Food technologyIssues → № 2-3 (350-351), 2016

Table of contents for # 2-3 (350-351), 2016

Economics of Food Industry


Organization of production of complex product through the coordination of technical systems and processes of the company

V.P. Kuznetsov, A.P. Garin

The article provides an overview of approaches to integrated development of systems of product development and production systems in the theory of sustainable development of production. Researched and compiled by the design practice of creating complex products; features of coordination, systems and processes within the project. It is proved that in the design and manufacture of complex product advanced manufacturing solutions a set of covers, in addition to the functional and product specifications, and coordination of technical systems and production processes. The aim of the research is the study of the basic provisions of the concept and definition of management tools, organizational technology, key areas of designing and manufacturing a complex product in modern conditions. Attention is paid to strengthening the integration of information processes of the participants; a high degree of unification and standardization of production, allowing to quickly make changes in the project; possibility of replicating the experience of world manufacturers – leaders in Russian industry practice.

Keywords: complex product system product development, technical systems, comprehensive production development, industrial partnership.

Classification of competitive strategies of industrial enterprises

A.O. Egorova, V.P. Kuznetsov

The article deals with the classification of competitive strategies of well-known domestic and foreign scientists (V.I. Shilkov, L.E. Cherednikova, S.V. Petukhova, P.V. Shemetov and Yu.A. Malenkov, Ph. Kotler, M. Porter, G. Johnson, K. Scholes and R. Whittington, A.Yu. Yudanov, J. Trout and A. Ries, A.A. Thompson and A.J. Strickland) in the field of strategic management of industrial enterprises. Based on the analysis of the existing kinds of competitive strategies classification of competitive strategies on the level of competitive activity is offered. Three main types of competitive strategy it is found: a high level of competitive activity (offensive), with an average level of competitive activity (defensive) and low-competitive activities (simulation). It is proved that the proposed classification of competitive strategies is the most appropriate for use in the practice of industrial enterprises.

Keywords: competitive strategy, industry, competition, competitive activity, strategic areas of activity, diversification, market environment.

Chemistry of Food Products & Materials


Preservation of the biochemical complex of wild plants fruits at long low-temperature storage

B.M. Guseynova

The content of vitamins C and P, titrable acids, pectinaceous and phenolic substances in wild plants fruits blackberries, cornel, medlar and sea-buckthorn fresh, fast-frozen at –30°C, and also after prolonged low-temperature storage at –18°C for 3 and 9 months is investigated. Results showed that in wild-growing fruits from mountain Dagestan the rich biochemical complex is formed. In them the content of the substances characterizing a nutrition value is sufficient for satisfaction of 30–40% of average daily need of the person at the usual level of their consumption. The applied processing method of conservation – fast freezing of fruits and the subsequent their long low-temperature storage will ensure the preservation of nutrients. In prototypes of fruits preservation of vitamins C and P, titrable acids, phenolic and pectinaceous connections after 9 months low-temperature storage made on average 70–90%. Distinctions in stability of biochemical complexes in fruits of blackberry, a cornel, a medlar and sea-buckthorn during the freezing and storage, in our opinion, are caused by specific features of these wild plants, the content of free and connected water, thickness of cellular walls and durability of a thin skin of fruits, and also concentration of the components inhibiting the destructive processes happening at the cellular and molecular level.

Keywords: wild-growing fruits, biochemical structure, vitamin C, vitamin P, nutrients, pectinaceous substances, fast freezing.

Features of the chemical composition of sainfoin seeds powder

N.A. Tarasenko, YU.N. Nikonovich, E.A. Butina

The chemical composition of seeds powder of nontraditional bean culture – sainfoin – for the purpose of definition of possibility of his use in technology of foodstuff, including in confectionery production is investigated. The crushed seeds of sainfoin represent loose fine powder of light brown color with the pleasant not expressed specific smell with flower notes. Taste grassy with smack typical for bean cultures. In chemical composition of sainfoin seeds proteins and cellulose prevail, the content of fat doesn’t exceed 8%. The total of amino acids makes 26,94 g/100 g product, from them 37,85% fall to the share of essential amino acids. The limiting amino acid is tryptophane (48,0%). On composition of essential amino acids of proteins of sainfoin seeds a little concede to proteins of soy seeds, but surpass proteins of peanut seeds, in particular, in the contents of lysine and threonine. Addition in a nutrient medium of sainfoin seeds powder doesn’t exert the oppressing impact on development the test-organism Tetrahymena pyriformis. At the same time physiological requirements the test-organism in protein are satisfied for 58% in comparison with casein. Thanks to balance of amino-acid structure sainfoin seeds powder can be used as part of food for correction of balance of limiting amino acids.

Keywords: sainfoin seeds, chemical composition of product, biological value, amino-acid structure.

Chemical compound and antioxidant activity index of apple varieties of Samara region

T.O. Bykova, N.V. Makarova, O.I. Azarov, A.A. Kuznetsov

Apples contain vitamins, minerals and bioantioxidants. Chemical compound depends of variety and growth environment. The aim of research is studying of chemical composition and antioxidant properties of summer, autumn and winter apple varieties. Apples were grown in Samara Region. The methods are content of organic acids by GOST 25555.0–82, content of sugar by GOST 8756.13–78, photocolorimetric determination methods of contents of phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, ferric reduce antioxidant power (FRAP), antioxidant activity in a linoleic acid system and scavenging activity of DPPH radical. Summer varieties content higher acids content than winter or autumn varieties which have high content of sugar. Summer varieties content more phenolic compounds and flavonoids then autumn or winter varieties. Athocyanins were detected in q. v. “23-23-130” only. Summer varieties have high reduce power. Winter varieties have a minimal antioxidant activity in a linoleic acid system. Winter varieties have a minimal scavenging activity of DPPH radical. Summer varieties include “Melba” have higher antioxidant value. Winter varieties include “Podarok Ministru” and q. v. “23-23-130” have optimal composition and high antioxidant activity. Antioxidant activity of autumn varieties is low but q. v. “Danko” is more valuable.

Keywords: chemical compound, antioxidant activity, apple, summer varieties, autumn varieties, winter varieties.

Biochemical processes which take place during battonage in the technology of white table wines

N.M. Ageeva, U.A. Lisovets, A.A. Blozhko

Battonage is ageing wine on lees or on wine yeast biomass with periodic stirring. There is no consensus about duration of battonage and frequency of stirring among winemakers. Features of the biochemical processes proceeding under various conditions of carrying out a battonage in technologies of white table wines, and their influence on quality of the produced wine material are investigated. For researches used the grape clarified wort from grapes variety Sauvignon fermented with application of active dry yeast of type of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Killer (Bayanus) of race IOC 18-2007 (France). Upon completion of fermentation wine material was mixed with biomass of yeast and divided into four samples for battonage carrying out: 1 – mixed once every week; 2 – mixed once a month; 3 – mixed once in two months; 4 – didn’t mix (control). Duration of battonage made 6 months. In wine material samples twice a month determined mass concentration of amine nitrogen and once a month carried out their organoleptic evaluation. It is established that the intensity of biochemical processes during battonage is determined by duration of the contact of wine with yeast biomass and modes of battonage. It is shown that the stirring the wine with yeast biomass led to a perceptible increase in the concentration of amino nitrogen in wine. The best results on the dynamics of amine nitrogen and organoleptic evaluation of wine materials were obtained in the sample with stirring of wine and yeast biomass once a month: wine was characterized by varietal aroma and had a full, soft, harmonious taste.

Keywords: battonage, wine yeast, wine material, amino nitrogen, autolysis.

Evaluation of succinic acid influence on antioxidant activity of wines during storage

G.F. Muzychenko, N.M. Ageeva, YU.F. Yakuba, S.D. Burlaka, A.A. Alekseeva

The researches results of change in during storage of antioxidant activity (AOA) of white (Chardonnay) and red (Cabernet Sauvignon) of table wines are presented. In prototypes for prevention of wine components oxidation used antioxidants – succinic acid, its potassium and calcic salts – in amount of 50 and 100 mg/dm3, and also sulfur dioxide with the general concentration of 100 and 150 mg/dm3. The storage duration of samples made 186 days. The storage was carried out in provocative conditions: temperature is 23–25°C, good illumination of the room. Influence of antioxidants on concentration of biologically valuable components of phenolic complex – the phenolcarbonic acids and resveratrol, and also the amount AOA of wines in during storage is investigated. It is established that the greatest antioxidant effect concerning chlorogenic acid was shown by sulfur dioxide and succinic acid, and concerning resveratrol – succinic acid and its potassium salt in concentration of 100 mg/dm3. The introduced additives have had the most significant effect on the content of protocatechuic and gallic acids. The analysis of researches results of change of AOA of wine materials samples in the course of storage has shown that additives of sulfur dioxide and succinic acid were the most effective. The last, as well as her potassium salt, it is possible to recommend for prevention of components oxidation of wine at long-term storage.

Keywords: wine materials, phenolcarbonic acids, oxidation of wine, antioxidant activity.

Comparative characteristic of parameters of antioxidant activity of spices

A.V. Andreeva, N.V. Makarova

Results of a comparative study of antioxidant activity of spices presented in article including: black pepper, red pepper, white pepper, juniper, nutmeg, cinnamon, cardamom, mustard, garlic, paprika, chilli, ginger. In this studies used a variety of methods for determining the antioxidant activity: measurement of phenolic compounds with a reagent Folin–Ciocalteu, flavonoids restoring force FRAP method antiradical activity using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), antioxidant activity in linoleic acid system. In terms of experimental studies have been made appropriate conclusions. It has been shown that cinnamon, chilli and ginger have the highest antioxidant activity. Garlic and white pepper are the lowest levels of all study procedures.

Keywords: spices, antioxidant activity, phenols, flavonoids, linoleic acid.



Use of oat germinated grains for the production of soft cheese

O.S. Khodunova, L.A. Silant'eva

In order to create combined milk based food products enriched with plant additives the possibility of use of oat germinated grains as a functional ingredient in the production of soft cheese and whey drinks is investigated. The characteristic of dairy products is presented, the feasibility of sprouted grains use to increase their nutritional value is substantiated. The results of the study of the effect of the germinated grain oats mass fraction on the qualitative characteristics of soft cheese and whey are given. The effect of additives on the duration of the mixture clotting, the organoleptic properties of soft cheese and whey, physico-chemical parameters of whey is studied. It is found that with increasing mass fraction of the germinated grains the duration of mixture clotting, density of whey and, respectively, the solids content in whey increase. The introduction of grain additive improves the organoleptic indicators of whey. The optimum mass fraction of germinated grains of oats to achieve the necessary properties of soft cheese is 4–6%. The results indicate the possibility of using germinated grains oats in order to increase nutritional and biological value of soft cheeses. The obtained after their production whey is promising raw material for functional beverages.

Keywords: soft cheeses, germinated grains, oat, functional properties, whey.

Influence of drying conditions of sunflower seeds on phospholipids hydratability

L.A. Mkhitaryants, E.V. Denisova, G.A. Mkhitaryants

The extraction of oils from sunflower seeds was carried out in the conditions which are brought closer to production i. e. all samples subjected to wet thermal treatment (WTT) in the modes accepted in oil and fat branch with their subsequent extraction by hexane. It is shown that the oils extracted from the seeds which have reached optimum humidity on standing (7,0–7,2%) are characterized by low degree of hydratability. Residual content of phospholipids in oils after water hydration makes 0,27%. The drying of seeds at any conditions, both cold, and hot air, promotes increase in transition of phospholipids to oils. This process is more expressed when using hot air and subjects more than above his temperature. It is established that drying of seeds exerts the greatest impact on hydratability of the extracted phospholipids. With increase in temperature of heating of seeds the residual content of phospholipids in oils after water hydration significantly decreases and at temperature of heating of seeds about 70 °C don’t exceed 0,04–0,05%. The revealed regularities can be explained with the changes proceeding in the phospholipid-protein complexes under the influence of technology factors. Drying of damp seeds has significant effect on durability degree the phospholipid-protein complexes, and the result of influence depends on polarity of phospholipids. The bonds of the most polar phospholipids which at the same time are not hydrated with a protein-polysaccharide part of seeds in the course of drying are consolidated the more, than temperature of heating of seeds is higher. As a result not hydrated phospholipids don’t pass into oils even from the seeds which have passed the WTT. The bonds of less polar, easy-hydrated groups of phospholipids with components of seeds weaken, collapse in process WTT, and the easy-hydrated groups of phospholipids pass into oil. The obtained results demonstrate that drying of seeds by the drying agent with high temperature allows to increase considerably total amount of the extracted phospholipids at simultaneous improvement of degree of their hydratability.

Keywords: sunflower seeds processing, oils hydration, phospholipids, phospholipids hydratability, wet thermal treatment.

Separation preliming sludge of beet sugar production as a way to quality improvement of thin juice

V.O. Gorodetskiy, R.S. Reshetova, V.V. Lisovoy, I.N. Lyusiy, N.M. Daisheva, S.O. Semenikhin

Currently used methods of diffusion juice purification can’t be considered sufficiently perfect, because of unreasonably great consumption of calcium oxide for purification – 1,5–2,0% CaO by weight of beet, that is significantly higher than theoretically required for the reaction of non-sugars deposition, and relatively low juice purification effect. One of possible ways to improve the quality indicators of the purified juice while minimizing losses of sucrose is the separation of substances of colloidal dispersion during the initial stage of the diffusion juice purification – progressive preliming. For effective separation of the sludge is necessary to produce preliming juice with characteristics that satisfy the conditions of efficient operation of equipment for sedimentation and filtration. The effect of the value of total alkali of mixture of diffusion juice and carbonated sediments of suspensions, activated carbon dioxide, the ability of preliming sludge to filtration is investigated. The method of producing suspension of preliming sludge the desired density (1,12 g/cm3), which allows its efficient separation by filtration with subsequent desugarization is offered.

Keywords: diffusion juice purification, progressive preliming, suspension sludge, suspension activation, thin juice.

Innovative technology the production of fruit-vegetable pastille

L.V. Zotova, E.I. Myakinnikova, A.M. Savina

Developed formulation and production technology of fruit-vegetable pastille produced from domestic fruit and vegetable raw materials. As the main raw material used apples, auxiliary – apricots, peaches, persimmons, carrots, beets, pumpkin. The energy and nutritional value developed pastille, fruit, fruit and vegetable products in comparison with pastille products prepared according to traditional recipes was investigated. Made by developed formulation pastille differs from traditional lower calorific value and rich vitamin and mineral composition. The influence of dried sea grass Zostera (Zostera marina), used as an enriching component in the formulation, on organoleptic properties pastille products was investigated. The addition of Zostera does not affect the taste, color and smell of the product, however, contributes to its enrichment with vitamins and minerals, improves the ductility of the products. The optimal modes of production processes, in particular drying offered. The drying pastille mass by impregnation with liquefied carbon dioxide at a pressure above atmospheric with subsequent sudden depressurization and the electromagnetic field of low frequency 18–55 Hz flows in a delicate mode at a temperature of –35°C and different efficiency, because of direct exposure to the object without intermediate energy recovery and environmental performance – by reducing and reducing the consumption of chemicals. Installation diagram for the developed method of drying pastille mass is presented. Obtained by the proposed technology, the product becomes a porous structure, and low moisture content increases the shelf life pastille products, which is especially important for seasonal fruit and vegetable processing.

Keywords: pastille, technology of preparation of fruit-vegetable pastille, enrichment of product, drying pastille mass.

Research of sweeteners effect on structural and mechanical properties of dough for cakes

E.V. Konovalova, I.B. Krasina, B.A. Zybinskiy

For the purpose of foundation of possibility use in technology functional the cake products of new generation sweetener – palatinose researches of his influence on structural and mechanical properties of the cakes dough are conducted. Three prototypes of dough with full replacement of sugar on palatinose in the ratio 1 : 1; 1 : 1,2 and 1 : 1,5 are prepared. Dosages have been chosen because degree of sweet of palatinose makes 0,5 from sweet of sucrose. As control investigated a dough sample with sugar. Using Brabender Farinograph-E and planetary mixer type P-600 estimated the effects of changes in formulations on characteristics of dough. As the measured variable the torque which was registered as function of time has been accepted. It is established that at full replacement of sugar on palatinose there is a decrease in the maximum consistency of the dough, reduced the time of its formation. Replacement of sugar on palatinose leads to insignificant increase in humidity of the dough and decrease in its viscosity. It is established that with increasing content of palatinose there is a reduction of the numerical values of the limit shear stress and the consistency coefficient with increase of the flow index of samples of cakes dough. Mathematical analysis of experimental data showed that replacement of sugar by palatinose has an impact on structural-mechanical and physicochemical properties of cakes dough, whereas samples with replacement of sugar by palatinose in the ratio of 1 : 1 and 1 : 1,2 do not differ from each other. The results of these studies can be used to develop methods of controlling the processes of production of flour confectionery products using sugar substitutes.

Keywords: cake dough, sweetener, palatinose, structural and mechanical properties.

Development of wafer products with use of powder from Jerusalem artichoke tubers

N.A. Tarasenko, D.YU. Bolgova, N.Р. Ershova

The possibility of use of powder from Jerusalem artichoke tubers (PJA) in formulation of wafer products for their enrichment by functional nutrients is investigated. The chemical composition of PJA is determined, the analysis of its nutrition and biological value is carried out. Powder of Jerusalem artichoke was introduced in formulation of the wafer test instead of cocoa powder in number of 60, 70, 80 and 100%. It is established that in process of increase in dosage of PJA density decreases and humidity of the test increases, wafer sheets become easier and porous on the structure that is positively reflected in consumer qualities of finished product. Humidity, water absorption and acidity of ready wafer sheets with various dosage of PJA are investigated. Prototypes of wafers had more delicate consistence and the raised crunch, their appearance and texture have improved. On the basis of researches results the formulation of flat wafers “Kubanochka” with use of PJA has been developed.

Keywords: wafer products, powder from Jerusalem artichoke tubers, enrichment of foodstuff, quality of wafers.

Comparative assessment of technological properties of wheat and rye flour on quality shortbread

E.E. Dikolova, M.P. Bakhmet

The researches results of technological properties of wheat and rye flour in order to ensure optimum quality shortbread are presented. The samples of wheat and rye flour were studied, determined the percentage of the mixture. Assessment of carbohydrate-amylase complex of wheat and rye flour was carried out in terms of “falling number” and amylogram parameters (initial gelatinization temperature of starch, starch paste maximum viscosity and temperature of maximum viscosity), reflecting the rheological behavior of water-gelatinized flour suspension. The rheology test dynamics in the process of mixing was determined on farinograph of company “Brabender”. It is found that a mixture of wheat and rye flour to 70 : 30 ensures stable quality of shortbread. Adding rye flour increases the water absorption of 3–5%, reduction in resistance of dough at 2,1%, the organoleptic properties of cookie – the shape, surface, color, taste and smell, to form a break – comply with the requirements. When preparing dough from wheat and rye flour mixture in ratio of 50 : 50 showed a significant increase in the adhesiveness of dough and baked cookies deterioration.

Keywords: wheat flour, rye flour, shortbread, dough rheology, farinograph, extensograph, amylograph.

Use of enzyme preparations to improve the consumer properties of custard gingerbread

M.P. Bakhmet, E.E. Dikolova, O.G. Gritsenko

Presents the results of a study of the effect of any enzyme preparations Betamalt 25 FBD and EMCEsoft P 10 on gingerbread dough rheology and the quality of finished products while preparing dough from wheat flour with low alpha amylase activity. We investigated the change in the number of falls and quality of wet gluten in the dough samples, the influence of different dosages of enzyme preparations on the change of indicators the number of falls and IDK, the rheology of dough and quality of finished products. It is established that to ensure the stable operation of the technological line for the production of custard gingerbread and ensure high-quality finished products when using wheat flour with parameters: falling number of 500 s, the gluten content of 27%, a wet gluten quality 55 IDK unit, is introducing the optimal enzyme preparation Betamalt 25 FBD in an amount of 0,5–1,0% and enzyme preparation EMCEsoft P 10 in the amount of 1,0–1,5% relative to the weight of the flour.

Keywords: custard gingerbread, rheology of dough, farinograph, falling number, consumer characteristics of gingerbread.

Change in lipids concentration in wine material during battonage in the technology of white table wines

N.M. Ageeva, U.A. Lisovets

Change of lipids concentration depending on the regimes of battonage – the duration of the contact of wine materials with yeast biomass and the frequency of stirring – in technology of white table wines is investigated. For researches used the grape clarified wort from grapes variety Sauvignon fermented with application of active dry yeast of type of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Killer (Bayanus) of race IOC 18-2007 (France). Upon completion of fermentation wine material was mixed with biomass of yeast and divided into four samples for battonage carrying out: 1 – mixed once every week; 2 – mixed once a month; 3 – mixed once in two months; 4 – didn’t mix (control). Duration of battonage made 6 months. It is established that the frequent stirring of wine and yeast biomass leads to an increase of the concentration of all groups of lipids in wine. It is revealed an increase in the concentration of all groups of lipids, including their sum, with an increase of the duration of the contact of wine with yeast biomass. Air access during the stirring has a noticeable effect on the accumulation of lipids by yeast and it facilitates to a change in the concentration of several lipid fractions and the composition of fatty acids. The obtained results must be considered in the production with conducting of battonage, since lipids are the reason number one for the formation of reversible colloidal dimness.

Keywords: battonage, lipids, wine material, wine yeast, stirring, duration of contact of yeast with wine material.

Development of technology for the production of mineral supplements from the sea water

А.V. Dobrovolskaya, D.E. Zanin

The possibility of production of mineral additives from the concentrate of sea water produced using reverse osmosis was investigated. The sea water concentrate contains contains necessary for an organism salts and minerals in significant amount and can be used to enrich their demineralized water. For the production of mineral supplements proposed to further purify the concentrate of sea water from mechanical impurities and microorganisms in the separation apparatus of hollow fibers with a limit of detention is 15 kDa and sterilize it using ultraviolet sterilizer. Schematic diagram of the technology of production of mineral supplements from sea water are presented. Its chemical composition is investigated. The manufactured mineral supplement can be used for mineralization of desalinated drinking water, as well as for the production of beverages, specialized foodstuff, biologically active additives to food.

Keywords: sea water, mineral supplement, reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration.

Quality assessment of bread from wheat flour produced with use of the ferment preparation EnzoWay 5.02

E.I. Ponomareva, V.V. Petrichenko, D.YU. Bugrimov, N.N. Alekhina, M.G. Ivanov

The tendency of decrease in baking properties of flour is characteristic of the last time. The way of hydrothermal treatment of wheat grain with use of composition of ferments of the technological auxiliary means (TAM) EnzoWay 5.02 is offered. The way allows to increase the biological value and the contents of gluten in flour, to increase her yield. The bread produced from such flour differs in big porosity and specific volume. The preclinical quality assessment of prototypes of bread is carried out. Influence of TAM EnzoWay 5.02 used by production of flour on biochemical parameters, antioxidant status, histochemical and morphological changes in an organism of rats is investigated by in vivo method. It is established that at inclusion in ration bread from the wheat flour obtained with application of ferment preparations the tendency of more expressed digestion, the improved process of metabolism in departments of intestines, positive the regulatory blood modeling influence on antioxidant activity is recorded.

Keywords: wheat flour, technological auxiliary means EnzoWay 5.02, biological value of bread, in vivo method.

Implementation of the principle of balanced fatty acid composition of multicomponent food module

E.I. Reshetnik, E.A. Utochkina

In the article the component structure of the food module including the soy basis food, skimmed milk (in ratio 30 : 70), dietary Supplement “Lavitol-arabinogalactan” is substantiated. The characteristic of nutrition and biological value of the ingredients used in the composition of a multicomponent module is given. The combination of dairy and vegetable raw allows you to adjust the fatty acid composition of the product in accordance with the requirements of modern nutrition science. Enrichment module food additive “Lavitol-arabinogalactan” gives to product functional properties. Presents results of a study of fatty acid composition, physicochemical properties and organoleptic characteristics of multicomponent food module. It is established that fatty acid composition of the module is a combination of saturated, polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Low content of lauric, stearic and caprylic acids is determined. Mass fraction of myristic and palmitic acids is not higher than the permissible limits. The high content of linoleic, arachidic, oleic and cis-vaccenic acids, causes a high nutritional and biological value of the multi-component module. The developed food module is recommended to be used by production of fermented milk products, dairy and vegetable cocktails, etc.

Keywords: multicomponent food module, soy basis food, low-fat milk, arabinogalactan, fatty acid composition.

Processes & Apparatus


Selection of optimum preparation parameters of gymnospermous pumpkin seeds for oil extraction

V.V. Derevenko, A.B. Borovskiy, I.N. Alenkina, A.D. Novozhenova

A promising method of producing gourmet oil and food cake from gymnospermous pumpkin seeds of variety “Styrian oil” is the method of single pressing on screw press for effective implementation of which is necessary to determine the optimal parameters for preparation of the oil material to extract the oil. The object of the study were micronized gymnospermous pumpkin seeds of variety “Styrian oil” of oil content of 39,2%, a moisture content of 6–11%. Peeled pumpkin seeds before extraction of oil was subjected to IR radiation in laboratory setting with bringing the samples to temperature of 30–80°C. In bench conditions pressing oil single pressing on screw press. The study was performed according to the square plan for two factors at three levels. The studied parameters were the temperature and humidity of the micronized seeds. After conducting regression analysis of the obtained experimental and statistical models for calculating the release of pumpkin oil and the temperature of cake. On the basis of numerical experiment on the proposed experimental and statistical models determined the optimal parameters of temperature and humidity of the micronized seeds of gymnospermous pumpkin, providing a single pressing on screw press for maximum oil yield and high production quality.

Keywords: gymnospermous pumpkin seeds of “Styrian oil”, micronized seeds, single pressing of oil, screw press, experimental-statistic models.

Cell model of potato drying process in fluidized bed

A.V. Mitrofanov

The cell mathematical model for the description of potato drying in fluidized bed is proposed. An experimental verification of mathematical model when drying samples of potatoes in fluidized bed is carried out. The process parameters were measured: height of fluidized bed, particles moisture content, particles size, relative humidity at output of device. The obtained results evidence to good compliance of calculation and experimental data.

Keywords: potato drying, fluidized bed, Markov chains.

Selection pressure parameters in barovacuum drying of soft cheeses

E.A. Ravnushkin

The work is devoted to the study of the processes of thermal vacuum drying of soft cheeses. The objects of research were the following brands cheeses “Adygei cheese”, “Roquefort” and “Russian Camembert”. The experiments on barovacuum drying of soft cheeses with different values of the depth of the residual and excess pressure are conducted. It is found that with increasing magnitude of overpressure warming rate of the product is increased, which entails a reduction of the drying time. The lowest drainage time was observed in the magnitude of the excess pressure of 50 kPa and amounted to 290, 190 and 220 minutes, respectively, for cheeses “Adygei cheese”, “Roquefort” and “Russian Camembert”. To reduce the duration barovacuum drying is also possible by reducing the residual pressure. It was found that with an increase in the residual pressures from 4–5 to 6–7 kPa drying time increases by 10–20 minutes. We investigated the organoleptic characteristics of dehydrated cheese. Higher organoleptic characteristics observed when drying with a lower value, and more surplus value of the residual pressure. The effect of the residual pressure on the specific energy consumption is established. Changing the residual pressure from 4–5 to 6–7 kPa leads to ambiguous change in the value of specific energy consumption: for cheeses “Adygei cheese” and “Russian Camembert” a decrease in energy consumption by 3,5 and 1,7%, respectively, and for “Roquefort” cheese – increasing energy consumption by 6,8%.

Keywords: barovacuum drying, soft cheeses, excess and residual pressure.

Calculation of industrial rectification apparatus with rotating nozzle for crude alcohol production from wine-making wastes

I.N. Ryvkin, V.I. Demin, S.P. Shuray, E.V. Dmitrenko, O.V. Melechina

On the basis of the conducted researches of process of hydrodynamics and mass exchange in the direct-flow device with the rotating nozzle it is offered to use him as the strengthening part of installation of continuous action for crude alcohol production from wine-making wastes. For the implementation of the separation process in accordance with the adopted mode of operation was the calculation of the strengthening of the industrial unit to account kinetics of process of rectification in some areas of the contact device. In this paper we define the procedure of calculation of industrial rectification apparatus with a rotating nozzle. The calculation is made in which equations of the equilibrium curve of nonideal binary mixture, operating lines and the efficiency of the contact stage was determined with the help of computers. The results of the calculation of required number of stages and the concentration distribution for the accepted conditions of separation showed that the number of steps a valid contact you need 8 pieces. At a contact level 120 mm height of the working part of the device will make 0,96 m. Thus, the calculations provide necessary data for an informed design of rectification apparatus. The kinetic equation of mass-transfer process allowed us to calculate the mass transfer coefficients, related to the volume of each zone, is determined the efficiency of the contact device.

Keywords: rectification apparatus with rotating nozzle, mass exchange, mass transfer, binary mixture, contact stage.

Food Engineering, Processes, Equipment & Automation of Food Production


Calculation of stress of container sides weakened by holes for processing of loose products

T.B. Godzhaev, K.R. Gasanova

The results of development of calculated model and technique of research of stress fields of container sides weakened by holes are presented. The stress fields in piecewise-homogeneous plate of rectangular configuration centrally weakened by a hole of the round form are considered. Determination of stress state of considered plate is reduced to finding of three pairs of functions цj(z) and шj(z) of complex variable. After determination of regular functions on the known formulas of Kolosov–Muskhelishvili stress is found.

Keywords: stress fields, boundary conditions, Kolosov–Muskhelishvili’s formulas, pressure, durability.

Analysis of the work of bag filter cyclone on LLC “Southern Rice Company”

A.P. Donenko, T.G. Korotkova, S.YU. Ksandopulo, O.V. Melekhina, L.A. Pashinyan

Grain dust (GD) on grain processing enterprise has a negative impact on production and the environment. With a minimum concentration in air GD is flammable and potentially explosive substances, remains a major cause of fires, fire and smoke. Each time you move the grain inevitable loss of physical weight of GD. Grain dust is a potent allergen and negative effect on the health of employees, leading to occupational diseases. Grain dust emissions into the environment lead to a breach of environmental and health standards and regulations. On enterprise rice processing “Southern Rice Company” as a result of reconstruction cyclone-bag filter have been introduced. Analysis of experimental data and performed calculations showed that the total emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere decreased. Monitoring the filter cyclone showed that he worked effectively for about three days, after which clogged and had to turn off the equipment. We investigated a cyclone-bag filter having a flat bottom and equipped with a pulsed jet and an electronic control unit. Dust extraction takes place in the process of filtering through the fabric. The calculations and determine the actual air pressure on the fabric. It was found that the required 2-cyclone filter to ensure the normal operation of the equipment and compliance with safety standards. The actual excess loading on the fabric is 60%, which is unacceptable and leads to an accelerated filter clogging and reduce its performance in the air.

Keywords: bag filter cyclone, aspiration, grain dust, ecological safety.

Test of industrial rectification apparatus with rotating nozzle in fire and explosion dangerous production of crude alcohol from wine-making wastes

I.N. Ryvkin, E.N. Vyskubova, E.V. Dmitrenko, S.P. Shuray, V.I. Demin

In order to obtain the data for the calculation of the industrial unit with the rotating nozzle and the possibility of direct comparison of his work with the vortex apparatus was carried out installation of the test, in which the comprehensive and firming of the device had contact vortex type. The basic circuit, description and operation of the continuous action to obtain crude ethyl alcohol from wine waste are provided. The calculated data on the results of the tests and the results of the vortex column tests with a rotating nozzle are presented. Analysis of the results showed that the quality of separation when working with installing vortex contact elements and with the rotating nozzle is approximately the same. However, the working height of the reinforcement of the column with vortex elements to 2,48 times the height of the working part of the strengthening of the column with a rotating nozzle. The paper concludes that the results of industrial tests of the rectification apparatus with the rotary nozzle in a fire and explosive industries obtain crude alcohol confirm the possibility of using the steam to rotational energy of the stream of contact elements in order to intensify the process. The intensification of the process in the proposed design of the device with a rotating nozzle is achieved by applying the principles of design of high-performance apparatus.

Keywords: industrial rectification apparatus, production of crude alcohol, rotating nozzle, contact device, whirling column, fire and explosive production.

Methods of Investigation, Quality & Safety of Food Products


Methodology of creation of pro-biotic bacteria consortium for functional fermented milk product

V.S. Kovalevskaya, N.R. Molodkina, T.I. Timofeenko, YU.K. Pavlova

The 12 strains of lactic bacteria for the purpose of creation of pro-biotic bacteria consortium for functional fermented milk product are investigated. The research results of antagonistic activity of strains of lactic bacteria concerning pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms testify that it is influenced substantially by concentration of oxygen. All types showed significantly big growth inhibitions of pathogens in the microaerophilic medium in comparison with anaerobic conditions. The strains having a growth inhibition zone not less than 5 mm at least concerning one of pathogens are chosen. By results of research the strains which showed the best resistance to the sour environment and bile are defined. The assessment of prospects of joint cultivation of the chosen strains on the basis of the offered method of definition of types of interactions between bacteria (biocompatibility) is carried out. The steadiest consortium of pro-biotic strains is revealed: Lactobacillus brevis B-2792, Lactobacillus buchneri B-5812 and Lactococcus lactis B-2014, perspective for creation of functional fermented milk product.

Keywords: lactic bacteria, pro-biotic cultures, antagonistic activity, biocompatibility of cultures, fermented milk products.

Optimization of the vegetable dessert formulas based on celery root

G.N. Stankevich, I.R. Belenkaya, YA.A. Golinskaya

The mathematical models are obtained that adequately describe the dependence of the organoleptic quality indices of the vegetable desserts, i. e. confitures, from the mass fractions of their components in formula. Celery root is used as the main raw material, which has a high content of macro- and micronutrients, such as pectin, dietary fibre, minerals, vitamins, and other functional components influencing the metabolism in the human body. The confiture gelling agent selected is agar-agar, which has good gelling properties, does not require special conditions for the gelling, such as acidity and sugar concentration, and does not affect the taste and flavour of the finished product. In order to optimize the formula components, we studied three new confitures based on the celery root with added sugar, citric acid, and agar-agar: with carrot, with beetroot, and with lemon peel; these additional ingredients give the products original organoleptic properties. To reduce the number of tests and obtain reliable information the method of multi-factor designs for tests was used and the second-order rotatable central composite design of experiments was selected providing the same dispersion of the projected quality indices for the new confitures. The influence of the ingredient ratio was studied on the quality indices of the finished products, i. e. their appearance, colour, texture, aroma, and taste. The desirability function was used as the general quality index. The optimum ratio of the development vegetable dessert formula ingredients was determined. The degustation evaluation of experimental samples confirmed the high quality of the new products.

Keywords: mathematical modeling, confiture, celery root, sensory evaluation of product, desirability function.

Methods and means of analysis of the properties of dough components

E.E. Bayramov

The systematization of methods and means for analyzing the properties of formulation components of the dough that allows technologists of bakeries to implement the operational input control of incoming raw materials, to have reliable information about its quality and acceptable standards, to perform, if necessary, adjustment of the formulation of dough, to take a quick decision on the use of certain methods and means of training of formulation components for kneading and get the dough hence the bread with specific, predetermined properties was carried out.

Keywords: formulation components of dough, flour, yeast, salt, water, sugar, fat, butter, dough kneading.

Complex analysis of flour quality for production of oatcake

M.P. Bakhmet, E.E. Dikolova, O.G. Gritsenko

Influence of the oatmeal produced in various ways in the composition of flour mix for production of oatcake on technical characteristics of dough and quality of finished products is investigated. At preparation of mixes for production of cookies used wheat flour of general purpose of M 75-23 and two types of the oatmeal produced on traditional technology and as result of grind of oat flakes. The optimum ratio wheat and oatmeal in mix for preparation of the dough is established: 76 and 24% respectively. The quality indicators of the obtained samples of flour mixes are determined. Rheological properties of the dough from flour mixes on instrument base “Brabender” are investigated. The results of measurements the elastic properties of the dough obtained on an extensograph have allowed to reveal a sample of flour mix, the most preferable to production of cookies. The assessment of carbohydrate amylase complex on indicators amylograms on Brabender’s amylograph and changes of viscosity of water and flour mix on “falling number” is carried out. By results of the conducted researches recommendations about preparation of the dough for confectionery shop about production of cookies of LLC “Novye tekhnologii” are developed.

Keywords: oatmeal, dough rheology, farinograph, ekstensograph, amylograph, oatcake.

Methods of monitoring, assessment and regulation of hazardous and noxious factors of potato storage

S.YU. Ksandopulo, V.V. Engovatova, E.I. Ovchinnikova

Considered hazardous and noxious production factors of potato storage, as well as methods of their monitoring and regulation carried out by means of various devices and equipment. The periods of potato storage causing necessary temperature and humidity conditions in storage are presented. The characteristic of asphyxiating gases released by rotting potatoes, noted the symptoms, which can determine the harmful effects of these gases on humans. Are the main causes of yield losses in potatoes during storage are specified. Lists the electrical equipment used to maintain the necessary conditions of saving products. Activities for ensuring uninterrupted, high-quality power supply of storages are formulated. It is offered to use the stand-alone electricity supply system (SAESS) including except a source of external network, the independent supply source including executed with application of renewable power. The generalized block diagram of the developed SAESS is submitted.

Keywords: storage of potatoes, potato storage, control of hazardous and noxious factors, storage periods of potato, stand-alone electricity supply system.

Development of measures for the eating behavior correction of students in institute of higher education

A.A. Gorodetskaya, N.A. Bugaets, M.YU. Tamоvа

To investigate the mode and quality of nutrition of students of Kuban State Technological University in the spring semester of 2014/2015 academic year conducted surveys of students. Found that 90% of students do not adhere to the dietary regime as to its biological value, and of mealtime. The complex of measures directed to improvement of catering services of students in higher education and strengthening of promotion of healthy food is offered.

Keywords: nutrition students, dietary regime, biological value of products, principles of healthy eating, products of fast preparation.

Evaluation of consumer properties and safety parameters of genetically modified phytogenous foods

M.V. Guseva, E.N. Guba, V.V. Illarionova

Conducted research of consumer properties and safety parameters of genetically modified phytogenous foods: the corn lines MON 863 and NK 603, produced by Monsanto Company (USA) and approved for use in the food industry of the Russian Federation. The control was the sample of corn, grown using traditional techniques. The chemical composition of corn grain: contents of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, amino acid composition of protein, content of vitamins, micro- and macroelements, as well salts of heavy metals, mycotoxins and radionuclides are investigated. According to the obtained results, significant differences in the studied indicators between experimental and control samples of corn grain were not identified. A high degree of compositional equivalence of genetically modified foods to their traditional analogue is established.

Keywords: genetically modified plants, corn line MON 863, corn line NK 603, chemical composition, amino acid composition of protein..

Classification of oak wood for winemaking growing in Azerbaijan

T.M. Panakhov

The oak wood samples for the winemaking growing in various regions of Azerbaijan for the purpose of determination of their most rational use for production of clapboard at production of casks are investigated. According to the international classification the chemical composition and an anatomic structure of 20 samples of oak wood of petiolate, chestnutleaf, georgian are studied. Comparison of samples with samples of oak wood growing in France, Russia, Ukraine is carried out. In the developed classification the most suitable species of an oak for production of casks for aging of white, red wines and their distillates are determined.

Keywords: oak wood, anatomic structure of wood, physical and chemical indicators of wood, petiolate oak, chestnutleaf oaк.

Industrial ecology & Biotechnology of Food Systems


Ways to improve working conditions in grinding department of milling plant of OJSC “Krasnodarzernoprodukt”

V.I. Demin, V.V. Engovatova, V.A. Engovatov

The characteristics of joint-stock company “Krasnodarzernoprodukt” to determine the possibility of improving working conditions in different parts of the enterprise is presented. Based on the data developed measures to improve working conditions in grinding department of milling plant of OJSC “Krasnodarzernoprodukt”. According to the results of certification of workplaces on working conditions of the grinding department of the mill workshop identified that determine hazards in the office are excessive noise, inadequate illumination of working places and the intensity of the labor process. Developed a set of measures to reduce noise levels by introducing a system of management and remote control of roller machines, taking into account the noise spectrum selected and recommended personal protective equipment for employees. Proposed measures to reduce the heavy labor of operator of the grinding department. The actions for improvement of illumination in roller department and reduction of duration of a shift which have allowed to lower a class of working conditions on harm degree are carried out.

Keywords: grinding shop, working conditions, labor protection, improve working conditions, system controlling the operation of roller machines.

Ensuring safe working environment through the use of ergonomic principles

V.V. Engovatova

The analyzes of the problems that arise at the enterprise while creating a healthy and safe working conditions while performing work in the production, consistency in the use of increasingly sophisticated technology with the physical and psychological capabilities of people is carried out. The results of the analysis that define the dangerous areas of production, identify possible dangerous situations and develop measures for their prevention and elimination. The role of labor protection of the person as subject of work and management which increases in process of optimization of working conditions is shown. Research tasks which are caused by studying and design of the systems creating necessary prerequisites for association of technical disciplines and sciences about the person and his work are listed. Defined tasks associated with the characterization of man as a component of the automated system. The task of designing new media activity, primarily related to ensuring interaction between man and machine. The tasks of systemic nature, associated with the distribution of functions between operator and machine, with the organization of the working process and the tasks of preparation. Historical information of development of ergonomics is given. Are three main areas within ergonomics: ergonomics of the physical environment, cognitive ergonomics, organizational ergonomics, as well as lists the contents and methods of science, that used by ergonomics for studying of properties and possibilities of the person.

Keywords: labor protection, labor ergonomics, ergonomic bases of work safety, ergonomics of physical environment, cognitive ergonomics, organizational ergonomics..
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