Food technologyIssues → № 5-6 (347-348), 2015

Table of contents for # 5-6 (347-348), 2015

Scientific Review


Nutrition as factor of prevention of diabetes

N.A. Tarasenko, Z.A. Baranova

The literature are analysed and material for the reasons of incidence of diabetes and methods of its prevention is generalized. It is established that diabetes meets much more often among the persons having obesity. Obesity belongs to one of major factors of risk in development of diabetes. At the organization of improvement of the population methods of preventive medicine are important. Special relevance is gained by problem of food assortment expansion of functional purpose with treatment-and-prophylactic properties. Presents an the review of new development of confectionery products for prevention of diabetes, indicating the broad possibilities of the use of natural sugar substitutes and saccharose-containing products – maltitol, laktitol, fructose, isomalt in formulation of various confectionery: chocolate, ice cream, candies, caramel, chewing gum.

Keywords: diabetes, obesity, prevention of diabetes, confectionery, natural sweeteners.

Chemistry of Food Products & Materials


Influence of protein and nucleotide hydrolysates of marine origin on the growth and development of microorganisms used in food production

T.N. Pivnenko, M.V. Rogatovskikh, R.V. Esipenko

The evaluation of the use of amino-peptide and amino-nucleotide hydrolysates of marine origin as substances optimizing the growth of microorganisms used in food industry for creating functional food products was carried out. We studied the effect of hydrolysates on the properties of baker’s yeast, lactic acid bacteria, ciliates Tetrahymena pyriformis. To optimize the growth processes used enzymatic hydrolysates: Molluscam from the mantle scallop, Nucleatin from milt of chum salmon. The effect of hydrolysates to yeast cells was studied at the stage of their activation on nutrient medium made of flour, water and sugar at temperature of 30–35°C for 40–60 min. Evaluated the dependence of the growth and activity of yeast cells when adding from 1 to 5% of preparations for 120 min. The biggest growth of the yeast cells was observed at 1% concentration of both additives, the most significant increase in biomass occurred when adding amino-nucleotide hydrolysate in 2,4 times in comparison with the control. Further increases in additive concentration resulted in dose-dependent suppression of the growth of yeast. To obtain a fermented milk product cow’s milk or soy, sodium caseinate, ferment and hydrolysate mixed and homogenized 5–7 min. Prepared mixture was heated in air thermostat (38 ± 1)°C, endured 7 h. In the test samples with addition of 3% amino nucleotide hydrolysate showed an increase in the rate of growth of lactic acid bacteria. The duration of the fermentation mixtures with addition of the hydrolysate on the basis of cow milk amounted to 5 h, soy – 4 h, in the control samples – 6 h. When adding hydrolysates to control medium observed activation of metabolic processes of ciliates T. pyriformis. Thus, technological processes of products manufacture having a functional orientation, can be intensified by the use of protein and nucleotide hydrolysates from marine raw materials.

Keywords: protein and nucleoprotein hydrolysates, baking yeast, lactic acid bacteria, Tetrahymena pyriformis, functional products..

Investigation of the galactooligosaccharides synthesis process with lactose-fermenting yeast and lactic acid microorganisms

A.A. Kotova, S.A. Ryabtseva, A.D. Lodygin, A.A. Skripnyuk, A.B. Rodnaya

Results of the study of galactooligosaccharide (GOS) producing processes in lactose and whey permeate solutions using lactose fermenting yeast (Kluyveromyces marxianus, Candida kefyr) and lactic acid microorganisms (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Streptococcus thermophilus) are presented. Processes of the cultivation and autolysis of lactose fermenting yeasts, including together with the lactic acid micro-organisms may be used as the basis of в-galactosidase preparation for GOS synthesis. The GOS maximum concentration 50,9% was obtained by using Kl. marxianus SK and C. kefyr Y-203, fermentation at 52°С for 24 hours in whey permeate solution at 15% lactose concentration. Reducing the maximum degree of transglycosylation during co-cultivation of the yeast Kl. marxianus SK and lactic acid microorganisms L. acidophilus and St. thermophilus was observed. Adding St. thermophilus after yeast Kl. marxianus SK cultivation before autolysis process reduces both autolysis time (from 24 to 6 hours) and the GOS synthesis (from 24 to 8 hours), while maintaining of the GOS high yield.

Keywords: galactooligosaccharides, transglycosylation, lactose-fermenting yeast, lactic acid microorganisms..

Technical characteristics and biological value of soy products

M.P. Mogilny, T.V. Shlenskaya

Development of the new range of food with use of soy components is necessary for elimination of deficiency of full-fledged protein in different types of food, including treatment-and-prophylactic. The chemical composition and power value of soy seeds and soy products are investigated. The content of amino acids in them is calculated. It is shown that in food soy rather high content of trypsin inhibitors, but technological processing of soy in the course of manufacture of soy products reduces trypsin inhibitory activity depending on type of soy products in some tens times that does them safe for use in rational, treatment-and-prophylactic, children’s and gerontological types of food. The formulations of dishes and culinary products from soy products are developed for catering establishments. Recommendations about use of soy products in cookery are made.

Keywords: soy, soy products, amino-acid composition of protein, trypsin inhibitors, biological value of product..

Influence of culinary processing on chemical composition and nutrition value of the mangold

T.V. Pershakova , P.I. Kudinov

The researches results of influence of type of culinary processing (cooking, blanching) on loss of weight, protein content, ascorbic acid, в-carotene, folic acid, riboflavin, tiamin, micro- and macroelements in grades of mangold of the Russian selection the Vesennaya Raduga, Zeleniy, Zeleniy Izumrud are presented. Loss of weight in the course of partition of mangold makes from 14,4 to 18,5%, the minimum total loss of weight at grade mangold the Zeleniy Izumrud when blanching. In the course of culinary processing of mangold the total of protein decreases, its losses when cooking are higher, than when blanching. The content of ascorbic acid in the course of thermal treatment of mangold decreases in sheet plates more than in petioles. The highest content of ascorbic acid in grade leaves the Vesennaya Raduga – 72% after blanching. The contents в-carotene both in sheet plates, and in mangold petioles after thermal treatment practically doesn’t change; the content of folic acid, riboflavin, tiamin and vitamin PP decreases by 20–28, 21–30, 12–45 and 5–20% respectively. When blanching leaves and petioles of mangold a significant amount of functional substances that does it by perspective ingredient for designing of dishes of treatment-and-prophylactic food remains.

Keywords: mangold, sheet beet, losses at culinary processing, chemical composition of product.

Use of analysis electrochemical methods of organic acids and cations of alkaline and alkali-earth metals in wine preparation process from new grape varieties

O.N. Sheludko , T.I. Guguchkina , N.K. Strizhov , T.V. Guzik

The quantitative composition of organic acids and cations of ammonium, alkaline, the alkali-earth metals of wort, the young wine materials and table grape wines prepared from new red grape varieties of selection SKZNIISiV Kurchansky and Vladimir and variety of Merlot with carrying out and without carrying out malolactic fermentation is investigated. The technique allowing to obtain quickly a titration curve of product, to carry out mathematical processing of titration curve and to receive information on the maintenance of the sum of titrable acids is used. The dependence of change of quantitative composition of organic acids, cations and settlement criteria (the integrated analysis of anion and cationic structure obtained as a result of mathematical processing of titration curves of tests of production by an electrochemical method) of the studied samples on grapes variety and technological operations is established. Recommendations under the terms of carrying out in the studied wine materials of biological deacidification are made by method of malolactic fermentation. Opportunity to predict quality of ready wine by criteria of wort is revealed.

Keywords: electrochemical methods, wine material, organic acids of wine, cations, malolactic fermentation, grape variety Kurchansky, grape variety Vladimir.



Development of technology of functional gelled whey-based beverage

A.B. Podvolotskaya, L.A. Tenkovskaya, E.I. Cherevach, L.A. Tekuteva, O.M. Son

The technological process of gelled whey-based beverage with immobilized probiotics is devloped. The choice of raw materials is grounded, their quality indicators are studied. The knowledge of kinematic viscosity of the beverage model systems established the concentration of sodium alginate (0,1% to 1%), that contributes to developing of gelltype drinking beverage structure. The dynamics of amounts of lactic cultures of the symbiotic starter “Vivo” (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus) into the carrier substrate (sodium alginate gel) in the beverage model systems is investigated. The spatial immobilization of microbial cells “Vivo” into the carrier substrate is studied with microscopy methods. Using the complex of organoleptic, physical, chemical and microbiological parameters the quality control of whey-based beverage is assed. The contents of heavy metals, pesticides, antibiotics, radionuclides and the dynamics of microbial indicators of beverages during storage are studied. The storage life of the beverage is determined 30 days, it is twice as long as analogue beverage. The concentrations of functional ingredients (calcium, phosphorus, potassium) are established. The amounts of lactic cultures and probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus) by the end of the beverage storage life are established using compliance with food safety regulations for this kind of products (TR CU 033/2013).

Keywords: whey beverages, functional ingredients, immobilization of probiotics into the carrier substrate, sodium alginate, technological process, quality indicators.

Use of fruit and berry raw materials as bioadditive in formulation of fermented milk product

E.I. Reshetnik , E.A. Utochkina

The researches results of possibility of use as vitamin additive for fermented milk product of the syrups developed from Far East raw materials – fruits of cowberry and Sargent viburnum growing in the Amur region are presented. The characteristic of the used fruits is provided, their biological value is proved. The technology of syrups production is described, their organoleptic indicators are defined. Influence of amount of the introduced syrup on organoleptic characteristics of product is investigated, the optimum dose of the introduced additive is revealed. Use of fruit and berry syrups will also allow to simplify technological process and to exclude need of entering into product of flavoring and colorant. The vitamin structure of samples of fermented milk product is investigated. The obtained data testify to the contents in products of tiamin, riboflavinum, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine and folic acid which play an important role in biochemical processes in an organism. The high contents in the developed fermented milk products of vitamin C is noted. Thus, use of processing products of local fruit and berry raw materials as bioadditive in formulation of fermented milk product allows to increase its biological value, to expand assortment structure of fermented milk products.

Keywords: fermented milk product, vitamin composition, Sargent viburnum, cowberry, fruit and berry syrup.

Influence of kind fat on qualitative characteristics of fatty glaze

Z.A. Baranova, I.B. Krasina, P.S. Krasin

When manufacturing various types of glazes one of the main requirements for used grease is to provide the necessary rheological properties, including hardness. The authors measured the hardness of cocoa butter substitute (CBS) Ekolad 1401-33 and Ekolad 3001-35 S and also confectionery fat Ekond 1402-26 at Kaminsky hardness tester. The physical indicators of quality assessment study of fats, such as melting point, pour point, the speed of the transition from solid to liquid, the presence of high-melting components are important factors influencing the expected structural and rheological properties of the glazes – viscosity and yield stress. Calculated the yield stress and plastic viscosity of the samples glazes graphical-analytical method. Comparison glazes effective viscosities studied showed that the lowest effective viscosity at a shear rate of 1,36 s–1 and a temperature of 40°C has a sample-based confectionery coating CBS lauric type Ekolad 3001-35 S, which is caused by the different fatty acid composition of fats studied in specifically the presence in the Ekolad 3001-35 S low molecular weight lauric acid. The greatest hardness has the icing on the basis of CBS lauric type, which is confirmed by studies results of the physical properties of fats. It was established that the glaze on the basis of CBS lauric type Ecolad 3001-35 S has a higher valuation indicators such taste, odor and hardness than the glaze on the basis of CBS non-lauric type Ekolad 1401-33 and based confectionery fat Ekond 1402-36. It is concluded that the use of lauric type CBS Ecolad 3001-35 S allows you to get fatty glaze and glazed confectionery high quality with the necessary structural and mechanical properties.

Keywords: fatty glaze, lauric fat type, non-lauric fat type, rheological properties of glaze, quality of glaze.

Development of the combined products of healthy food with use of vegetable components

M.P. Mogilny, T.V. Shlenskaya, O.I. Kutina

Change of composite structure of the combined foodstuff allows to create innovative products of healthy food. By means of modeling of formulations new products on the basis of natural meat and fish raw materials with use of vegetable components are developed: small loaf meat “Delicatessen”, small loafs fish with eggplants and with spinach. The chemical composition and power value of the developed small loafs are investigated. It is shown that in them the content of carbohydrates significantly decreased that positively influences a glycemic index. The research results of structural and mechanical characteristics of the developed small loafs for the purpose of selection of the corresponding technological modes and the equipment for their preparation are presented. Small loafs are recommended as the functional products satisfying more than 15% of daily need for protein and aminoacids. They can be made at the enterprises of the food industry and public catering.

Keywords: combined products, meat and fish products, structural and mechanical characteristics, products of healthy food.

Use of processing products of flax seeds for manufacture of products of raised nutrition value

M.A. Sigareva , M.P. Mogilny , T.SH. Shaltumaev

The researches results of possibility of use of processing products of flax seeds – the finely crushed seeds and flour – for manufacture of products of the raised nutrition value are presented. Features of a chemical composition of flax seeds from the point of view of their use in compounding of various foodstuffs are considered. It is offered to use the finely crushed flax seeds in technology of the combined chocolate pastes on the basis of natural cocoa butter and dairy products. The finely crushed flax seeds were added to a compounding in quantity from 20 to 35% of the mass of animal origin fats. It is established that the developed samples of chocolate pastes contain less fats and carbohydrates – for 3,5–9,5 and 30% respectively, and also have lower power value, than a control sample of nut and chocolate paste of Nutella. Data of nutrition and power value of processing products of flax seeds are provided. Prospects of use of linen flour as functional ingredient in compounding of various foodstuffs for expansion of the range of production of healthy food are considered.

Keywords: flax seeds, processing products of flax seeds, linen flour, nut-chocolate paste, assessment of products quality, healthy food.

Development of high performance technology of obtaining functional and technological food additives on basis of the pumpkin bagasse

A.A. Kovalevskaya, A.N. Drozdov, V.G. Lobanov, S.A. Kalmanovich

The results of researches on creation of a new technology of processing pumpkin bagasse with getting protein-polysaccharide and lipid products with a high nutritional value for the purpose of their use as additives in the formulation of food products with reduced calorie level, enriched by biologically and physiologically valuable components are presented. The new types of fortified oil and fat products prepared using the method of mechanochemical activation by simultaneous refinement and extraction of pumpkin bagasse: pumpkin-oily extract (POE) and pumpkin-oily paste (POP) are obtained. Researches of organoleptic, physical and chemical indexes of POE and POP, of their containing the main physiologically functional ingredients, and also of the composition of proteins, amino acids and carbohydrates in POP, as well as the composition of fatty acids in POE showed the possibility of their application for enriching the food product with vitamins and polyunsaturated fatty acids, increasing their antioxidative properties. Recommendations on using POE and POP for the production of different food products : mayonnaise, oils and margarines, cheese products, bakery and flour confectionery are given.

Keywords: pumpkin bagasse, mechanochemical treatment, extraction, pumpkin-oily extract, pumpkin-oily paste, dietary fibers, tocopherols, carotenoids, nutritional value.

Influence of technological factors in processing of sunflower seeds on phospholipids hydratability

L.A. Mkhitaryants, A.D. Minakova, G.A. Mkhitaryants

The article describes the influence of different technological factors on phospholipids accumulation of non-hydratable forms in sunflower oils. It is determined that oils, extracted from sound ripe seeds which are not subjected to technological processing under mild conditions are characterized with a rather high degree of hydratability. The residual quantity of phospholipids is not more than 0,04% in oils after hydration. It is true for oils extracted with the help of both diethyl ether and nefras. Preparatory operations, such as drying do not lead to increase conversion of non-hydratable forms of phospholipids into oils. Substantial changes in their hydratability are occurred in the process of sunflower seeds processing under technological factors influence, especially wet thermal treatment (WTT). Wet thermal treatment increases phospholipids conversion for 15–20% in oils, but herewith their hydratability greatly decreases. The phospholipids content is 0,17–0,25% in oils extracted with diethyl ether from husk which is selected in industrial conditions after hydration in comparison with 0,05% in oils obtained from a crushed sunflower core (petal). Identified patterns are explained by changes in seeds of phospholipoprotein complexes under influence of technological factors. Different groups of phospholipids organize phospholipoprotein complexes with seeds components of varying strength degree. Reactive phospholipids of acid character which are referred to non-hydratable, such as: phosphatidic and polyphosphatidic acids, phosphatidylserines and others are more firmly held. Under oil extracting in mild conditions strong phospholipid complexes are not destroyed and non-hydratable forms of phospholipids are not practically converted into oil. A seed processing, first of all, WTT is accompanied by significant increase of phospholipids conversion in oils but the accretion occurs mainly due to their non-hydratable forms. Apparently, intense impact of wetness and heat on the material in the process of WTT leads to destruction of stronger phospholipoprotein complexes in which non-hydratable forms of phospholipids are included and this process is accompanied with increasing conversion of phospholipids in oils which are not precipitated under water hydration.

Keywords: sunflower seeds processing, oils hydration, phospholipids, phospholipids hydratability, wet thermal treatment.

Modeling of boiling sucrose with sequential transfer of part of the magma in the degrees of crystallization in comparison with the traditional technology

V.I. Tuzhilkin , V.A. Kovalyonok , M.B. Moyseyak , D.A. Klemeshov , N.YU. Achkasova , K.A. Urazbaeva

The article presents the main stages of the modeling technology semi-continuous crystallization of sucrose. On the basis of scientifically proven regularities in the environment of the software VisSim was a simulation of the crystallization of sucrose in semi-continuous mode, with consequent constriction of part of the magma to the next stages of crystallization. The essence of this technology consists in the elimination stage of the condensation product to cook labile state or its transfer to a separate stage of evaporation, the introduction of vacuum apparatus ready crystalline mass, is equal to the original set of magma and create conditions for the growth of crystals in the metastable zone increasing the crystal until it is ready to descend for a full cycle of boiling magma in periodically operating the vacuum apparatus under the condition of continuous feeding cook product and maintain a constant value of the coefficient of supersaturation in the meta stable zone crystal growth. The application of semi-continuous crystallization simplifies the technology of boiling of C AF II and III stages of crystallization, reduces the boiling magma II crystallization calculated for all stages of crystallization, reduces the consumption of steam at boiling down of C AF by eliminating water boosting, stabilizing selection a pair of evaporators, eliminate sugar melting II juice and its direction in the evaporator, considerably escalated the sugar crystals II and III stages of crystallization, improving, runs contrary to their fractional composition and kristallstruktur, reduced the duration of centrifugation, decrease weight not recycled sugars and thermochemical loss of sugar, the increase in the yield of sugar as a result of the ramjet processes, increases the performance of the grocery department of the factory.

Keywords: modeling of technological processes, optimization, mathematical model, process, semi-continuous crystallization of sucrose.

Innovative way to reduce material and energy costs on lime-carbon dioxide purification and thickening of diffusion juice

A.V. Savostin , V.O. Gorodetskiy , S.O. Semenikhin , N.I. Kotlyarevskaya , A.D. Gorodetskaya

Prime cost of sugar is one of the main indicators of the effectiveness of the sugar factories. Important components of prime cost are the costs of auxiliary materials for lime-carbon dioxide juice purification and fuel for its subsequent evaporation. An effective way to reduce these costs is a method of diffusion-press sucrose extraction from sugar beet cossettes, that allows to obtain diffusion juice with a better purity up to 1,0–1,2% with simultaneous reduction of its quantity by 10–15% by weight of beet compared with diffusion method. As a result the consumption of limestone is reduced by 0,55–0,65%, fuel for its calcination by 0,055–0,065%, equivalent fuel for thickening of thin juice to thick juice stage by 0,4–0,6% by weight of beet and the product yield is increased by 0,10–0,12% by weight of beet.

Keywords: diffusion juice, sucrose extraction, lime-carbon dioxide purification, prime cost of sugar.

Influence lecithin and Radiamuls Sorb 2345K on the rheological properties of chocolate mass

I.A. Chernykh, I.B. Krasina, S.A. Kalmanovich, P.S. Krasin

The information on comparative evaluation of the emulsifying properties of emulsifiers used in production of chocolate masses and glazes are provided. Lecithin and sorbitol tristearate (Radiamuls Sorb 2345K) are the emulsifiers used in the manufacture of chocolate products. The effects of various blends of lecithin and Radiamuls Sorb 2345K when added in concentrations up to 14 g/kg on the rheological properties of molten dark and milk chocolate were determined by rotational rheometry. The results show that regardless of the total amount of emulsifier, yield strength, both dark and milk chocolate most effectively reduced by applying a mixture of approximately 30% lecithin and 70% Radiamuls Sorb 2345K. Regardless of the concentration of the emulsifier proportion Radiamuls Sorb 2345K in the mixture can be reduced to 25% without a significant increase in equilibrium viscosity milk chocolate. With respect to the total emulsifier dosage in the range of 4 to 6 g/kg the lowest values were found for the viscosity of the mixture lecithin–Radiamuls Sorb 2345K 50 : 50 for dark chocolate and milk chocolate to 75 : 25, respectively. When using the mixture of lecithin–Radiamuls Sorb 2345K there are various possibilities for adjusting the rheological properties of chocolate, confectionery coatings and fillers on fat basis. The results obtained show that the confectionery mass flow can easily be adapted to the specific processing needs, thereby improving product quality and production efficiency increases.

Keywords: chocolate, rheology of chocolate masses, emulsifier, lecithin, yield strength.

Use of dietary fibres for increase of nutrition value of wafer sheet

N.A. Tarasenko, M.V. Mikhaylenko, YU.N. Nikonovich

For the purpose of increase of nutrition value of flour confectionery and giving of preventive properties to them possibility of use as an additive in compounding of wafer sheet of the powder produced from seeds of pumpkin (PP) is investigated. Data on chemical composition of PP in comparison with wheat flour of the premium are presented. The raised content in PP of proteins, fats, dietary fibers, linolenic and linoleic acids, a number of vitamins and mineral substances is established. Prototypes of wafer sheets baked with an additive in formulation 10, 15, and 20% of PP of the mass of flour in mix. Control samples baked on traditional technology. Influence of additive of PP on physical and chemical and structural and mechanical indicators of samples is investigated: humidity of wafer dough and wafer sheet, relative density of dough, water absorption of wafer sheet. On the basis of the obtained results and the organoleptic analysis of ready wafer sheets the optimum dosage of additive of PP in formulation – 15% of the mass of flour is established. Use of PP in formulation of flour confectionery promotes increase of their nutrition and biological value.

Keywords: wafer sheet, pumpkin powder, enrichment of confectionery, nutrition value of wafers.

Prospects of use of shadberry by production of fruit jelly

N.F. Teslenko, I.B. Krasina, O.A. Bogdanov, A.A. Fadeeva

For the purpose of expansion use of local vegetable raw materials possibility of use of shadberry and products of their processing for production of fruit jelly is investigated. The berries of two sorts of shadberry Smoky and Stargion growing in the territory of Krasnodar region were object of research. The chemical composition of shadberry is studied, contents level in them biologically active agents is determined: vitamins, first of all ascorbic acid, P-active agents, organic acids, solids, sugars. It is shown that berries of both sorts of shadberry contain valuable physiologically functional ingredients in the structure, the considerable share is the share of carbohydrates which part are glucose, fructose, sucrose, ribose, galactose and monose. Organic acids in berries of shadberry contain in insignificant quantity, and nearly a half is the share of apple acid. For the characteristic of an antioxidant profile in shadberry determined the general content of phenols, flavonoids and anthocyans. The greatest content of flavonoids is revealed at sort berries Stargion. Research of vitamin composition of fruits of shadberry showed availability of vitamins of group B, the high content of carotinoids and ascorbic acid. It is established that all samples of the pectin produced from shadberry have the high contents the methoxylated of carboxyl groups and the low content of free carboxyl groups. Pectic substances of shadberry are high-methoxylated and are characterized by high molecular weight. The considerable contents in puree from shadberry pectic and coloring substances determines expediency of its use by production the fruit jelly products as jelling agent, thickener and food colour.

Keywords: shadberry berries, chemical composition of berries, gelling power, fruit jelly.

Research the adsorption mechanism of b-carotene and phospholipids of sunflower oils by bleaching diatomaceous earth

E.O. Gerasimenko, E.A. Butina, A.A. Kopteva, V.N. Pashchenko

The adsorption mechanism by the bleaching diatomaceous earth (BDE) of the related substances of sunflower oil: phospholipids and в-carotene is investigated. For studying of adsorption phospholipids of BDE prepared model samples of oils, varying a mass fraction of phospholipids from 0,28 to 4,0 mmol/l. For preparation of model samples of oils with concentration в-carotene from 0,0019 to 0,047 mmol/l in calculated quantity added the concentrated oil solution of в-carotene to the deodorized sunflower oil. When carrying out process of adsorption added BDE to model samples of oils in number of 0,5% at temperature of 105°C and residual pressure of 12 mbar. The duration of the process was 60 min. The adsorption isotherms describing the dependence of the adsorption on the concentration of adsorptive are obtained. The researches results testify that the adsorption isotherm of BDE of phospholipids is well described within Langmuir model characterizing monomolecular adsorption. To describe the adsorption isotherms of в-carotene the Freundlich model describing the mechanism of adsorption with a predominance of adsorbate-adsorbate interactions and the formation of multimolecular layers is more suitable.

Keywords: adsorption refining, adsorption isotherms, monoadsorbtive system, kinetic model of Langmuir and Freundlich.

Development of eliminations method of diseases and defects of wines with use of oak processing products

T.M. Panakhov

The researches results of possibility of use of oak processing products for elimination of diseases and defects of wines, in particular “mousy odour” are presented. Wine materials were objects of researches: Port white, Rkatsiteli, Sauvignon. Physical and chemical, organoleptic and microbiological indicators of wine materials for an assessment of their state and definition of traditional schemes of processing are investigated. Wine materials tested for tendency to the turbidity caused by the raised content of salts of polyvalent metals to colloidal, crystal and biochemical turbidity and also for existence of an illness defect “mousy odour”. It is established that the studied wine materials are characterized by low concentration of titrable acids, sulphurous acid, high value рН and concentration of iron ions, the raised content of flying acids. Schemes of processing of wine materials having defect “mousy odour”, concentration of acids providing increase, sulphitation, processing by sorbents with a decantation and filtering after processing are defined. Preliminary processing of wine materials is carried out by oak processing products. Used chips of average fraction in number of 0,5–2,0 g/dm3 at various ratios of the natural and thermo-processed chips from 5 : 1 to 1 : 5. Duration of interaction and contact of wine material with oak chips made 40–60 days, in each 7–10 days carried out a tasting assessment of samples. It is established that in comparison with traditional the offered technology of elimination of defects of wines and cognac alcohols by their engagement with chips from the Azerbaijan oak allows not only to eliminate defects of ready-made product, but also has positive impact on its quality indicators. Optimum dosages of oak chips for processing of wines and alcohols are determined.

Keywords: wine material, physical and chemical indicators of wine materials, “mousy odour”, quality of wine materials, oak chips.

Research of quality indicators of the light beer produced with use of malt from triticale

D.V. Zipaev , N.V. Nikitchenko , A.G. Kashaev , I.A. Platonov , K.A. Rybakova

For the purpose of decrease in expenses by production of beer and expansion of brewing prospects in the Volga region possibility of use of triticale grain for production of light unfiltered beer is investigated. For producing beer used variety triticale grain Kinelskaya 1. Beer prototypes with an additive on malt formulation from triticale in number of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% are investigated. As control sample used beer without additives of triticale malt. The research results of foaming and foam stability of beer samples showed that the best characteristics the sample with addition of 20% of malt from triticale possessed. At research of physical and chemical indicators of beer at this sample also the greatest are marked out an extract content of initial mash and strength. Acidity of prototypes of beer didn’t exceed standard values from 2,6 to 3,2 units. Chromaticity of samples with an additive of 40 and 50% of triticale malt was slightly higher than control. Researches of microbiological indicators of beer quality didn’t reveal in it pathogenic microflora. The beer sample with additive of 20% of malt from triticale together with a control sample was subjected to tasting assessment on 10-mark system. It is established that the beer prototype in comparison with control possesses more rich flavor, smaller transparency with opalescence and turbidity, characteristic for unfiltered beer. In prototype rye and wheaten aroma was felt. The optimum dosage of additive into grain mix of triticale malt in number of 20% of the total amount of grain products in formulation is recommended.

Keywords: beer, triticale grain, foam stability, foaming, extract content of wort, organoleptic indicators of beer.

Processes & Apparatus


Thin stillage sparger evaporation modeling

A.A. Shevtsov, A.S. Muravev

Evaporation is the separation process with heat supply and remove of substantial portion of the moisture from the thin stillage by water evaporating, which leads to its more concentrated state. This is one of the most energy-intensive process in import substitution powdery concentrate of thin stillage obtain technology. Preference is given to compact sparger evaporator in which heat exchange surface area may be significantly modified by sparger design variation. The advantages of this systems is also result in reduced drag and bubbling liquid mixing achieved in higher heat transfer efficiency than typical values apparatus with indirect supply of coolant. This high efficiency (95%) is achieved due to the temperature difference between the solution and spent coolant, which usually varies from 2 to 5°C. Modeling of the sparger thin stillage evaporation process are formulated through equations of continuity, as well as Fick’s and Fourier’s laws. With simplifying assumptions, modeling is reduced to the determination of mass and heat flux at the surface of hot air bubble sparged into the continuous phase for the moisture evaporation from the solution to predetermined thin stillage dry matter content. Profiles of temperature and mass fraction on the bubble surface while passing through the elementary volume in spherical coordinates are taking into account.

Keywords: mathematical model, whole stillage, sparger evaporation, mass and heat flows.

Mathematical model of nonstationary process of liquid solutions evaporation

E.N. Konstantinov, S.YU. Ksandopulo, T.G. Korotkova, A.S. Danilchenko

Developed mathematical description of the non-stationary process of evaporation by the example of water poured into a glass round weighing bottle, which is placed in an thermostat. Round weighing bottle is presented in the form of glass plate. The liquid surface is in contact with air having a constant temperature. Bottom liquid is bounded by glass plate through which heat exchange is also performed in air. Parish heat comprises heat transferred by convection to the upper surface of the water, heat transmitted by convection from the air to the glass plate and the heat transfer due to nonequimolar substance. Heat input is spent on evaporation of the water; heating the glass plate, and heating water. The equations for calculating the mass-transfer coefficient for the system “water–air” heat transfer coefficients from the air to the water from the air to the glass plate and the heat transfer coefficients in the free convection in the fluid. The numerical values of the coefficients included in the criteria equations, depending on the product of the Grashof and Prandtl criteria. Recorded the heat balance equation to determine the surface temperature of the water and the glass plate from the air and from the water. When calculating the mass-transfer coefficient and the heat transfer coefficients from air to water and from air to glass plate characteristic geometric size criterion equation accepted ratio of surface area heat and mass transfer (water) to its perimeter, and in the calculation of heat transfer coefficients in free convection in the fluid – half the thickness (bed height) of water.

Keywords: unsteady evaporation of liquid solutions, mathematical model, heat transfer coefficient, heat balance, heat transfer from the air to water, heat transfer from air to glass, free convection.

Food Engineering, Processes, Equipment & Automation of Food Production


Reactor-amalgamator of periodic action for carrying out of processes in heterogeneous environments

V.V. Litvyak , YU.F. Roslyakov , D.I. Goman , M.S. Alekseenko

The shortcomings of known reactors for carrying out physical and chemical processes in heterogeneous environments are analysed: impossibility of carrying out processes at high concentration of suspension, complexity of design, difficulty of generation a product of high purity, insufficient speed of formation of the final product, formation of stagnant zones, unsatisfactory dispersion of liquid in reactionary weight, insufficient heat removal at exothermic and heat supply at endothermic reactions. The reactor-amalgamator for carrying out processes in heterogeneous environments supplied with the additional mixing devices installed on shaft on all volume of the reactor, turbolators, sensor рН, sampling tube with a capacity for collecting test and the safety valve is developed. The offered reactor provides: high speed of carrying out physical and chemical processes in heterogeneous environments due to high intensity of mass-exchanged processes in the turbulent mode, thanks to ensuring finding of all solid phase in suspension and value рН in the optimum range; stability of process and simplification of service at the expense of funnel formation exception; safety of work due to automatic dumping of elevated pressure; possibility of regulation of intensity of mass-exchanged processes. The reactor-amalgamator can be used in food, chemical, pharmaceutical industry for generation of homogeneous mixes of liquid components, suspensions or powders.

Keywords: heterogeneous environments, reactor-amalgamator, concentration of suspension, mixing devices.

Key factors determining turbulent friction and effective mass transfer in apparatus with contact device is rotating nozzle

I.N. Ryvkin, V.I. Demin, N.V. Solonnikova, M.A. Khamula, G.I. Kolomeets

It is established that the energy consumption to overcome friction in the distillation apparatus is complex function of large number of different factors. In the paper the main factors that determine the friction of flow in the device with rotating nozzle. Evaluating the effectiveness of investigations carried contact devices by the value of mass transfer coefficient, referred to the volume of one contact stage. It is established that for single-phase flow in the case of stationary nozzles energy consumption in overcoming the resistance of gas flow the least, while rotating the nozzle, they increase due to occurrence of the circumferential velocity component. The largest energy consumption observed when the rotating nozzle with the introduction of the second stream. In all cases the resistance increases with the vapor velocity on the quadratic dependence. The liquid phase has a much smaller effect on the change in the hydraulic resistance than the increase in steam loads (gas). Concludes that the rotating nozzle device stable operation range wider than the stationary nozzle, 35–40%. The dependence of the hydrodynamic and mass transfer characteristics of the contact device on the size and design of holes (slit, square and round shapes) to yield of vapor-liquid mixture is investigated. It is established that the efficiency of contact devices with the round shape orifices above and below the flow resistance than the contact devices with nozzle holes forms compared, ceteris paribus. The regularity of reduction hydraulic resistance with an increase in the diameter of the holes, accompanied by an extension of the limit flows is revealed. The greatest value of the impedance of two-phase and single-phase flow nozzle corresponds to the smallest diameter. At the same nozzle is observed and the greatest efficiency. The design of the offered device possesses flexibility in work and depending on concrete requirements of technological process can be applied in various conditions.

Keywords: mass transfer, distillation apparatus, friction flows, two-phase and single-phase flow, mass transfer coefficient, hydraulic resistance, rotating nozzle, vapor-liquid mixture.

Methods of Investigation, Quality & Safety of Food Products


Mathematical analysis energy states of the nutrients of mammals milk

M.N. Skiba, V.V. Mitin, V.F. Zhdanov

This paper presents the results of testing the method of analysis of ternary systems in relation to the investigation of the energy state and interactions of proteins, fats and carbohydrates milk and other farm animals, including humans. Method is to convert the mass characteristics of the nutrients in their energy counterparts and in relevant mathematical procedures, differentiating the total energy. Shows the geometric interpretation of the structural organization of the energy system components, where each component is represented by a sphere. Shows the energy of interaction of each component with the other two and the total energy of the system. To determine the level of structure of the system used in the algebra known an harmonic ratio “Golden wurf” which characterizes the balance of its parts, harmony and optimality. The mathematical definition of the coefficient dependence harmony ternary systems. Phenomenological properties and mathematical models of such systems allow to predict and find non-trivial technological solutions for the production of new food products from milk and other products of plant and animal origin abstract.

Keywords: analysis of systems, milk, energy state of system, mathematical definition, “Golden wurf”.

Research of phase transitions of the combined masses on basis of cottage cheese by method of differential thermal analysis

А.V. Dobrovolskaya, N.T. Shamkova, V.A. Khrisonidi

For the purpose of definition of optimum way of freezing thermal effects of the combined masses on basis of cottage cheese frozen in the shock freezing device at temperature of –30 ± 5°C and speeds of air in chamber 9,5 ± 0,5 m/s or in the freezer at temperature of –30 ± 5°C and speeds of air in chamber 0,5 ± 0,1 m/s were determined. Research was conducted by means of differential thermal analysis (DTA) and an organoleptic assessment of samples. The curve freezings of cottage cheese and vegetable masses with various contents of vegetable additive – oat flour or barley flakes – and eggs are obtained. It is established that when introduction into cottage cheese of vegetable additive and eggs there is a fall of temperature of beginning of phase transition and temperature of end of process, the amount of the emitted energy increases and duration of freezing process of samples increases. The end of freezing of the studied masses happens at achievement of temperature in the freezer from –5,5 to – 9,0°C, in the shock freezing device from –4,4 to – 7,0°C. DTA showed that freezing in the freezer proceeds more slowly, at low temperature intervals and higher values of phase transition energy, than in the shock freezing device. The samples which underwent slow freezing had lower organoleptic indicators, than the samples which underwent fast freezing. For freezing of the combined masses on basis of cottage cheese, and also culinary products on their basis, application of shock freezing is rational at temperature of –30 ± 5°C and speeds of air in chamber 9,5 ± 0,5 m/s before achievement of temperature in the center of product –7°C.

Keywords: differential thermal analysis, combined masses on basis of cottage cheese, thermal effects, shock freezing, freezing temperature.

Increase efficiency of estimate of professional risk in the sugar industry

A.V. Aleksandrova, K.N. Shuray, A.S. Ben, E.M. Ben

The characteristics of occupational hazards and diseases in the sugar industry of Russia and the Krasnodar region in the period from 2011 to 2015 are given. The number of insurance claims related to the loss of health workers of the sugar industry remains high, due to the poor working conditions. Based on the analysis results of hygienic assessment of factors of working environment at enterprises of sugar production of Krasnodar region identified areas and workplaces with the most adverse working conditions. A comparative analysis of the existing methods for assessing professional risks (PR), given their limitations. It is offered to use the Elmer method for the assessment of occupational hazards in the workplace sugar production on the example of grocery shop. The method allows to perform a quantitative assessment of an expert PR in the workplace and in the units of production, takes into account a wide range of factors affecting the safety, does not require significant material and time costs. Adaptation of the method for Elmer jobs and divisions of sugar production in view of features of working conditions at the specific workplace. Develop a questionnaire to assess the observation of occupational hazards in the workplace as an example presented profile workplace worker of centrifuge of I–II product grocery shop sugar factory, taking into account the specifics of the process, production equipment and labor conditions. Recommendations on use of the Elmer method adapted to assess occupational risks and improve the functioning of OSH management system in the sugar industry.

Keywords: occupational risk, sugar production, working conditions, occupational injuries, sanitary-hygienic evaluation, Elmer method.

Development of detection method of production quality at stages of fermentation and formation of wine

O.N. Sheludko , T.I. Guguchkina, N.K. Strizhov

On the basis of titration curves analysis of wine materials and the wort samples prepared from new red grape varieties of selection SKZNIISiV Kurchansky and Vladimir and variety of Merlot specific criteria which can be used for control of process of fermentation and formation of grape wine are offered. The offered criteria represent the integrated analysis of anion and cationic structure of the studied samples and can be used as the passport of production. By criteria of wort knowing as their quantitative values change in process preparation of wine, it is possible to predict quality of ready wine or to include certain technological modes for its improvement. It is possible to determine quality of finished goods or raw materials by the established ranges of the offered criteria of natural qualitative wines (worts), including to reveal the forged production or prepared with violation of technology.

Keywords: wort, wine material, potentiometry, coulometry, curve titration, identification of wine.

Teaching-methodical Work


Modern models of the automated laboratory practical work of remote access

R.V. Teryukha, T.L. Shaposhnikova

Research objective – development of new model of the automated laboratory practical work of remote access (ALPWRA). In the conditions of informatization of professional education the problem of engineering technological support of educational laboratory experiment is solved on the basis of ALPWRA application. Experts consider computer systems of educational appointment, including ALPWRA as tool aspect of information educational technologies on which quality possibility of realization of competence-based approach in vocational training depends. It causes need of creation of the automated laboratory practical works of innovative type which application will allow to overcome a gap between theoretical and practical preparation trained, effectively to form their information competence. Methodological bases of research: system approach (considers the automated laboratory practical work as the information system consisting of the interconnected modules), competence-based approach (proclaims the purpose of educational process formation of social and professional competence trained), metasystem approach (considers the automated laboratory practical work as the metasystem capable to function without separate modules), probabilistic and statistical approach (proclaims need of assessment of probabilistic characteristics of functioning information systems, first of all – reliability).

Keywords: information educational technologies, automated laboratory practical work, remote access, system modeling, vocational training.

Educational and experimental activity of students on the basis of innovative laboratory practical work for distance learning

I.V. Dvadnenko, E.YU. Strigin

The research results on development and practical realization of innovative models of educational and experimental activity of students on the basis of automated laboratory practical work for distance learning are presented. The methodological basis of research was made: system approach considering education informatization as complete process; cybernetic approach defining activity trained as the operated process; personally focused approach proclaiming priority development of the personality trained and an individualization of training; activity approach to formation of theoretical knowledge and practical abilities; competence-based approach aiming educational process at formation of professional competence of student as unities of its theoretical and practical readiness for future professional activity; process approach considering technology as the procedural model of human activity realized in practice. The main advantages of the developed automated laboratory practical work in front of similar devices are: integration of functions of training, control and management of laboratory experiment, possibility of protection of laboratory works in real time, realization of the principle of individualization of training. Pedagogical experiments on basis of engineering higher education institution showed high efficiency of model realization of educational and experimental activity of students on the basis of technologies of distance learning.

Keywords: distance learning, automated laboratory practical work, educational and experimental activity, personally focused training.
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