydrochloride have the least impact on the overall antioxidant activity of the obtained apple wine; additive folic acid supplementation reduces the total antioxidant activity more than twice. Additive of folic acid, nicotinic acid and thiamine chloride resulted in a significant increase in the formation of aromatic compounds, with a positive impact on taste and organoleptic qualities obtained apple wine and the distillate based on it. Complex additive consisting of a mineral component of diammonium phosphate and three vitamins – nicotinic acid, folic acid and thiamine chloride is proposed.Keywords: apple wine, mineral additives, growth factors, nutrition yeast.
The researches results of change of chemical composition, physical and chemical and antioxidant properties of ice cream within 3 months of storage are presented. The new types of ice cream containing vegetable additives of fruit and vegetable puree and spices for giving to product of antioxidant properties are investigated. Acidity of samples of ice cream, time of beginning of thawing, content of vitamin C, phenolic substances and flavonoids, and also a number of indicators of antioxidant properties of ice cream are defined. It is established that introduction of an additive of fruit and vegetable puree and spices considerably slows down oxidizing processes in fatty phase of ice cream, and also increases its resistance to thawing. The optimum shelf life of ice cream with fruit and vegetable puree in which well preserved antioxidant properties is defined.Keywords: ice cream, fruit and vegetable puree, antioxidant properties, shelf life.
Whey due to the presence of whey proteins is an essential component of functional food and dairy beverages of high biological value. The stability of the proteins whey used in the production of fruit- whey drinks has been studied during the storage in the presence of priority organic contaminants: phenol, chlorophenol and chloroform which are formed in water for the production of these drinks during chlorination in water preparation. It has been revealed that the stability of proteins in fruit-whey drinks does not change in the presence of chloroform. The reduction in the concentration of the proteins of fruit-whey drinks and priority contaminants phenol and chlorophenol has been established in case of joint presence. The mechanism of interaction between essential and nonessential whey amino acids (cysteine, methionine, valine, leucine, tryptophan, glutamine and others) and phenol and chlorophenol was grounded theoretically. The results of the research showed that the total protein content of the whey, made with water, phenol and chlorophenol, decreased by 10% and the content of phenol and chlorophenol – by 3–20% depending on the amino acid. To prevent the reduction of quality of fruit-whey drinks the water used for their production must be subjected to the additional purification from organic substances.Keywords: fruit-whey drinks, whey proteins, essential acids, phenol, chlorophenol.
Features physico-chemical composition of husks of grapes of different varieties and processing technologies
The possibility of using husks of grapes for the purpose of obtaining a new product, identical dietary fibers is analyzed. The feasibility of its use due to the fact that it is, on the one hand, can be a source of valuable components and sorbent center or immobilization of organic compounds and microorganisms. The study object were husks of grapes: from mixed varieties white grapes, obtained after separation of the juice (must) – sweet; sweet pink grape variety Pinot Gris; the sweet red grape varieties Pinot Noir (after infusion); red fermented from mixed varieties red grape. All samples of husks of grapes obtained from processing of grapes with separation of the ridges. Studied mechanical composition husks, found that the highest content of fruit peel was in samples sweet husks of grapes. The chemical composition of husks of grapes is investigated. For this extraction was carried out with hot water (50–60°C) for 30–60 min at water ratio of 1 : 1 by mass with subsequent recalculation of indicators on 1 kg of husks of grapes. In the extract determined mass concentration of organic acids and metal cations by capillary electrophoresis with application of the device Kapel. Considered component content of organic acids and cations of metals and their dependence on technology for the processing of grapes. Revealed that the total concentration of organic acid completely correlate with the trend of titratable acids. Found significant quantities of related forms of organic acids. All husks of grapes samples have relatively high concentrations of alkaline earth metal cations. Found that the mechanical composition and concentration of biologically valuable components in husks of grapes depend on technology for the processing of grapes. The greatest number of biologically valuable components identified in sweet husks of grapes.Keywords: husks of grapes, organic acids, cations of metals, ridges, peel and seeds grape.
The oxidation of table white wine is a major problem of the modern winemaking technology. Some loss varietal flavor and the formation of polymeric forms of phenolic compounds, in particular, condensed tannins, is a result of substandard products. The phenolic complex is an important element that should be considered in the evaluation some technological properties wine varieties. The study presents the experimental data obtained in the research of phenolic complex of technical white grape varieties generative breeding NSC “Institute of viticulture and winemaking n. a. V.E. Tairov”: Aromatnyi, Zagrey, Iskorka, Muskat Odesskiy for the period of 2012–2014. The technological reserve of phenolic compounds for each variety, the oxidizing and maceration capability of studied varieties were identified. The enzymatic activity of grape was presented. It is established that technological margin of phenolic substances of grapes does not exceed the maximum permissible values, but investigated varieties tend to have high accumulation of phenolic substances during the ripening process of grapes that must be considered in the selection of the technological scheme of processing eliminating the processes of grapes crushing and maceration of the pulp to minimize contact between the must with the solid particles of berries. Some main recommendations are given for the processing of generative breeding grape varieties for high quality table white wines.Keywords: grape, table white wine, phenolic complex of grapes, technological reserve of phenolic substances.
Influence of technological parameters on change in the content of protein in the manufacture of extruded flour
Changes in protein content during the production of flour by extrusion of wheat, hulless and hulled forms of barley and oats are investigated. As variable parameters selected temperature effects on raw materials in the extrusion process and the passage of grain in the extruder at high temperatures. The temperature range of 130–180°C, time 6–10 s. Differences hulled and hullless forms of barley and oats on the physico-chemical parameters: protein content, fiber and ash content are marked. It is established that during the extrusion grain protein becomes more digestible due to the rupture of intermolecular bonds, which significantly increases its value. A mathematical model of the changes in physico-chemical characteristics of extruded grain depending on the extrusion temperature and processing time is constructed. The dependence of the protein content in the grain during extrusion at different temperatures and processing time hulless and hulled forms of barley and oats was calculated. Optimum parameters of the technological mode of processing of hulless and hulled forms of barley and oats were determined.Keywords: grain, flour, extrusion, barley, wheat, oats, temperature of extrusion, time of extrusion.
The researches results of possibility use of the mash obtained from white cabbage in production of wheat bread are presented. The chemical composition of the white cabbage possessing unique treatment-and-prophylactic properties is given. Influence on properties of semi-finished products and quality of wheat bread of additive of mashed from white cabbage, fresh, frozen and boiled on couple is investigated. In the prototypes were made from 5 to 9% of additive. Data of trial laboratory pastries showed that introduction of mashed from frozen white cabbage most rationally and allows to manufacture bread of bigger specific volume, with higher porosity and the best elastic properties of crumb. Introduction of mashed from the frozen white cabbage in number of no more than 7% to the mass of flour is recommended. The offered additive allows to expand a source of raw materials and the range of bakery products, to raise their nutrition value, to give a preventive orientation.Keywords: white cabbage, cabbage puree, wheat baking flour, indicators of bread quality.
The new way of purification of grape seed oil for subsequent its application in cosmetic products is offered. The mechanism of process of sorption and alkaline refining essentially differs from classical in that refining is carried out in one stage. The reaction of neutralization of free fatty acids happens on limit of the section of phases a solid body/liquid and allows: partially to lower the content of free fatty acids, to reduce the content of chlorophyll and others the undesirable accompanying substances, to reduce losses of neutral fat, not to allow removal of valuable fraction of wax, to keep unique properties of oil and to provide its high quality. The technological scheme of laboratory installation of sorption and alkaline refining grape seed oil is presented. The method of sorption and alkaline refining of oils includes the introduction into the oil heated to temperature of 90–120°C activated bleaching clay, maintaining at residual pressure of 0,2 • 10–3 MPa for 35–50 min. Sorption of alkaline refining allows at single stage of refining removed from untreated oils phospholipids to 0,22 ± 0,01%, to reduce the acid number to 1,2 ± 0,05 mg KOH/g, the content of chlorophyll to 20,0 ± 0,1%, anisidine number to 1,33 ± 0,05. In the obtained grape oil wax-like substances remain. The grape seed oil produced in offered way at its use as ingredient of fatty phase of cosmetics allows to increase quality of emulsion products.Keywords: grape seed oil, lipid composition, accompanying substance oils, refining, bleaching, bleaching clays, hydration, neutralization.
The using of natural antioxidants in the formulation is the one of the technological methods that can help to reduce oxidative damage of the lipid component and extend the shelf life of sausages. The authors proposed to introduce into the sausage meat natural antioxidant additives to obtain the finished product with functional properties and traditional organoleptic characteristics. The results of the peroxide and thiobarbituric indexes changes during storage of the test and control samples of sausages have been showed. The natural water-soluble antioxidant – green tea extract GUARDIAN™ Green Tea Extract 20S – quantities 0,1–0,4% by weight in the sausages formulation increasing the physiological value of the final product, prolonging the induction period of the lipid oxidation, reducing the rate of formation of primary and secondary oxidation products.Keywords: cooked sausages, green tea extract, lipid oxidation, the shelf life of the product.
Possibility of use of hydrated pectin, obtained from medicinal dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), in the formulation of jelly-fruit marmalade with the aim of imparting to it functional properties is investigated. The influence of processing conditions on the yield and properties of hydrated pectin is studied. For the isolation of pectin used air-dried, crushed to a particle size of 1–5 mm samples of the aerial parts of the dandelion, which is 3 times was extracted with fresh portions of distilled water at a temperature of 25, 70 and 100°C. Liquor ratio 1 : 10, the duration of each treatment 2 hours. Water extract were combined, concentrated under vacuum to 1/20 of the original volume. The obtained concentrate was precipitated hydrated pectin by 2-fold volume of 96% ethanol at room temperature. The precipitate was filtered, washed with ethanol and diethyl ether, dried in a vacuum closet. Found that the obtained samples of hydrated pectin have a high degree of esterification ranging from 84 to 92,8%, it indicates the possibility of their use in the confectionery industry as a gelling agent. After demineralization the degree of esterification of hydrated pectin decreased to 25–35% depending on treatment temperature. Gelling ability of hydrated pectin is almost independent of the temperature of its release. The maximum yield of hydrated pectin characterized by a high content of pectin, degree of esterification, complexing and gelling abilities obtained at 100°C. In its structure defined 22 macro- and microelement. Recipe jelly-fruit marmalade with the addition of hydrated pectin (0,5% yield). Research results of organoleptic and physico-chemical characteristics of the obtained samples of marmalade provide evidence of conformity to requirements of GOST 6442–89. The add hydrated pectin from medicinal dandelion in recipe marmalade allows to enrich the product of macro- and microelements, improve its nutritional value.Keywords: hydrated pectin, aerial parts dandelion, jelly-fruit marmalade.
The analysis of works devoted to study the influence of pulsed electric field (PEF) on the properties of various vegetable raw materials and food products is carried out. Possibility of use of the PEF in order to intensify the process of extraction of biological active components from fruits vegetables and oily seeds is investigated. The mechanism of the impact of the PEF on the cell membrane of plant raw materials is described. The formula for calculation of the rate of destruction of cells is given. The need for optimization of the electrical parameters of the PEF is shown. The effectiveness of the PEF in the process of oil extraction from sunflower seeds installed.Keywords: pulsed electric field, extraction of vegetable raw materials, intensification of extraction process, oil yield, biological active components.
The possibility of chickpea flour application in gluten-free diet has been grounded. The fractional composition of chickpea protein with Osborne method for chickpea grade “Krasnokutsky 28”, “Privo 1” growed in Saratov region has been defined. It is established that proteins of chick-pea of the studied varieties are presented generally by albumine and globulins, the total maintenance of the specified protein fractions makes about 97%; prolamin and glutelin are allocated in insignificant quantity. Use of chick-pea beans products after processing in technology of preparation of foodstuff with the low-gluten content is represented perspective. The vegetable sauces formulations with chickpea flour substituted of wheat flour have been worked out. The chickpea flour quantity in vegetable sauces formulation is not more than 7% by weight. The organoleptic and physico-chemical parameters of sauces have been defined. A comparative analysis of the mineral and amino acid composition of chick-pea and wheat flour has been carried out. The chickpea flour application in vegetable sauces formulation enriched the product with macro- and micronutrients, including selenium, improved the fatty-acid and amino-acid composition of final product.Keywords: chickpea flour, vegetable sauces, gluten-free diet.
Influence of electrophysical methods impact on development of yeast and pathogenic microorganisms in processing grape wines
Processing influence by electromagnetic field of extremely low-frequency (EMF ELF) and vibration impact on activity of wine yeast, lactic and acetic bacteria in the course of wine fermentation is investigated. In experiences used pure culture of yeast of race Sparkling 7-10C and active dry yeast of race of IOC 18-2007. Vibration influence was carried out in the range of the frequencies of 1,6–23,3 Hz with an amplitude of fluctuations of 1–5 mm lasting process of 15–120 min. Processing of EMF ELF was carried out with frequencies from 3 to 30 Hz with the size of magnetic induction 0,9 mT within 30 min. It is established that stimulating effect on growth of yeast cells has frequency of vibration oscillations of 6,6 Hz, and inhibiting and retarding the growth of the frequency of 16,6 and 23,3 Hz. Frequency EMF ELF stimulating cell growth and biomass accumulation of yeast race Sparkling 7-10C – 16 Hz, strains IOC 18-2007 – 3 and 16 Hz. EMF ELF frequency suppressing development of acetic and lactic bacteria 30 Hz. Thus, electrophysical methods impacts allow regulating the microbiological processes proceeding by production of grape wines.Keywords: fermentation of wine, wine yeast, lactic and acetic bacteria, vibration impact, electromagnetic field.
Studied the spontaneous microflora of sludge apple mash and applications wild strains of yeast in apple wine. Currently, the production of fruit wines using yeast family Saccharomycetaceae, namely Saccharomyces ellipsoideus. The vast majority of them belongs to the species Saccharomyces vini, Saccharomyces oviformis, Saccharomyces uvarum. Spontaneous fermentation of apple juice can cause wild yeast. For wild yeasts are Zygosaccharomyces, Schizosaccharomyces, Saccharomycodes Ludwigii, Schizosaccharomyces acidodevorax, Hanseniaspora apiculata, Pichiaalcoholophila, Candidamycoderma. From sludge apple wines made from the zoned sorts of apples three genus of yeast are isolated and identified. As a result of studies found that the genus of yeast ferments glucose Saccharomycodes but not ferments sucrose. The role of yeast in the fermentation of apple juice requires further study. The genus Saccharomyces ferments most of the sugars. Gassing intensive, hence, the rate of fermentation of sugars above. Yeast genus Kloeckera Hanseniaspora may be responsible for lighting produced wine base, due to manifestation of enzymatic activity against polysaccharides. It is shown that the culture of wild strains of yeast can be used in the practice of apple wine that provides a good clarification wine material having a harmonious taste with pronounced honey and floral tones.Keywords: apple wine, yeast, Saccharomycodes, Kloeckera Hanseniaspora, Saccharomyces, wine clarification.
Use of SO2-solvent cake of plant raw materials in the production technology of aromatized wine drinks
The expediency of use of CO2-cakes of aromatic plant raw materials for production of the aromatized wine drinks is studied. At CO2-extraction from aromatic raw materials are separated the aromatic oils, alkaloids, glycosides and other compounds having negative impact on human body and reducing bottling stability of wines and wine drinks. Thus in cakes there is a large number of the aromatic components which are well dissolved at high concentration of ethyl alcohol. Some samples of grape mash which fermentation was carried out with use of various dosages of CO2-solvent cakes of aromatic raw materials are prepared. In obtained wine materials defined mass concentration of aromatic components: terpenic alcohols, ethers, phenol carboxylic acids and ketones, and also organoleptic indicators. It is established that the fermentation of grape mash on CO2-solvent cakes of aromatic raw materials accelerates fermentation process, enriches the final products with aromatic and extractive connections of vegetable raw materials, promotes obtaining the clarified aromatized wine drinks demanding minimal processing treatment for achievement of bottling stability.Keywords: aromatized wine drinks, CO2-solvent cakes, aromatic raw materials, fermentation, terpenic alcohols, ethers, phenol carboxylic acids.
Efficiency of using non-traditional growth substances manufactured from by-products of agricultural production
Studying of possibility of using the new non-traditional safe for people and more preferable in sanitary and hygienic relation growth substances in clonal micro-propagation technologies of garden plants became the purpose of researches. Growth regulation activity of the new substances in regeneration of explants of an apple-tree and plum in vitro is studied. These substances was manufactured as a result of profound processing of by-products of agricultural production. In work we used such techniques: way of clonal micro-propagation of plants in vitro, statistical data processing by method of the dispersive analysis. The objects of researches are stocks of an apple-tree of the SK series: SK 2, SK 3, SK 4, SK 7 and plum of variety Stanley. Established that at regeneration of an apple-tree micro-sprouts in vitro instead of a standard combination of growth substances of 6-BAP 1,5 mg/l + gibberellic acid of 1 mg/l can be used furolan in concentration of 0,004 mg/l. This substance renders at the same time multiplication effect and effect of lengthening, thus coefficient of reproduction and quality (number of leaves, stalk existence, intensity of green coloring of leaves, etc.) of plantlets exceed the standard. On the explants of plum of variety Stanley the preparation furolan showed retardant properties. On the basis of results divergence of plum and an apple-tree micro-shoots regeneration on the medium with addition furolan made a conclusion about breed and cultivar specificity of stimulating effect of the synthesized preparation.Keywords: growth substances, regeneration and multiplication of microshoots, explants, in vitro culture, furolan, apple-tree, plum.
The analysis of the causes of overweight and obesity in different countries and roles in this process diet, which is dominated by high-energy foods and digestible carbohydrates with insufficient fiber and protein bearing products is carried out. The data on the effect of obesity on human health and its economic consequences are presented. The solutions of obesity problem by its prevention due to consumption of the functional foods in particular containing the food fibers of plant origin having unique treatment-and-prophylactic and improving properties in structure are proved. The many studies on the development of functional foods that are recommended for obesity prevention are considered. Special attention is paid to functional confectionery products with balanced ratio of fatty acids.Keywords: obesity, prevention of obesity, functional foods, dietary fibers, ratio of fatty acids.
The results of development of a diet for people in post-stress condition, emergency-induced mass character, with the possibility of preparation of the recommended dishes in the field are presented. Accessibility of products from the point of view of cost, as well as their biological value was priority indicators in their selection. The use of Adyghe cheese having high indices of biological value and the degree of compliance of the composition of the formula of balanced nutrition were suggested in diet.Keywords: nutrition in emergency, post-stress condition, ration formulation, amino acid composition of products.
Development of new method of placing tobacco leaves for improve the technology of post-harvest processing of tobacco
The analysis of the impact of the type of placing tobacco leaves on the efficiency of drying is conducted. It is shown that the length and quality of drying leaves, energy and labor costs are closely associated with the physical condition of the tobacco mass and individual leaves in the conduct of production processes for handling, transport, storage. Type of placing is responsible for the success of the transport work and storage, and the method of drying the placing tobacco is responsible for the technology of this process. In All-Russian scientific research institute of tobacco, makhorka and tobacco products studies on the development of new technologies, equipment and work organization in the post-harvest processing of tobacco, in which the drying of tobacco leaves is the main technological process. Experiments were carried out with the use of new types of placing tobacco leaves, where the main element is a twin double-sided needle. Presents the procedure for placing the leaves using a new set of devices in the technology of post-harvest processing of tobacco. The stages of placing include: the formation of bundles of leaves at harvest; stringing the bundles of leaves on the twin double-sided needle; placement of the twin double-sided needle on hanger for double sided needles; the formation of the party consisting of several hangers for drying leaves in natural or artificial conditions; sealing the tobacco mass on the hanger in 2–2,5 times on account of twin double-sided needles to conduct completing of drying fibres and subsequent wetting of leaves; placing of dried tobacco into bales for temporary storage with a hydraulic press.Keywords: tobacco, post-harvest processing of tobacco, placing of tobacco leaves, drying tobacco, twin double-sided needle.
From the point of view of it is use in the technology of beer production, was describe the main physic-chemical, biochemical properties of triticale grain. Selected up the basic parameters of introduction of the malting process (the degree of soaking, the moisture content of the grain, the duration of the process of soaking and germination). Point of view chemicals and technologies, conducted a comparative analysis of barley grain, wheat and triticale. Consider a questions the quantitative and qualitative composition of the protein in the investigated grain. We studied the basic indicators of the quality of winter triticale of Kinelskaya 1 variety, which was grown on the territory of Samara region. Empower a recommendations on the use of triticale from malt from in brewing technology.Keywords: triticale, malt, protein, starch, malting process, hydrolytic enzymes.
Investigate the possibility of using a mixture of rye, buckwheat, oat flour and quinoa flour for biscuits production with low content of gluten, which can be recommended for celiacia, as well as preventive and curative product. The chemical composition, nutritional value, vitamins, macro- and microelements used in the flours are investigated. It is established that the content of protein, dietary fiber and other biologically valuable components quinoa flour is superior to buckwheat and oat flour. The optimum ratio of the number making the dough for biscuits rye, buckwheat, oat and quinoa flour: 20, 30, 20 and 30% respectively. Organoleptic evaluation of the products showed that the samples of the biscuits had the right shape, uniform golden-yellow color. According to the results of consumer survey 95% of respondents praised the taste and appearance of the product. Developed formulation of the biscuits will expand the range of gluten-free flour confectionery products.Keywords: biscuits, gluten free flour confectionery goods, quinoa flour, buckwheat flour, oat flour.
The researches results of possibility of use as the enriching additive to bakery products of powder from barberry fruits for purpose of functional properties giving to them are presented. Barberry fruits have high acidity that at their addition in bakery products promotes decrease in glycemic index. They also contain pectines, tocopherols, carotinoids, vitamin C, P-active substances. For obtaining an additive a barberry fruits dried up at temperature of 40–50°C and crushed to powdery state. Influence of additive of powder from barberry fruits in quantity from 1 to 5% for baking properties of flour and structural and mechanical properties of dough is investigated. It is established that the additive of powder from barberry fruits allows to reduce time of production of bread, promotes increase of nutrition value and improvement of consumer characteristics of finished product.Keywords: bread, barberry fruits, baking properties of flour, enrichment of foodstuff.
The researches results on development of new types of ice cream with natural sugar substitutes – stevia and stevioside are presented. The choice of these sugar substitutes is because they are natural substitutes for saccharose, have no energy value, do not affect the level of glucose in blood, contribute to reduction of systemic arterial pressure, possess a diuretic effect. Prescription composition of ice cream was determined by simulation with the aim of obtaining a product structure close to that of traditional ice cream with cream and fruit sorbet. Developed a line of ice cream “Radost”: based on dairy products, chocolate, fruity fillers – berry, grapefruit, blackcurrant. The formulations for new types of ice cream are given. The researches results their nutritional and energy value, and the glycemic evaluation are presented. Found that the content of mono- and di-sugars in ice cream “Radost” lower compared to traditional ice cream by 30–50%, the glycemic index is in the range of 19–29, glycemic load in the range of 4–6, which is lower than the traditional types of ice cream at 45–50%. Ice cream “Radost” refers to foods with a low glycemic index and can be recommended in different types of specialized nutrition.Keywords: ice cream, sugar substitutes, stevia, stevioside, glycemic index.
Coffee sludge obtained after production of instant coffee in coffee factory “Nestle – Kuban” was researched. Blend of coffee beans Arabica 60% and Robusta 40% was used to obtain instant coffee. The chemical composition of the coffee sludge taken immediately after extraction from it of water-soluble substances is studied in comparison with coffee grain. It is shown that the coffee sludge contains a number of physiologically valuable ingredients: proteins, lipids, dietary fiber and phenolic compounds. Research of amino-acid composition of proteins of coffee sludge showed that in it all essential amino acids are presented. It is established that in the lipid composition of the coffee sludge contains to 60,5% of unsaturated fatty acids (of which 50,1% of polyunsaturated). It was found that the safety indicators of the coffee sludge meet the requirements of TR CU and can be used for dietary supplements and functional components of food.Keywords: coffee sludge, chemical composition, lipids, amino acid composition of proteins.
Processes & Apparatus
Changing of electrophysical indeces quality of fresh squeezed out juices during their processing in the rotating magnetic field
Improvement of fresh squeezed out juices quality is possible by their mixing in the proper proportion and subsequent processing in the rotating electromagnetic field. The rotating magnetic field was created by the stаtor of a three-phase asynchronous motor, in which a capacitance with some juice was placed. The electromotive force (EMF), which arose between the electrodes, contributes to changing of electrophysical indices of juices quality. It has been proved that reducing of EMF of the investigated juices: apple, carrot, pumpkin, their mixture, as well as juice from sprouts of germinated wheat and extracts of germinated wheat grains occured after the processing in magnetic field in the function of time by 3,22–17,5%. It testifies to reducing of the redox-potential. It has been shown, that the juices treated by magnetic field reveal reducing properties and there fore possess sanitary action.Keywords: fresh squeezed out juices, electromotive force, magnetic field, oxidation-reduction potential.
Intensification of process of extraction of oil from sunflower seeds with application of pulsed electric field
Application of the pulsed electric field (PEF) as one of non-thermal of intensification methods of extraction process for the purpose of yield increase of oil from sunflower seeds is investigated. The crushed sunflower seeds processed PEF in the dielectric camera containing 2 lamellar titanic electrodes with diameter of 40 mm everyone. A gap between electrodes of 5 mm. The loading volume material 16 cm3. As electric impulses square pulse with various parameters were used. Experiments were made on the equipment of Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Singapore). For oil extraction from the processed PEF of sunflower seeds used solvent hexane. The indicator of destruction of cellular membrane caused by electric processing was determined by measuring the conductivity of the samples at different frequencies before and after treatment. On the basis of the obtained data constructed a graph of extent of influence processing parameters of PEF on yield oil indicators. The greatest influence on oil yield renders the electric field, then the solvent content and the processing time of PEF. It is established that processing of sunflower seeds of PEF during 30 s at intensity of field 7 kV/cm, the frequency 15 Hz, duration of impulse 30 mcs and the mass content of solvent in sample of 40% allowed to increase of oil yield indicator by 9%. The obtained values of the PEF optimum parameters can be used for an intensification of extraction process in semi-industrial and industrial scales.Keywords: pulsed electric field, sunflower seeds, extraction of oil from sunflower seeds, oil yield, experiment planning.
Considered thermodynamic approach to the description of drying kinetics. The key notion in using thermodynamic methods of analysing moisture transfer during drying and conditioning is the notion of potential. Here the dynamic function of the system state is understood, which is the same in all points of the system and during nonequilibrium state there is a gradient which determines the direction and the speed of transfer in a particular substance. Thermodynamic method of studying the processes of substance heat and mass transfer is based on law of energy conservation and conversion and the law of conservation of substance mass. Particularly important in this method is defining transfer potential which as a rule equals the partial derivative of the correspondingly chosen characteristic function by generalized coordinate. Depending on how the system interacts with the environment, the characteristic function could be internal energy U, enthalpy H, free energy F and Gibbs function Z. Mass transfer is caused by chemical potential which could be defined by taking respective partial derivatives from characteristic functions. There are several approaches to defining a chemical potential of moisture transfer of capillary-porous objects. The article proves that a simple but still as accurate as other approaches is the method of defining potential transfer introduced by L.M. Nikitina which is based on the thesis proved by her that the moisture binding energy is numerically equal to the potential absolute value which enables us to base calculations upon the experimental data on hygroscopic properties of particular materials. It was found with the help of splines that in the practically important for drying range of moisture, the dependence between the experimental potential and moisture content in untreated rice grain has a linear character.Keywords: drying theory, transfer potential, sorption, mathematical modeling, mass transfer.
We were studied the properties of corn as an object of transport and post-harvest treatment. We were analyzed the impact of the working bodies of machines and mechanisms on the integrity of the individual grains. We were considered the role of the broken and injured grain in a pile on the general condition of the grain mass. Also we were studied morphological characteristics of corn and differences in the hygroscopic properties of its germ and endosperm. As a result of the research, we were followed conclusions: the injury of corn occurs both at harvest and during transport and processing of grain; increased susceptibility to moisture absorption of the germ of corn affects the quality of the grain mass in the presence of her broken and injured grain. Thus, the number of grain from mechanical damage in the pile should be minimized by optimizing the processes of transport and post-harvest treatment, as well as through research of new materials and their use for the manufacture of the working bodies of technological machines and mechanisms.Keywords: corn grain, injury to grain, transportation of grain, hygroscopicity of grain.
To manufacture tobacco raw materials of high quality with minimal cost of labor, energy and materials should be combined shadow, sun and artificial drying methods using a single set of devices for placing leaves. In All-Russian scientific research institute of tobacco, makhorka and tobacco products developed and tested a set of devices, allowing to dry tobacco with the use of different combinations of natural and artificial heat. Set includes the following devices: twin double-sided needle, needle holder, hanger for double sided needles, carport for hangers with tobacco, dryer. The results of studies showing the benefits of using the developed set of devices compared to traditional devices for drying tobacco leaves. The data of thermal processing of tobacco leaves placed on the twin double-sided needles and hangers at the stages of fixing colors and completing of drying fibre in the shadow drying, which indicate improvements in the quality of dried tobacco leaves by increasing the amount of carbohydrates. Drying time is reduced for 35%. Commercial rating accounted for about 90% of the leaves of the first two commercial grades.Keywords: tobacco, method of tobacco drying, placing of tobacco leaves, heat treatment, twin double-sided needle.
Methods of Investigation, Quality & Safety of Food Products
Mass transfer potentials agree with the thermodynamic scale of mass transfer drying force and this is what creates essential advantages for representing the process of drying when the material being dried and the drying agent interact. Considering the established connection between a design potential and an experimental potential, parameters of the diffusion rate equation were identified for the problem of time-varying transfer of the experimental potential from the particle being dried through the mass transfer by the experimental data. A primary correlation analysis of the experimental data revealed a connection between drying parameters and kinetic coefficients of the equation. Kinetic dependences were grouped with regard to the most significant parameters of the drying process: the temperature and the speed of the drying agent. An important connection between the temperature and the speed of the drying agent has been discovered with the kinetic coefficient l1. To determine the effect of drying parameters on this coefficient, we implemented a multi-level plan of the second order in relation to drying parameters under study. For the numerical evaluation of the regression model, Excel utility “regression” was used, which allowed both to calculate coefficients of the regressive model and to get a statistical estimation of their significance. Considering a physical meaning of the kinetic coefficient l1 in the rice drying equation, the calculations were made to estimate the diffusion coefficient D. The study which was carried out enabled us to reveal a connection between drying parameters and kinetic coefficients of the diffusion equation for the problem of time-varying transfer of the experimental potential from the rice grain being dried. The analysis of the obtained data enabled us to get significant coefficients of the regression model which cause changes of the kinetic coefficient l1 and diffusion coefficient D.Keywords: mass transfer potential, drying kinetics, mathematical modeling, drying of grain.
This paper provides express-analysis methods for rice quality assessment with use machine vision systems (MVS). Samples of rice grains before the first system grinding of the rice mill OJSC “Krasnodarzernoprodukt”. The determination of the spectral properties of rice with the different nature of the damage was carried out on industrial design photoelectron separator ACE-3 Company Daewon GSI Co., Ltd. Single rice kernels local areas damaged by rice-stink bug surface sizes and color characteristics are estimated. Hue, saturation, lightness identification characteristics of rice kernels damaged areas are given according to international color scale HSL. The distribution of spectral functions in damaged areas is of practical importance for the effective solution of identification problems and also in the study of the action mechanism of pests in the rice caryopsis.Keywords: damaged rice, rice spectral characteristics, color characteristics, international color scale HSL, identification.
Problems of kneading dough technology and possibility of their decision on basis of systems approach principles
Revealed the problems of kneading dough technology, important directions of its perfection and prospects of development on the basis of system approach principles. Analyzed the contents of each of these directions, which cause a need to develop a primary topological scheme kneading dough consisting of series interrelated relatively of large, contiguous parts, i. e. subsystems represented in the form of aggregates corresponding to the conversion stage of the prescription components in dough with specific properties. It is shown that the specification of each subsystem should allow to identify the most significant factors affecting the properties of the dough, as well as identify patterns of change that can be used in the preparation of the dough and bread with predetermined properties and structure, while improving existing or developing new technology dough and on the basis of this innovative kneading machine, and thus outline the scope of the necessary theoretical and experimental studies.Keywords: kneading dough, bakery products, system approach, intensification of technological processes.
Research of the effect of fruit and vegetable puree additive on the properties of ice cream with use of mathematical methods
The article deals with and consider the impact of introduced additives fruit puree on the properties of ice cream: organoleptic characteristics, the content of phenolic compounds and flavonoids, antiradical, antioxidant activity, restoring force. It is shown that an increase in the dosage of 5 to 20% of apple puree and Pepper increases antioxidant indicators ice cream, while the organoleptic characteristics change unevenly, which is displayed on an assessment of the ice cream tasters. A mathematical model describing the influence of these parameters on the properties of ice cream. In this paper we propose a special method of processing databases in the form of tables, which uses methods of interpolation and approximation, choosing the appropriate algebraic polynomials, as well as other analytical dependences are widely used in engineering and technology research practice. This method of analytic extension of tabular data allows to transform the original (primary) table of experimental data in the summary (final) data table, which enables to solve certain problems of statistical and extreme content. The optimum application rate of fruit and vegetable puree in ice cream 15%.Keywords: fruit and vegetable purees, ice cream, anti-oxidant properties, mathematical model, interpolation and approximation.
The quality assessment was done of new wine drinks with the common name “Bouquet of Primorye”. Wine materials were prepared from wild (or were selected using wild) raw materials: аctinidia аrgutа, black currant varieties Bogataya, red raspberry varieties Iskra, growing in the Far Eastern region of Russia. These fruits have a high level of biologically active substances. For fortification technology drinks wine type port wine was used water-alcoholic extract of the Far Eastern Rosa rugosa. Formulation presented of new drinks wine. The organoleptic, physical-chemical, biochemical indices of drinks wine and the safety performance are studied of conventional winemaking techniques and methods of spectrophotometry, capillary electrophoresis, gas chromatography. It is shown that the new wine drinks from wild plants meet GOST 31729–2012, comprise natural bioflavonoids – phenolic compounds, including rutin, ascorbic acid, minerals (cations calcium, magnesium, total iron) in larger concentrations than wine grape drink. Found that the mass concentration of the toxic elements in the new products do not exceed the allowable values. The organoleptic characteristics of wine drinks and are presented. Conclusions about the possibility of obtaining new type of high-quality drinks wine from Far Eastern wild growing (or were selected using wild) fruits and berries. The wine drinks type port wine “Bouquet of Primorye” is characterized by high levels of biologically valuable components, natural identity and original taste.Keywords: drinks wine, Far East plants, biologically active substances, quality assessment of drink.
Determination of mass concentration of the coloring substances by analyzing of absorption spectrum of grape must
To determine the parameters of quality of the red wines studied mass concentration of the coloring substances (anthocyanins) by analyzing the absorption spectrum of grape must. The composition of anthocyanins depends on the grape variety and soil-climatic conditions of its growth. A variety of color of anthocyanins is due to the peculiarities of their structure and formation of complexes with metals. When exposure time of wine the content of anthocyanins is reduced as a result of their polymerization and precipitation. The content of anthocyanins in red wines is 30–500 mg/dm3. The spectra obtained dependence of the optical density of grape must from the wavelength of the incident light and the exposure time of the juice in the pulp. It is shown that the time for complete extraction of coloring components from grape skin in the must is 10 h. The method of mathematical analysis of the absorption spectrum of which showed the presence in the must four coloring components, provided their calculated spectra are shown.Keywords: grape juice, red wine, absorption spectra of coloring components, mathematical analysis of spectra.
Studies show that the standard mode of cigarettes smoking method ISO does not fully correspond to the real manner of smoking smokers and does not give reliable information about the quantity consumed as result of smoking toxic substances – tar and nicotine. Studies conducted in VNIITTI the connection between the amount of nicotine contained in the cigarette ends with quantities of nicotine and tar in the main stream of tobacco smoke is established. On this basis developed methodology reliable estimates of toxicity actually inhaled by the smoker smoke, presented in the work. To participate in the research of cigarettes smoking were involved in 53 smokers – men and women of different ages and with different years of smoking. In the experiment consisted of 24 cigarettes brands which had a different format, design, different contents of nicotine and tar in tobacco smoke. Preliminary conducted cigarettes smoking each cigarettes brand on smoking machine in different modes according to the method ISO. It is established that the method of spectrophotometric analysis based on the measurement of optical density of extract of cigarette ends gives more stable results in the content of toxic components in the smoke than gas chromatographic analysis. The results analysis indicates that the data on tar and nicotine in the smoke obtained by cigarettes smoking individual smokers significantly higher than the data determined by standard methods ISO. The regression equations are derived with fairly high degree of reliability which express the dependence of the exceeding extent the results shown individual smokers when cigarettes smoking on the data obtained by standard method ISO.Keywords: indirect measurement of toxic components of tobacco smoke, gas chromatographic analysis, spectrophotometric analysis, actually consumed amount of tar and nicotine.
Developed a range of cake products for the dietic food. The formulations of designed cupcakes is presented, studied their nutritional and biological value. Compared to traditional cooking cakes in new products reduced fat content in average 23,08–46,56%, carbohydrates – 15%, organic acids – 29,24 and 57,3%, energy value at 11–24 kcal (yield 25 g), increased the protein content 12,5–55,56%. Designed cakes meet the requirements of functional products, satisfying more than 15% of the daily requirements for amino acids and fatty acids. Conducted research of technological parameters of cakes: water absorption, water activity, dependencies between formulations components, evaluation of the process of forming the dough. It is established that dietary cakes have a fairly high water absorption that will have a positive impact on the rapid digestibility of cakes. The density and dispersion of dough cakes higher than that of the control sample on 27,69–63,86 and 35,09–82,24%, which demonstrates its compliance with the requirements of therapeutic nutrition.Keywords: cakes, diet products, quality assessment cupcakes, technological parameters, water activity.