The possibility of production dairy products with the contents of probiotic microflora more than 107 CFU/ml is investigated. As probiotic microflora the consortium intended for manufacture of product BioMatrix-LB1, containing probiotic lacto- and bifidobacterium culture of L. Сasei subsp. Rhamnosus, L. acidophilus, L. plantarum, L. fermentum, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium adolescentis was studied. For stimulation of biomass accumulation process of probiotic microflora and its metabolites used additives the prebiotic components of arabinogalactan and inulin which allowed to increase considerably functional properties of product. It is established that starting amounts of ferment of 0,024 billion CFU/ml the fermented mix and introduction of 1,5% of arabinogalactan or 2,0% of inulin syrup or their mix allows to reach concentration of probiotic bacteria 109 CFU/ml at reduction of standard term of fermentation on 3–4 h, to manufacture a product of functional orientation. The formed casein gel possesses higher water-holding properties owing to interaction of arabinogalactan and proteins of milk that allows to prolong duration of its thermostatting to 24 h. At storage at a temperature of 4–6°C during 168 h there is no reduction in the number of active cells of probiotic microorganisms, retained in the required physico-chemical (texture, viscous, stringy, without syneresis, acidity is not operated above 130°T) and the high organoleptic (moderately clean dairy flavor and odor) characteristics of the product, its shelf life is not less than 7 days.Keywords: probiotic microflora, prebiotics, arabinogalactan, inulin, fermented milk products, synbiotic properties.
Table of contents for # 1 (349), 2016
Chemistry of Food Products & Materials
Research of protolytic equilibrium in tartaric acid solution to assess its influence on quality of wines
Coulometric titration method with potentiometric indication to make an experimental study of the acid-base properties of the dilute solutions of tartaric acid at constant ionic strength of 1 in the presence of a molar concentration of potassium chloride (1 mol/dm3). Analysis of experimental data with the theoretical subsequent interpretation shown that tartaric acid and its anionic form is in aqueous solution in a stable dimeric form. The curves distributions estimated molecular and ionic forms of tartaric acid produced during titration have been constructed, and discussed the nature of hydrogen and intermolecular bonds. The influence of tartaric acid in the form of titration curves wines is revealed. The results are used in the development of methods of titrimetry to measure the quality of wines.Keywords: tartaric acid, dimeric forms of distribution curves, criterial factors for assessing the quality of wines.
Influence of various factors on binding ability of sodium alginate in relation to ions of lead and nickel
Influence of various technology factors on the binding ability of sodium alginate in relation to ions of heavy metals – lead and nickel is investigated. The technology factors which allegedly have impact on ability of sodium alginate to binding of ions of heavy metals are chosen: mass fraction of sodium alginate, ambient рН, ambient temperature. Limit intervals of factors established according to their values in the studied food systems – the jelly masses: mass fraction of sodium alginate – from 0 to 1,0%, ambient рН – from 3,2 to 4,0, ambient temperature of model solutions – from 20 to 100°C. The multiple-factor experiment planned with the help the rotatable plans of the second-order Box–Hunter was made. The graphics of dependence of binding by sodium alginate of ions of lead and nickel from the studied factors are obtained. The binding limits by sodium alginate of ions of heavy metals are established. The comparative assessment of binding ability of sodium alginate and other structure-forming agents – the pectin and carageenan used in the food industry is carried out. It is recommended to use sodium alginate as physiologically active ingredient in food of functional purpose.Keywords: sodium alginate, binding ability, heavy metals ions, nickel, lead.
Research of sorption properties of products of vegetable raw materials processing in various technological mediums
The kinetics of limited swelling of the buckwheat bran (BB) in water solutions with various value рН and the solutions containing ions of electrolytes, proteins and other substances, entering various technological mediums is investigated. The fraction of BB with a size of particles of 0,2–0,8 mm was object of researches. As working solutions were used: the distilled water (рН 6,56), model solutions with various indicator рН, technological environments: milk of 3,2%, beef broth, solutions of table salt and sucrose mass concentration of 1,5%. On the basis of the obtained data maximum extent of sorption by samples BB, speed and constant of process speed are calculated. The high hydration activity of BB testifying to prospects of their application as the water connecting and water-retaining component of food systems is established. Existence in various technological mediums of the dissolved components doesn’t reduce significantly ability of BB to hydration. The conclusion is drawn on possibility of use of BB in compoundings of the combined products for the purpose of yield increase of finished products.Keywords: buckwheat bran, limit extent of sorption, sorption rate constant.
The researches results of possibility of meat pigeons use in formulations of gerodietetic products are presented. Chemical, vitamin, mineral structures and technological properties of pigeons meat of breed Teksan in comparison with similar indicators of broilers meat, beef and pork are studied. It is established that pigeons meat of breed Teksan on protein content doesn’t concede to traditional types of meat raw materials and surpasses them in the content of vitamins C, B2, PP, iron, magnesium, potassium and sodium. From the point of view of technological indicators muscular tissue of pigeons is characterized by high values water-binding (61–63%), water-retaining (47–51%), fat-retaining (87–90%) and emulsifying (71–79%) abilities. The formulation of canned food “Pigeons Meat with Buckwheat” including the complex vegetable additive from seeds of flax, an amaranth and a thistle containing a complex of polynonsaturated fatty acids, tocopherol, silimarin, squalene is developed. The assessment of nutrition and power value of canned food from pigeons meat in comparison with canned food from beef is carried out. Possibility of pigeons meat use in production of gerodietetic products is proved.Keywords: pigeons meat, gerodietetic products, nutrition value of products.
The technology of obtaining powders, flour and inulin from the wild-growing raw materials growing in the territory of Krasnoyarsk region is developed. The powders were produced from the dried-up roots of great burdock, dandelion medicinal, roots and rhizomes of burnet, elevated parts of yarrow and great burdock. After sorting the fresh-gathered raw materials were exempted from foreign impurity, washed out, cleaned, cut on part from 2 to 6 mm thick, dried and crushed. For the purpose of the maximum preservation of biologically active substances containing in fresh raw materials, drying was carried out infrared beams with a wavelength of 1,8–2,0 microns at the power of thermal stream from 600 to 1000 W. The roots and rhizomes dried at temperature of 50–55°C, leaves and inflorescences – at 35–40°C. On the researches basis of evaporation intensity of moisture at various modes of drying optimum parameters of process are determined. Specifications and technological instructions on producing powders from wild-growing raw materials are developed, coordinated and approved. By results of determination of organoleptic, physical and chemical and microbiological indicators the expiration date of powders makes 18 months. The productions technology from roots of great burdock and dandelion medicinal inulin which was used in technology of finishing semi-finished products and flour products as sugar substitute is developed. The production technological scheme of powders and inulin from the wild-growing raw materials growing in the territory of Krasnoyarsk region is presented.Keywords: great burdock, dandelion medicinal, burnet, yarrow, drying of vegetable raw materials, inulin.
Influence of electromagnetic field of low frequencies on activation of symbiotic microbial consortium
The researches results of impact of electromagnetic field of low frequencies (EMF LF) on consortium of lactic bacteria and micrococcus allocated from the charqued and uncooked smoked sausages are presented. For processing used EMF LF with range of frequencies from 15 to 65 Hz within 20 and 40 min, electromagnetic induction 400 A/m. Determined extent of impact of the activated EMF LF of microorganisms consortium on model system – mincemeat consisting of beef heart and pork jowl in the ratio 1 : 1. The microorganisms consortium activated by EMF LF was brought in number of 0,5; 1,0 and 1,5% to the mass of mincemeat. Dynamics of growth of microflora was checked at aging of model forcemeat at temperature of 20°C during 12 h. For an assessment of extent of biotransformation of mincemeat determined the content of nonprotein nitrogen, amount of soluble protein, soluble oxiproline and amine nitrogen. It is established that short-term impact of EMF LF on consortium of lactic bacteria and micrococcus stimulates their growth; the EMF LF optimum parameters for processing of microbial consortium 55 Hz within 20 min are determined. Positive action of the activated EMF LF of microbial consortium on process of biotransformation of collagen containing raw materials is revealed: optimum dose for biotransformation of mincemeat makes 1,5% to the mass of meat raw materials, process of biotransformation is reduced by 6 h. Uses of EMF LF given about opportunity for activation of microorganisms and acceleration of technological process are experimentally confirmed.Keywords: electromagnetic field of low frequency, lactic bacteria, micrococcus, biotransformation, collagen containing raw materials.
Increase terms of realization of culinary dishes and products with using bacteriostats of natural origin
We investigated the possibility of using chitosan in the technology of cold dishes for the purpose of increase terms of their realization through the trading network The influence of different concentrations of chitosan in the solutions of food acids on the bacterial flora of ready meals is studied. Samples of the salads of fresh and boiled vegetables and meat components prepared in the laboratory conditions were objects of research: fresh tomatoes and cucumbers, vegetable salad, salad “Stolichny” – with the addition of chitosan and without it. The growth of microorganisms in the product is terminated following any of the solution on the basis of salts of chitosan and 0,1% by weight of the product, however, the main qualitative characteristics of the food are not changed. Developed efficient method of introduction of chitosan in cold dishes: sauces in the form of a 1% solution in 3% apple cider vinegar, in which the solubility of chitosan 99%. The samples investigated immediately after preparation of salads, after 2, 6, 10 and 24 h of storage, and for salad of raw vegetables – and after 48 h of storage. Bacteriostatic effect of chitosan on the microflora of ready dishes by seasoned sauces with the addition of chitosan was proven. It is established that the term of realization of ready food products with the addition of chitosan can be increased twice in comparison with the normative of up to 24 h.Keywords: chitosan, microbial contamination, preservation of culinary dishes, terms of realization of culinary dishes.
Effect of NaCl concentrations in the range of 10 to 36% (w/v) on the specific growth rate of extremely halophilic archaea isolated from salty fern was studied. It was found that specific growth rate of halophilic microorganisms in liquid culture medium (peptone – 9.0 g/L, casein hydrolysate – 8.0 g/L, yeast extract – 3.0 g/L, Na2HPO4 – 2.0 g/L, pH 7.2 ± 0.2) with 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 36% NaCl at temperature 37°C is 0.108 ± 0.014, 0.340 ± 0.031, 0.318 ± 0.030, 0.183 ± 0.007, 0.091 ± 0.010 and 0.018 ± 0.006 h–1 respectively. The medium with 10% NaCl supports growth of culture only for 2–3 generations after which cells dies. For the description of the growth rate as a function of NaCl concentration, a two-parameter model and a three-parameter model were developed. Both models demonstrated better correspondence to the experimental data in comparison with the three-parameter model proposed by Gibson and coworkers (1994) and modified by Cuppers and coworkers (1997). The coefficient of multiple determination (R2) was 0.994 for the two-parameter model and 0.998 for the three-parameter model versus 0.986 for Gibson–Cuppers model. All the three models gave a theoretical optimum of NaCl concentration at about 17%. The proposed models will be of use to food microbiologists whose aim is to predict the likelihood of spoilage of salty vegetables.Keywords: salting, extremely halophilic archaea, Halobacteriaceae, specific growth rate, salt concentration.
Development of technology of scalded gingerbread products with use of syrup produced from jerusalem artichoke tubers
The possibility of use of the fructose-glucose syrup produced from Jerusalem artichoke tubers (JAT) for increase of biological value of scalded gingerbread products is investigated. As raw materials for producing syrup used variety Jerusalem artichoke tubers “Interes”. The chemical composition of the JAT possessing unique treatment-and-prophylactic properties is investigated. The schematic diagram of producing syrup from JAT is submitted, its carbohydrate and vitamin structures are determined. Influence of various dosages of syrup from JAT on elastic, plastic and adhesive properties of gingerbread dough is investigated. It is established that the offered additive favorably influences structural and mechanical properties of dough, increases water-retaining ability, slows down process of hardness. Trial laboratory baking of the developed products are carried out. Their organoleptic, physical and chemical indicators and biological value are investigated. The optimum dosage of syrup in formulation of 5% instead of granulated sugar is determined. Prototypes of scalded gingerbread products on break visually didn’t differ from control sample, but had smaller density for 22–24% and bigger volume at the expense of increase in porosity. Expediency of use of syrup produced from JAT is shown by production of new varieties of scalded gingerbread products of the increased biological value and the increased volume at preservation of uniform porosity.Keywords: scalded gingerbread products, biological value, syrup from Jerusalem artichoke tubers, rheological properties of dough.
The researches results of extraction process of biologically active compounds of wild-growing raw materials for determination of the optimum modes of obtaining extracts with maximum saved natural properties of plants are presented. For produced extracts used fresh and dry roots and rhizomes of elecampane, great burdock, dandelion, growing in the territory of North Ossetia-Alania. For foundation of technological parameters of extraction process used a method of multiple-factor planning of experiment. Efficiency of extraction was determined by change of the contents of the sum of phenolic compounds in raw materials. For calculation of optimum technological parameters of extraction process used a simplex method. It is established that the maximum yield of phenolic compounds (69 ± 3%) from the studied vegetable raw materials is obtained at the following parameters of extraction process: temperature 50–55°C, concentration of ethyl alcohol in extractant of 65,0–66,5%, time of extraction of 3,0–3,24 h at the water duty 1 : 5, size of chips of roots and rhizomes of plants of 2–3 mm.Keywords: extraction from vegetable raw materials, extraction mode, bioactive substances, polyphenolic substances, functional products.
Expediency of production individual components by CO2-extraction from vegetable raw materials on the example of amaranth seeds and needles of Siberian fir is investigated. The extraction was carried out on universal installation of extraction shop JSC “Caravan Company”. Organoleptic and physical and chemical indicators of the produced extracts are determined. The composition of CO2-extracts was analyzed by method of thin-layer chromatography by means of the Sorbfil TLC Videodensitomer program. On the basis of Rf-peaks of components the main substances which are a composition of the studied CO2-extracts are identified. It is established that as a composition of CO2-extract from amaranth seeds there are phospholipids, glycerides, fatty acids (mainly polynonsaturated), squalene; as a composition of CO2-extract from needles of Siberian fir – phospholipids, camphene, bornylacetate, polyprenols, maltol. Pressure parameters promoting the maximum yield of individual components in the way of preparative CO2-extraction from amaranth seeds and needles of Siberian fir are determined. The obtained results testify to possibility of selective, preparative CO2-extraction of biologically active agents from vegetable raw materials. At supercritical extraction the maximum yield of substances is reached with a pressure of CO2 vapors from 8 to 70 MPa, temperature from 35 to 80°C, duration of process of 50 min, a ratio raw materials – extractant 1 : 8. By programming of change of pressure and temperature it is possible to produce individual pure components from vegetable raw materials: bornylacetate, maltol, squalene, etc.Keywords: extracts from vegetable raw materials, CO2-extraction, preparative extraction, amaranth seeds, needles of Siberian fir.
For the purpose of an intensification of extraction technology and preservation of useful chemicals it is expedient to use processing of plant raw materials a high pressure. Preliminary processing of plant raw materials was carried out by means of the installation of high pressure consisting of the case, the working camera of high pressure with hermetically closed cover, the hydraulic pump, capacity with working liquid, the manometer and the control panel. Before obtaining extract the plant raw materials in tight vacuum packing were placed in the camera of high pressure, filled with working liquid and hermetically closed. Processing of plant raw materials was carried out during 60 s with at various size of pressure from 100 to 200 MPa. After processing plant raw materials and extraction agent (distilled water) in the ratio 1 : 6 placed in the mixer. Extraction was carried out at temperature of 55–60°C during 6 h at continuous hashing. The concentrated extract moved in spray drying installation. In extracts determined the contents of bioflavonoids in terms of lyuteolin-7-glycoside and antioxidant activity (AOA). It is established that preliminary processing by high pressure of the crushed leaves of lucerne increases extraction of bioflavonoids. In prototypes of extracts the contents of bioflavonoids was higher, than in control for 41–151% depending on the processing mode. Similar changes were observed in AOA of extracts. The best results – 18,9 mol-eku/dm3 – are obtained after preliminary processing of plant raw materials by pressure of 200 MPa during 60 s.Keywords: extraction, high pressure processing, plant raw materials, bioflavonoids, lucerne.
Influence of heat treatment technology on quality of hazelnut kernels used for enrichment of bakery and flour confectionery is investigated. Hazelnut kernels contain to 16,8% of proteins, to 69% of lipids, to 15,5% of carbohydrates, in enough are presented macro- and microelements, water- and fat-soluble vitamins. The traditional way of preparation provides processing of the shelled nut kernels by influence of the high temperatures promoting increase in share of the denatured proteins and melanoidins that considerably reduces quality of nut kernels and respectively a ready-made product on organoleptic and physical and chemical indicators. It is offered to use heat treatment of nut kernels by method of infrared heating without preliminary removal of shell with drawing on it protective oil film from vegetable oil with the high content of oleic acid. Organoleptic and physical and chemical indicators of the processed nuts kernels in comparison with the control sample fried on traditional technology are investigated. It is established that the offered mode of processing provides the maximum preservation of physiologically useful components and partial course of hydrolytic processes in lipidic complex of nuts kernels that influences further the technological properties of wheat flour defining a condition of structure and periods of storage of finished bakery and flour confectionery.Keywords: nuts kernels, heat treatment, protective oil film, technological properties of raw materials, enrichment of bakery products.
For compensate of the essential nutrients deficiency when prevention of diabetes designed prophylactic dietary supplement composition based on egg-dry yeast semi finished product (60%), vitamin B1 (0,02%) and PP (0,04%), chromium chelate (0,02%), selenium-activ (0,02%) and lecithin (39,9%). Brewer’s yeast was subjected to enzymatic processing. A technology for the destruction of the cell membrane of brewer’s yeast, which consists in grinding at high speed homogenizer biomass in the presence of egg content (lysozyme enzyme rich), thermostating at 36–37°C for one hour and drying of semi-finished product at 80°C to moisture content of not more than 8%. The produced nutritional supplement used in the recipe of cooked sausages in an amount of 5 kg/100 kg of the basic raw material. In laboratory animals (white rats) evaluated the safety and biological value of meat as a preventive dietary supplement. It is found that the composition is developed in the meat product composition helped improve metabolic processes in experimental animals, increase the antioxidant activity of the body, reducing the lipid peroxidation process, lowering cholesterol in blood, improve glucose metabolism. The dietary supplement recommended using in nutrition for prevention of diabetes.Keywords: diabetes, brewer's yeast, lecithin, chromium chelate, selenium-activ, vitamins, medical and preventive properties.
The process of drying roots and rhizomes of wild inulin-containing plants growing on the territory of North Ossetia-Alania: elecampane, chicory, burdock, dandelion – with purpose of the maximum preservation of their useful properties with the lowest energy costs was investigated. The process of drying the crushed material with a particle size of 2–4 mm was performed in the IR-setting with a perforated bottom in stainless steel. The wave length of 1,8 to 2,0 µm. The influence of main factors on the efficiency of the process was analyzed. It is established that the greatest influence on the processing time of the samples to the desired moisture content (14%) are the heat flow rate, the layer height, the distance to the IR-emitter. The optimal parameters of process of drying roots and rhizomes infrared radiation were found: the layer height 20 mm, the distance of the sample to the IR emitter 50 mm, the heat flow rate 700–900 W in which the duration of drying amounted to for samples of roots of burdock, the roots and rhizomes of elecampane, chicory roots and dandelion 200, 210, 225, 240 min, respectively, and the temperature of the crushed parts of plants did not exceed 52–55°С, that has allowed to preserve the useful properties of vegetable raw materials.Keywords: inulin-containing plant raw material, drying of plant raw material, moisture content, drying time, heat flow rate.
The effect of certain prescription components on the structure of chewing candies of functional purpose with use in formulation of sweetener isomalt is investigated. It is shown that the most important role in shaping the texture of chewy sweets play a ratio of isomalt and syrup. It is found that with increasing mass fraction of syrup in candy mass its improved chew characteristics that is associated with the content of high molecular substances in the syrup, and the reinforced amorphous structure due anti-crystallization properties syrup. It was determined that developed chewy candies are condensation-crystallization structure. The changes in the elastic limit at different ratios of syrup and isomalt in candy mass to determine its strength is investigated. It is established that the chewy sweet with a ratio of 40 : 60 isomalt and syrup has the highest elastic properties. The use of gelatin in the manufacture of chewing candies can adjust the elastic properties of the candy mass. It is shown that the relative density of the chewy sweet is reduced by increasing the gelatin dosage of from 1 to 2,5% the further increase of gelatin to 3% leads to an increase in the relative density. The studies revealed that the change in elastic-plastic properties chewing candy mass is derived from plastic, at low dosages of gelatin, to increase when the elastic. The results of mathematical modeling made it possible to optimize the amount of gelatin – from 2,1 to 2,5% by weight of the components.Keywords: chewy candies, isomalt, gelatin, structure of chewing candies, elastic-plastic properties.
The researches results of wort prepared from Sauvignon Blanc grapes and wine materials, prepared as a result of the fermentation of wort are presented. For fermentation used reactivated active dry yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae Killer (Bayanus), race IOC 18-2007 (France, Institute of Enology) and grape dietary fiber (GDF), prepared according to our technology from the grape pomace. Used two method of drying GDF: in oven drying at 65°C and infrared drying. Pre reactivated active dry yeast was mixed with GDF to immobilize the cells on the surface of GDF. As a control, the wort fermented without the addition of yeast GDF. Fermentation was carried out at temperature 18°С. The effect of GDF the dynamics of the fermentation of grape wort is investigated. The influence of the degree of grinding, mode and method of drying of GDF on quality of table wine material is revealed. We consider influence of GDF on the resulting color of the wine, the total intensity of the color is determined. In all samples with GDF staining intensity was lower in comparison with the control. The prototypes were light-straw color, at several there was a yellow-golden hue, control sample had a straw color. Significant influence of GDF properties on chemical composition of wine materials, especially the content of glycerol, organic acids, extractive substances and phenolic compounds is established. Application of GDF at stage of alcoholic fermentation of grape wort contribute to the intensification of the process of fermentation and production of quality wines. The best results are obtained at IR-drying of GDF at extent of their crushing of 3 and 5 mm.Keywords: grape pomace, dietary fiber, fermentation, color intensity, phenolic compounds, organic acid, glycerin.
The stability and nutrition value of the preventive drinks made with use of wild-growing berries and fruits in various combinations are investigated. As preservative in the developed drinks used juglone. The stability of the drinks poured in bottles was defined by their endurance at temperature of 18–22°C and time estimates before emergence of visible turbidity. It is established that during all shelf life (30 days) organoleptic indicators of drinks didn’t change: color was ruby, transparency high, the sediment isn’t found. The sediment began to appear on the 46–47th days of storage. The impact which had by various conditions and the modes of storage on a nutrition value of drinks which stored at the room temperature of 18–20°C and at temperature no more than 10°C and without access of light during all period of storage is investigated. On the contents in drinks of mineral and pectin substances, organic acids, sugars change of temperature condition and light influence not had of essential impact .The greatest losses at storage at the room temperature are revealed on vitamin C and polyphenolic substances.Keywords: soft drinks, stability of drink, plant raw material, juglone, shelf life.
The water absorbing ability of 15 varieties of haricot bean grains grown in Kyrgyzstan for the purpose of determination of steeping duration of their is investigated. For research grains of white, color monophonic and color motley varieties are selected. The steeping was carried out at the room temperature of 20–25°C during 30 h. During 12 h steeping in each hour carried out weighing of grains samples on analytical scales. Further weighing carried out after 15, 20, 25 and 30 h steeping. The diagrams of water absorption by haricot grains of the studied varieties are constructed. Recommendations about temperature conditions and steeping duration of haricot bean grains of various varieties which can be used in the production technology of products from haricot beans are made.Keywords: haricot grains, haricot varieties, steeping duration, weight of absorbed water.
Processes & Apparatus
Experimental data on the evaporation of water at temperatures of 55 and 60°C and atmospheric pressure of 760 mm Hg. Identification of the developed mathematical models of non-stationary process of evaporation of water as an example. The system of differential equations of non-stationary heat and mass transfer is solved by Euler’s method with a time step of 10 s. It is considered that the partial pressure in the oven increases as evaporation of water in the thermostat chamber, without operating the fan. Changing the temperature of the glass weighing bottle under unsteady heating process is unknown. Determined share of the total transferred heat spent on heating water. It was found that the required percentage is 0,4. It was found that the temperature: the water, the core of water, and glass bottom on the air side in a period of constant drying rate equal to a wet-bulb temperature accuracy, calculated taking into account the effect on her of having a glass weighing bottle. A characteristic feature of the proposed model is that being non-linear, it allows you to describe the period of constant drying rate is practically a straight line. The numerical values of the quantities in a mathematical model of the process of unsteady evaporation, and a graph of the comparison of the calculated and experimental data, changing the amount of evaporated water and temperature. Identification by the mathematical model of evaporation of the water showed good agreement between calculated and experimental data, and can be used to calculate the drying process of liquid solutions, such as DDGS. Further improvement of the model must take into account the specific physical and chemical properties of non-ideal solutions.Keywords: unsteady evaporation of liquid solutions, mathematical model, heat transfer in free convection, heat balance, evaporation of water in thermostat.
Ionic-electrostatic interaction of hydrophobic colloidal particles in binary electrolyte at short range
Described in this work research is devoted to the improvement of the theoretical aspects of the basic principles and mechanisms of the processes leading to the beginning of ionic-electrostatic interaction of lyophobic colloidal systems in binary electrolyte. At present the existing model of the interaction contains a number of inaccuracies. Previously the authors suggested a physical model based on the position of the overlap area of the balanced condition between the electrostatic interaction forces and the thermal ions motion in the case of relatively large distances between colloidal particles. In this work, the described earlier approach is widened to the case of relatively small distances between particles. During the research it was found that at short distances there is the interaction not only between the double-diffusion layers of the approaching particles, but also between the diffusion layers with the surface particles charges. As a result there appear the direct forces of electrostatic repulsion between the drawing like-charged particles. In addition, at small distances there appear the double-diffusion layers overlap with volumes of adjacent colloids, causing the displacement of the potential overlapping area and, respectively, additional increase of the ion concentration in the particles overlapping area. According to the changes, the mathematical apparatus for assessing the ionic-electrostatic interaction of hydrophobic colloidal systems in binary electrolyte at relatively short distances is developed. The final model can be used for can be used for the development of coatings designed to protect technological equipment of food industry from the environmental corrosive effects.Keywords: ionic-electrostatic interaction, double electric layer, binary electrolyte, co-ions, counter ions, energy of pushing away, overlapping zone.
Numerically-analytical solution of the thin stillage sparger evaporation mathematical modeling in the form of differential equations in a spherical coordinate system based on the law of conservation of mass in the elementary volume are presented. The task of modeling was to find a temperature and mass fraction of steam from thin stillage on the bubble surface, depending on its radius. To solve the model the following assumptions are made: the evaporation is a quasi-static process; stationary continuity equations determine the mass flow rate of the evaporated moisture from thin stillage through bubble and the rate of diameter change; bubble temperature remains at its initial value; bubble surface is in vapor-liquid equilibrium; thin stillage is in pressurized saturation. Lewis number in the simulation is used to combine continuity equations for the energy and mass fraction of vapor on bubble surface, that allowed to perform calculations without diffusion coefficient. The solution is obtained by double integrating the equations with given initial and boundary conditions. To identify the model parameters to the real experiment methods of simulation are performed in the following range of parameters: the mass concentration of thin stillage 1200–1400 mg/l, volume of thin stillage 10–12 l, thin stillage temperature 330–335 K, air temperature 850–570 K, air velocity 0,01–0,02 m/s, bubbling height 0,20–0,25 m. Graphic interpretation of the model shows the dependence of the process duration on evaporation rate, mass concentration, temperature and bubbling height. Variation of calculated data from experimental does not exceed 12%. The model can be use in the design of bubbling devices and technological parameters management in allowable technological properties of product.Keywords: mathematical model, thin stillage, sparger evaporation, mass and heat flows.
In rectification processes in devices with rotating nozzle the hydrodynamic situation in various zones of contact devices isn’t identical. For founded and methodically correct calculation of mass transfer process in the studied device the values of volume coefficient of mass transfer and the valid speed of steam counted taking into account true volumes of each zone and sections for steam pass have to be determined. For the I zone the volume coefficient of mass transfer was carried to the volume concluded in an internal cavity of the rotating nozzle; the valid speeds of steam are calculated on the section of exhaust outlets of a nozzle. For the II zone the volume coefficient of mass transfer was carried to the volume limited to the internal wall of the device and a cylindrical surface described by openings of the rotating nozzle; the valid speed of steam is calculated on the ring section of this zone. Generalization of experimental data is carried out on the basis of the criteria equation considering a hydrodynamic situation in the device. It is offered to use mathematical expression for determination of criterion of turbulent friction in rotational devices as for the device with the rotating nozzle the same power expenses caused by existence of two-phase stream as in rotational devices are characteristic. Results of processing of experimental data on research of kinetics of rectification process in contact devices with the rotating nozzle for zones I and II are presented. The equations for the description of process of mass transfer in the device with the rotating nozzle are offered. The deviation of experimental data from the settlement doesn’t exceed 8–10%. By means of criterion of turbulent friction it is possible to describe process of mass transfer in each zone the uniform kinetic equation. Use of contact devices with openings of nozzle of round form with diameter of 11,8 mm for implementation of mass transfer processes is more expedient in comparison with other geometrical changes of contact devices with the rotating nozzle. The offered contact device has the dividing ability 2–2,5 times higher, than at the rectification devices operated in the industry at the same size of hydraulic resistance and limit streams.Keywords: mass transfer, rectification apparatus, friction of streams, two-phase and single-phase stream, mass transfer coefficient, hydraulic resistance, rotating nozzle, vapor-liquid mixture.
Food Engineering, Proesses, Equipment & Automation of Food Production
Process of manufacture of dry milk products in spray dryer is a very broad market, both as a ready-to-eat foods and raw materials for the manufacture of pastries, ice cream and many other foods. Thus, the requirements for raw materials and finished products for this process turning into several technological conditions as customers ordered. Lack of mathematical models, that viability as technically and economically, prevented for realization of optimization of process parameters in terms of energy costs and the quality of the milk powder, as manufacturers want it. By the multiply of relation of parameters of object by the technological streams, multiple limitation by resources change, the control process turns into multi-parameter problems. Critical constraints on variation of variables of the drying process have been requiring that intelligent control will be used. The usage of predictive models performs the task of multi-parameter coordination for restrictions support within the range that out of reach for classical control systems. Variables of object, which has involving for the creation of technological mode, had associated over function with observed variables for implementation of control set. Estimation of dynamic characteristics of the process streams, in scale the change of mode resulting functional dependencies to the static model. The algorithm, which controlling of object variables had been focusing by the variable which is the target of technological rules, during the coordination. Further research would have formalized the representation of the object as a model of the “black box” for provide flexibility of selected control strategy.Keywords: drying of milk, assortment production, forecasting model, cascade systems, multivariable control.
Perspective way of disinfection of liquid and pasty technological materials in the food industry and agriculture is impact on them the electromagnetic field of variable frequency generated by means of inductor. Influence of temperature of the inductor on parameters characterizing quality of its functioning is investigated. The mathematical models which are quantitatively estimating influence of inductor temperature on the following parameters are offered: a cosine of the phases angle of fluctuation of voltage and current, active electrical power, reactive electrical power, full electrical power. The regression equations describing dependence of these parameters on inductor temperature are obtained. On the obtained models values of the studied parameters are calculated. The methods of statistic treatment and analogue digital converting were used. The results of the research can be seen in mathematic dependences, which are able to use during the designing of new inductors for disinfection of technological materials in agriculture and food industry.Keywords: disinfection of materials, electromagnetic field, inductor, temperature of inductor, cosine of the phases angle of fluctuation of voltage and current, electrical power.
Methods of Investigation, Quality & Safety of Food Products
Rice quality national and international standards comparative assessment was made during research. This paper provides express-analysis method for husked rice with normal, red and green seed coats in machine vision systems. Statistic classifiers are offered for seed coat of husked rice recognition using wavelet analysis of color coordinates according to international color scale HSL. Numerical values of statistic classifiers hue, saturation and lightness were defined for seed color type recognition. Graphic model of husked rice with different seed coats identification results introduced in dispersion ellipsoid-shape. Express method of seed coat’s color detection was offered according to statistic classifier hue valued in nanometers. Developed method could be a part of intellectual machine vision system for laboratory and manufactory control of identity rice quality factors.Keywords: standards system, rice quality factors, machine vision systems, color coordinates, color scale HSL, statistic classifiers.
The aim was the development of methodology to establish by calculation sample weight based on the structure of the mixture. The aim was to find a lot of samples in which the relative deviation of the humidity of the sample mixed with the humidity given confidence level, which would not exceed the absolute value of allowable relative error. It was established that a significant impact on the value of the mass of the sample has a tolerable error representation. Therefore, it should be possible for most to the total error in determining the moisture content does not exceed the specified. The method of calculation of the mass represented by the sample, which can be used in the development of means of control in production lines cooking canned vegetables, the parameters of multicomponent mixtures.Keywords: canned vegetables, vegetable mixes, humidity, mass of sample, error, deviation of trust.
The structure, physical and chemical properties of water are considered. Proceeding from structure and properties of water molecules, their opportunities at formation of any types of spatial structures are shown: segment, circle, circumference, sphere, torus, double and triple torus, projective surface, Mobius strip, the Klein bottle with various characteristics of Euler–Poincare. It is suggested that material objects, which spatial structures have Euler–Poincare characteristic equal to zero, possess the least expressed properties. One of such properties is flavor. Material objects, which spatial structures are organized as circle, torus, Mobius strip, the Klein bottle, have to possess probably neutral flavor, that is to be flavorless.Keywords: water molecule, structure and properties of water, spatial structures, Euler–Poincare characteristic, hydrogen bond, flavor.
Mathematical models describing protolytic equilibria in tartaric acid solution in the presence of strong electrolytes
The behavior of the tartaric acid (TA) in the diluted aqueous solutions in the presence of strong electrolytes in the course of continuous titration is investigated. By comparison of two mathematical models applied to interpretation of the obtained data it is shown that TA titration as quadribasic and its molecular and anionic forms are in aqueous solution in a stable dimeric form. The curves distributions estimated molecular and ionic forms of TA produced during titration have been constructed, and the nature of hydrogen and intermolecular bonds is analysed. The influence of TA in the form of titration curves wines is revealed. The results are used in the methods of titrimetry for an assessment of wines quality.Keywords: tartaric acid, dimeric forms of distribution curves, titrable acidity of wine.
Use of mathematical methods of experiment planning in identifying factors influence consumer properties gingerbreads
The article deals with the application of methods of experimental design for modeling, parameter estimation and determination of the degree of adequacy of the model in the analysis of the interaction of various factors that determine the organoleptic and physico-chemical characteristics of custard gingerbread products functional purpose with sugar beet dietary fiber and stevioside. We considered two-level experimental design using the methods of correlation and regression analysis. For statistical analysis models used by the software package Statistica 6.0. Application of the method of mathematical planning of the experiment allows you to choose the production of scalded gingerbread products such levels of performance of technological regimes, which, if required minimum cost, providing reproducibility of determining parameters of finished products. It was found that water absorption and comprehensive indicator of the quality of gingerbread products most affected by the dosage of sugar beet dietary fiber content of stevioside also changes the physical and chemical properties of gingerbreads, but to lesser extent. Graphic analysis of response surface water absorption showed that it is extreme and has a kind of “vertex”, while the response surface of the complex index of quality is extreme and has a view of the “valley”. When choosing the optimum ratio of prescription ingredients for cooking cakes functionality graphic it was considered “compromise” task. As result of its decision, moving from coded values to the natural values obtained with optimal prescription ingredients for making gingerbreads. On the basis of studies of the interaction of various factors that determine the organoleptic and physico-chemical characteristics of custard gingerbread products, we have proved that the correlation of the most significant parameters on the basis of mathematical methods of experiment planning.Keywords: mathematical model, regression equation, experimental design, custard cakes, quality indicators.
Multicriteria optimization of balanced composition and organoleptic characteristics of specialized food antianemic orientation
For the design of the formulation products antianemic orientation of the technique, including optimization criteria like balance of structure, and sensory evaluation is proposed. As the prototype product it was chosen smoothie. The raw components of composition that contains the necessary nutrients: carbohydrates, mineral connections (Fe, Ca, Cu), and vitamins (A, B1, B9, C) were kiwi, grapes, yogurt, honey and juice from wheat sprouts. The relationship of organoleptic criteria with the quantitative composition of the formulation identified by neural network and regression analysis of the rating assessment of organoleptic characteristics. Convolution of criteria held on multiplicative models of asymmetric desirability function. The optimum ratio of components in the formulation that meets the conditions of balanced composition and organoleptic indicators is established.Keywords: iron deficiency anemia, balanced chemical composition, regression model, multicriteria optimization.
The conditions and state of the labor protection (LP) at the small enterprise of food branch making bakery products are investigated. The analysis of LP state is carried out and violations of requirements of normative documents are revealed. Implementation of number of actions for normalization of working conditions at small enterprise and creation of the safety management system (SMS) is offered. The SMS model for the studied enterprise considering features of food branch is developed. The assessment of professional risk on materials of certification of working conditions on workplaces is carried out. As criterion of assessment of professional risk the coefficient of labor safety on workplace is chosen. The coefficients of labor safety on all workplaces of the enterprise before implementation of actions for normalization of working conditions are calculated. The results testify that introduction of SMS allowed to lower professional risk on workplaces and to increase coefficients of labor safety. Drafts of standards of the enterprise on the LP main procedures are developed. Annual economic effect of introduction of SMS at small enterprise made 206,58 thousand rubles.Keywords: small enterprise, working conditions, operational injuries, labor protection, professional incidence, safety management system, professional risk, coefficient of labor safety.
Technique of development of products and dishes formulations taking into account the nutrition value and cost of raw materials
The results of development of creation way of foodstuff and dishes on the basis of the calculated indexes of food density and nutrient price of raw materials are presented. When using a way data on daily need of the individual (groups of individuals) for the main nutrient materials are considered. The offered way allows to create foodstuff and dishes which possess the set consumer properties – nutrition value on essential nutrients, rather low caloric content and available level of cost. The manufactured production can be used in dietary, baby food and other types of specialized and mass food.Keywords: index of food density, nutrient price of product, nutrition value, product formulation.
In distillates aged brandy extract components are present in certain proportions, it can be used as a basis for developing the quality control assessment. Objective: selection and foundation of estimates of quality control aged brandy distillates based on an analysis of extractable substances in view of factors influence. For research were used aged brandy distillates elaborated in the wine regions of the CIS and the EU. Certain components of the extract and tannins conducted by gravimetric and titrimetric methods. Gallic acid was determined by capillary electrophoresis. Data studies evaluating the effect of pretreatment method oak and soak period brandy distillate ratio of total extract amount of tannins and gallic acid derived from the composition analysis of industrial and laboratory samples brandy distillates presented. It is shown that brandy distillates elaborated in accordance with the established rules, the ratio of tannins/total extract is in the range of 0.17–0.85; during the long aging trend reduction ratio values. When short-term exposure distillates ratio of the total extract and tannins shifted towards increasing the share of tannins. The brandy distillates aged for at least 3 years, the ratio of tannins/total extract is not more than 0.70. Ratio of gallic acid/tannins • 100 in test samples brandy distillates value ranged from 0.2 to 5.0 and was independent of age; pre-activation of oak wood in various ways has not had a significant impact on changes in the share of gallic acid in the tannins.Keywords: brandy distillate, total extract, tannins, gallic acid, quality control of brandy distillates.