Food technologyIssues → № 4 (352), 2016

Table of contents for # 4 (352), 2016

Scientific Review


Current research in nutritiology and prevention of nutritional improper

N.A. Tarasenko, Z.A. Baranova

Presents an overview of studies on the development of foods that improve the nutritional status of the population and with preventive and functional properties. The main attention is paid to confectionery products, in particular flour, characterized by the imbalance of chemical composition and low nutritional value. The prospects of the introduction in the formulation of flour confectionery products non-traditional products of plant origin with a high content of proteins, essential amino acids, rich dietary fibers, vitamins and minerals are shown. One of the technological problems in the establishment of functional foods is the preservation of the traditional quality of enriched product. Prospects of use of secondary processing products of vegetable raw materials is grounded. Presents a number of technological developments with the use of flour from barley malt, oat flour, flour from amaranth, corn grits, wheat and oat bran, the products of processing of Jerusalem artichoke, beet food fibers in the production of confectionery preventive and functional purpose.

Keywords: preventive nutrition, nutrition science, confectionery, enrichment of products, functional foods.

Perspectives of enrichment by calcium of foodstuff

E.V. Basova, E.E. Ivanova

Presents an overview of studies on the enrichment of calcium in various food products, with the purpose of elimination of calcium deficiency in the diet. Considered a wide range of products enriched in calcium and its salts: bakery, macaroni and confectionery products, meat products, cheese, dairy and milk drinks, juices. Presents different technological solutions used for the purpose of enriching calcium in the food, consumption of which allows to provide from 15 to 60% of the daily requirement for calcium.

Keywords: calcium deficiency, enrichment of products calcium, dietary supplements, functional foods.

Chemistry of Food Products & Materials


Influence of residual quantities of benzimidazole in grape must on the dynamics of alcoholic and malolactic fermentation

N.M. Ageeva, G.F. Muzychenko, S.D. Burlaka, A.N. Pikul

The influence of preparation benzimidazoles nature used against diseases of grapes on wine microorganisms – yeast and bacteria malolactic fermentation is investigated. In the hydrolysis of benzimidazoles in grape wine is formed carbendazim – a fungicide with carcinogenic, mutagenic and embryotoxic properties. The research conducted with the introduction of residual quantities of benzimidazoles (RQB) in the form of fundazol in concentrations of 0,1–0,5 mg/dm3 in terms of carbendazim in white (Chardonnay) and red (Merlot) grape must. The concentration of RQB was determined by capillary electrophoresis according to traditional methods. The fermentation of white musts was performed using yeast race Kakhuri 7, red – yeast race Cabernet 5. In the process of fermentation was controlled by the physiological condition of wine yeast and the dynamics of the fermentation of must. With an increase of RQB has increased the likelihood of insufficient fermentation: on the 10th day of fermentation of musts of white grapes when the content of RQB 0,2 mg/dm3 or more in the fermented medium remained from 2,4 to 7,8 g/dm3 unfermented sugars; in the must of red grapes, unfermented sugars content was more than 9 g/dm3. In the presence of RQB decreased the quantity of physiologically active yeast cells in samples of white and red table wine. At the end of fermentation determined the quantity of yeast biomass, including viable cells. Found that the influence of carbendazim on the accumulation of biomass of yeast in red wine are less pronounced than in whites. The influence of RQB on the activity of the occurrence of malolactic fermentation (MLF). For this in postfermentation must (young wine) with its residual sugar content of 40–50 g/dm3 introduced bacteria MLF. Found that if you make carbendazim in the medium decreased the activity of lactic acid bacteria, with the result that the amount of malic acid in wine, especially in red, remained fairly high. In the presence of carbendazim in the amount of 0,1 mg/dm3 marked slowing of consumption of malic acid by bacteria MLF. A further increase in the content carbendazim to 0,5 mg/dm3 led to a halt of the process of MLF and the appearance in the samples of extraneous tones in taste identical to salted-fermented tone.

Keywords: fungicides, fermentation, grape must, benzimidazoles, microorganisms of wine, quality of wines.

Study of phenolic complex in red table wines produced by enterprises of Krasnodar region

S.A. Biryukova, E.N. Gontareva, N.M. Ageeva, R.V. Avanesyants

The monitoring of phenolic complex in dry red table wines divided into two groups: young wine and wine materials produced in 2014–2015, and vintage wines and wine materials produced in 2009–2011 is carried out. The samples of the wine produced in the Anapa and Temryuk districts of the various enterprises of Krasnodar region from grape varieties Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Saperavi, Cabernet Franc, Tsimlyansky Black, Ruby, Corwin are researched. We determined the ranges of variation of the amount of phenolic complex and anthocyanins content. The experimental data on the dependence of the studied parameters on the grape variety, growing location and age of the wine are presented. There is a downward trend in the concentration of phenolic substances in the process of wine ripening is not dependent on the growing area of grapes. It is established that young wines and wine materials produced in the Temryuk district on content of phenol and coloring substances, the intensity of their accumulation inferior wine from Anapa district in 1,2 times.

Keywords: phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, dry red table wines, growing region of grapes.



Influence of nontraditional raw materials on technological parameters of dough and bread quality

KH.YU. Botasheva, S.I. Lukina, E.I. Ponomareva, M.G. Magomedov, K.E. Roslyakova

Developed technology of enriched bread making flour from whole-wheat, pumpkin paste and starch syrup, allows enhancing nutritive value, to intensify the production process, improve product quality and to give the product preventative. Pumpkin paste promotes a process intensification of the process of acids accumulation (initial acidity of the dough with the introduction of pumpkin pasta from 4 to 10% increased by 14–29%), has an impact on the rheological properties of semi-finished product, increasing its viscosity and increasing gas retention capacity (an increase of 25%), increases the specific volume of the product and its porosity, increases the looseness of the crumb, dimensional stability hearth bread. The introduction of starch syrup at a dosage of 3–5% by weight of flour promotes reduction of the initial viscosity test at 13–20%, increase improves ability of gas retention capacity in 7–13%, increase of specific volume of bread by 10%. On the basis of mathematical planning methods developed a formulation enriched breads “Patriot”: the use of 10% pumpkin paste and 4% of starch syrup in the dough recipe with the humidity 45,5% contributes to obtaining products with high quality indicators: specific volume – 326 cm3/100 g, a porosity of 71%. The use of nontraditional raw materials promotes increase of food value of bread: the protein content increased by 3%, dietary fibers – 59%, potassium – 46%, calcium – 72%, magnesium – 36%, phosphorus – 58%, vitamins B1, B2 and PP – 31, 17 and 14% respectively, the energy value decreased by 4%, biological value increased by 12% in comparison with the control.

Keywords: flour from whole-wheat, pumpkin paste, starch syrup, enriched bread, quality indicators, nutritional value.

Food emulsions on based of fermented milt pacific herring

G.N. Kim, N.V. Dementeva, V.D. Bogdanov

The influence of enzyme preparations (EP) proteolytic and glycolytic action on the functional and organoleptic characteristics of minced milt Pacific herring and emulsion systems prepared on their basis is investigated. It is established that the stability of food emulsion systems with using fermented milt of Pacific herring is affected by their prior training, the duration of fermentation, type of EP, the degree of hydrolysis and subsequent heat treatment of the emulsions. The fermenting milt by proteolytic EP protamin and protosubtilin has a positive effect on emulsion system prepared with their use. The organoleptic characteristics of the emulsions are improved, they become harmonious, pronounced taste and smell, and after heat treatment have a high stability. For manufacture of emulsions it is better to use raw fermented milt. Established a rational time fermenting milt Pacific herring – 15–20 minutes, in which the degree of hydrolysis of milt proteins is 14–18%. With increasing degree of hydrolysis increases the stability of the emulsion systems, but the degree of hydrolysis 20–25% due to the collapse of macromolecules of nucleoprotein with the formation of high molecular weight nucleic acids and simple proteins protamines and histones in a subsequent heat treatment changes the structure of the emulsion from coagulation in the condensation-crystallization, which is undesirable in the manufacture of certain emulsified food groups. Emulsion systems using milt of Pacific herring fermented glycolytic EP Glycolax-F are unstable and characterized by low organoleptic characteristics: an unpleasant bitterness, the structure of the emulsions becomes liquid.

Keywords: Pacific herring milt, enzymes, fermentation, degree of protein hydrolysis, food emulsions, stability of emulsion.

Quality canned food made of meat with signs DFD

V.I. Krishtafovich, D.V. Krishtafovich, М.YU. Lukanov, Т.V. Pershakova, P.I. Кudinov

The possibility of use of meat with signs DFD for production of canned food of type “Stewed meat” is researched. In the manufacture of the canned food used block beef with DFD defect are added into the formulation the multifunctional additives Premix-33 and Premix-33C, and soy protein concentrate PROHAM. Sterilization formula experienced canned food was 20-55-20/120°C. The control samples of sterilized according to the formula 20-90-20/115°C. In the control and test samples of preserves were determined by general chemical, amino acid composition and digestibility of the protein in vitro according to conventional methods. It is established that the protein content in test samples of canned goods down 2,5% compared with canned NOR meat and fat, ashes and carbohydrates – higher in 3; 1,2 and 1,2% respectively. The ratio protein : fat in the control sample of canned is 1 : 0,6, then as in the canned meat with signs DFD – 1 : 0,96, which is much closer to the normative average (1 : 1,2), guaranteeing high nutritional value of the product. The calculated energy value of the pilot samples of canned 25 kcal/100 g higher than the control sample due to the introduction in the formulation of 6,2–6,3 percent beef fat-raw. The studies of amino acid composition indicate approximately the same biological value of canned NOR and DFD meat. The researches results of digestibility of protein of canned NOR and DFD meat in vitro showed that the overall digestibility by pepsin and trypsin protein of canned meat with signs DFD 5,4% higher than meat NOR. Canned food made from meat with DFD defects according to the proposed technology, have a more balanced chemical and amino acid composition, better digestibility by proteolytic enzymes compared to canned food made from meat NOR.

Keywords: meat with DFD defects, NOR meat, canned meat, stewed meat, biological value, digestibility of proteins.

Development of vegetable products enriched with protein

M.P. Mogilny, T.V. Shlenskaya, I.A. Bogonosova

Developed formulation and production technology of vegetable baked puddings: potato, vegetable, cabbage and carrot using non-traditional raw materials: eggplant, zucchini, pumpkins, apples. The researches results of the chemical composition and nutritive value are presented, the characteristics of properties and possibilities of use of non-traditional vegetable raw materials is given. To enrich baked puddings protein used protein composite dry mixture “Nutrinor”, given the composition of mixture. It is shown that the enrichment of vegetable baked puddings with mixture “Nutrinor” in the amount of 18 g per serving (100 g) allows to increase the content in the product protein, fat and carbohydrates of 7,2; 3,6 and 5,04% respectively. Significantly increased the content of mineral substances and vitamins. The general technological scheme of preparation of the developed vegetable baked puddings is described. Their chemical composition and nutritional value are investigated. It is established that ready baked puddings in comparison with control contain more proteins, fats and carbohydrates – on 169,9–295,22; 85,4–218,0 and 13,57–26,68% respectively, and also mineral substances and vitamins. The vegetable baked puddings enriched with protein are recommended in balanced and dietary nutrition at deficiency of protein and can be included in rations of standard diets – low-protein and low-calorie.

Keywords: vegetable baked puddings, protein enrichment, protein composite dry mixture.

Expansion of the range of snack products

T.SH. Shaltumaev, M.P. Mogilny

The formulations and technologies on the new range of snack products are developed: muffins dessert and snack. The research results of quality of developed range of muffins are presented. Comparative research of semifinished products for foreign (english and american) and developed domestic muffins is conducted, the chemical composition and a nutrition value of muffins are studied. It is established that dough and the baked semifinished products for developed muffins differ from foreign analogs according to chemical composition, nutrition value, organoleptic and structural-mechanical indicators. The density of dough for developed dessert and snack muffins for 1,45–19,73 and 19,97–35,39% is respectively higher in comparison with foreign types of the dough for muffins. Dependence between formulation components of dough (mass fractions of sugar and flour) in domestic muffins is less in comparison with foreign types of the dough for muffins: for dessert – by 8,03–11,87%, for snack – by 75,23–95,03%. The water absorption of the baked semifinished products for muffins is 2,3–6,64% lower in comparison with foreign that is caused by their bigger humidity. The research results of chemical composition and nutrition value of developed dessert and snack muffins depending on use of various fillers are presented, %: proteins – 3,84–9,12 and 4,64–13,88; fats – 8,44–18,6 and 5,56–26,4; carbohydrates – 36,84–61,32 and 19,8–45,44; dietary fibers – 1,4–7,48 and 1,28–8,12; energy value 67–107 and 55–91 kcal respectively. The developed snack products will allow to expand a product assortment of fast food, including in the products of healthy food.

Keywords: snacks, muffins, healthy food, chemical composition of products.

Influence of additives of sainfoin seeds powder on functional and technological properties of butter biscuit

N.A. Tarasenko

Presents results of study on the development of the technology of butter biscuit preventive orientation with a high content of vegetable protein due to introduction of powder from sainfoin seeds (PSS). Carried out the replacement of the butter on the PSS in the amount of 5, 10, 15, 20% by weight of butter in the dough. It is established that at introduction of PSS humidity of the material decreases with increasing dosage of the additive, and the density of the dough increases due to the structure-forming and fat absorption of PSS. The studies have shown that water absorption of biscuits samples with the introduction of PSS is significantly higher than in the control sample. The best ratio of thickness to diameter of the products were sample cookies with the addition of 15% of the PSS, which indicates the increasing porosity of prototypes cookies. It is established that at constant temperature, decreasing the baking time of prototypes depending on the dosage of PSS. At temperature of 200°C and dosage of PSS 15% of the baking time reduced by 2 min. The data of organoleptic analysis of biscuits shows that the best characteristics the sample has a butter biscuit with a dosage of 15% of PSS. According to the research results developed a formulation and specifications butter biscuit “Sdobushka” with the addition of PSS 15%. The results of determination of chemical composition of developed biscuits demonstrate increase in it for 24% of content of proteins, decrease by 14% of fats and by 11% of energy value.

Keywords: sainfoin seeds, butter cookies, functional food, vegetable protein, enrichment of foodstuff.

New synbiotic food systems for preventive nutrition

T.V. Alekseeva, L.О. Ryaskina, А.А. Rodionov, N.V. Safonova, N.А. Pastukhova

Prospects of application of food additive of “Vitazar-S” on the basis of flour of germs of wheat and composition of organic acids as a nutrient medium for synthesis of biomass of probiotic microflora are shown. The comparison results of the compositions of the preparation “Vitazar-C”, prebiotic preparation “Stimbifid” and other multivitamin preparations are presented. The possibility of cultivation and preservation of number of consortium lakto- and bifidobacteria (L. Сasei subsp. Rhamnosus, L. acidophilus, L. plantarum, L. fermentum, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium adolescentis) in an active form in concentration not less than 109 CFU/ml within 7 days in whey- and milk-vegetable systems with the contents of “Vitazar-S” to 20% is established. The kinetics of change of titrable and active acidity of systems in the course of storage is established. The produced synbiotic systems are perspective for wide use in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. The fermented whey- and milk-vegetable system with the contents of the “Vitazar-C” 10–15% is tested in formulations of sauces, desserts, ice cream, chopped culinary products from meat, fish, offal, and also in cheesecakes, cheese casseroles, puddings.

Keywords: synbiotics, pro-biotic microflora, flour of wheat germs, organic acids, milk-vegetable systems, whey-vegetable systems, titrable and active acidity.

Sweetener choice in the manufacture of the special food products

M.P Mogilny, T.E. Fatikhova

The studies results of the use of sweeteners of natural origin in the manufacture of special products are presented. Provided hygienic and technological requirements for sweeteners: low energy, harmlessness, absence of foreign taste, resistance to technological processes, storage and transportation, good solubility. A marked advantage to use as sugar substitutes processed products of stevia. We have investigated the possibility of their use in the manufacture of special products. As objects of research was used the dried leaves of stevia, stevia powder stevioside and two samples of aqueous extracts from the leaves of stevia, obtained at different temperatures of 60–70 and 100°C. The researches results of chemical composition, organoleptic characteristics of processed products of stevia are presented. Determined losses of biologically valuable substances in extracts from stevia leaves and the stevioside as a result of technological treatment. The presence of stevia and its processed products are strong reducing agents – flavonoids, determines their antioxidant activity. Recommended for the production of healthy food products, special products to use as sugar substitutes them the powder of dried leaves of stevia and stevioside.

Keywords: sweeteners, stevia, processed products of stevia, stevioside.

Use of activated forms of chitosan for treatment of grape wines

Z.M. Chermit, N.M. Ageeva

The researches results of possible applications of activated forms of chitosan for the treatment of wine products are presented. Used chitosan, activated 5% solution of acetic, tartaric, citric and lactic acids, for the treatment of white and red table wine. Dosage of chitosan – natural and activated forms – was 200 mg/dm3. The chitosan activated at room temperature by mixing 5% acid solution with the powder of chitosan in the ratio of 10 : 1. The activation time was as follows: acetic acid 6 h, citric and tartaric acids 4 h, lactic acid 3 h. We determined the effect of activated forms of chitosan to the composition of high-molecular compounds (HMC) and on the limpidity of wine. It is established that the application of the activated form of chitosan has contributed to the increase of sorption to its surface is investigated HMC in the processing of white and red wine in comparison with nonactivated by chitosan. Type of reagent activator had a significant impact on the sorption of separate groups of HMC. The activated chitosan supplement helped to improve the quality of clarification of white and red wine in comparison with treatment of nonactivated chitosan. For the quality of clarification white table wine it is recommended to use chitosan, activated tartaric and citric acids, and for red table wine – citric acid.

Keywords: activated chitosan, treatment of wines, clarification of wine, limpidity of wine.

Improvement of technology white natural wines

E.E. Haydarov, H.K. Fataliyev

The influence of different factors in the specific conditions of production on the formation of aromaticity of the wine and the oxidative processes during fermentation of the pomace and must is studied. We have investigated the possibility of improving the technology of making natural wines due to the formation of the necessary aromaticity and extract content of must and wine. Advantages of using pneumatic basket press closed type in line of production of wine materials for white table wines are revealed. The influence of pectolitic enzyme preparations (EP) on the activity of oxidative enzymes in must and pomace is investigated. In the first series of experiments examined the effect of pectolytic EP on the activity of oxidative enzymes in the must in the preparation of table wine. The enzyme preparation was administered directly into the crusher hopper and recycling of technically mature grapes produced on the white method. The contact time of the enzyme preparation with the pomace was 0,5 h. Sampling for analysis of must produced by fractions immediately after the processing of the grapes. In a second series of experiments, the activity of oxidative enzymes in must was determined after fermentation of pomace at 27°C with EP at different fermentation duration. In parallel, in both experimental series the same batch of grapes processed without the use of EP on the same hardware as the control options. Conducting of technological operations initial winemaking in carbon dioxide environment with the use of a pneumatic press closed type allowed us to obtain high quality products, preserving the typical aroma and flavor properties. The use of pectolitic FP contributed to the intensification of the enzymatic oxidative transformations in the wort and given the opportunity to achieve different degrees of oxidation of the components, giving the wines character and distinctive taste.

Keywords: natural wines, initial winemaking, pneumatic press, aromatic properties, oxidation process, enzyme preparation, fermentation of pomace.

Analysis of mass loss at thermal treatment of semi-finished products from jerusalem artichoke in foodware stove, combi oven and sous-vide

V.YU. Tokarev, N.T. Shamkova, A.I. Romanenko

Presents results of determination of mass loss of the semi-finished products from Jerusalem artichoke by heat treatment in foodware stove, in the combi oven and sous-vide. Processing sous-vide gives minimal mass loss and optimal preservation of colors of semi-finished products made of Jerusalem artichoke. With the aim of identifying optimal technological regimes sous-vide the tubers of Jerusalem artichoke varieties of Interest were sorted, washed, cleansed from the skin by mechanical means, Packed in bags, vacuumed to achieve from 97 to 99,9% vacuum, sealed and subjected to heat treatment in a thermostat controlling color every 10 min. Heat treatment is conducted at a temperature of from 40 to 95°C for 80 min. Found that heat treatment at a temperature below 80°C does not provide the required quality of semi-finished products. Degree culinary readiness of semi-finished products was controlled by organoleptic and structural-mechanical indicators. The dependence of the mass change and the time of preparation of semi-finished products made of Jerusalem artichoke tubers from the form of slicing when cooked sous-vide was investigated. Recommendations for culinary use semi-finished products from Jerusalem artichoke were developed.

Keywords: heat treatment, sous-vide, Jerusalem artichoke, semi-finished product, form of slicing, mass loss, colour of product.

Tobacco harvesting and green leaf processing technologies for producers with various capacities

E.I. Vinevskiy, L.P. Pestova, N.N. Vinevskaya, E.E. Ulyanchenko

Research results on tobacco harvesting and green leaf processing technologies in one flow for producers with various capacities are presented. Equipment optimal for economically efficient leaves preparing for curing of various capacities has been defined. Technological parameters of leaves harvesting into roll type container and their further transportation and preparing for curing in one flow are proved. It has been discovered that transportation and short term storage of tobacco leaves in soft roll type container starts yellowing process with leaf lamina yellowing up to 50%. This new technology for harvesting and green leaf processing in one flow has many advantages. Process of fixing leaves for curing is becoming much easier and labor expenses are decreased because of uniform and oriented leaves position on the container tape while harvested. Curing time is decreased because of preliminary leaf yellowing process and decreasing water content during transportation and short term storage. Green leaf processing time is optimized because of 1–2 day storage possibility without quality decreasing and keeping leaf turgor. Labor expenses on harvesting and preparing for curing are decreased compared to traditional manual technology in 1,3–1,4 times and total expenses by 20–25%.

Keywords: tobacco, tobacco leaf harvesting, postharvest treatment of tobacco, curing tobacco leaves, container.

Phospholipids: chemistry, technology, application


New possibilities use of phospholipid nanostructures

N.А. Sharkova, E.К. Zhukotsky

The possibility of controlling the mechanism of the phospholipid vesicle formation under conditions of the dissipative heterogeneous system by the use of a discrete-impulse input of energy (method DIIE) is considered. The realization of the DIIE principle is realized in the working volume of the developed device – the DIIE-activator of rotor type due to thermodynamic and hydraulic pressure differences, speed, temperature, etc. The developed method allows to produce phospholipid nanostructures, stable at storage, with a given size of liposomes and high percent of capture of necessary substances – to 60%. The industrial technology of phospholipid nanostructures formations and the equipment for the food industry for production of products of special dietary purpose, and also for the medical industry and agricultural industry – compositions for the treatment of seeds and vegetating plants in a liposome form developed on the basis of these researches.

Keywords: phospholipids, nanostructures, method of discrete-impulse input of energy, industrial technology, products for special dietary use, compositions for the treatment of seeds and vegetating plants.

Breeding of sunflower and rapeseed on fatty acid composition and fat-soluble related components

YA.N. Demurin, S.G. Efimenko, L.A. Gorlova

Purposeful breeding of sunflower and rapeseed for changing of the fatty acid composition of the oil to create high-quality resource base has been doing at VNIIMK. Modern hybrids of special purposes Hermes and Oxy in terms of their biological yield potential and oil content of seeds is not inferior to conventional genotypes. They allow obtaining high seed yield of about 3 t/ha with oil content of 47%. While maintaining the genetic and mechanical purity of the seeds oleic acid content in these hybrids reaches 86–88%. Obtaining with breeding methods without the use of transgenic plants of natural sunflower oil from the seeds of a hybrid Oxy with the highest level of oxidative stability due to the combination of the high content of oleic acid increases with increasing concentrations of endogenous ?- and ?-tocopherols is an innovation of VNIIMK. The main advantage of the high oleic genotypes is their increased stability to oil oxidation in particular, to increase the induction period in Rancimat-test at 120°C compared to conventional oil 4 times for a Cruise and Hermes, as well as 15 times – to Oxy due to additional antioxidant protection. A distinctive feature of a new variety of spring rape Amulet is the high content of oleic acid in the oil which in average over the three years of the competitive trials was 78% at greater than the control seed yield. All high oleic sunflower genotypes Cruise, Hermes and Oxy, as well as a variety of spring rape Amulet are not GMO and included in the state register of breeding achievements admitted to use.

Keywords: sunflower oil, rapeseed oil, oleic acid, high oleic varieties, oxidative stability of oil, tocopherols.

Plasmalogen – bioactive lipids: properties, production

I.V. Glazkova, V.A. Sarkisyan, N.V. Zhilinskaya, A.A. Kochetkova, V.M. Kodentsova, E.E. Zorina, A.D. Malinkin

Plasmalogens are glycerophospholipids that play a significant role as antioxidants, lipid mediators, and polyunsaturated fatty acids depot. The plasmalogen quantity of cell membrane is known to be correlated with several cognitive disorders like Alzheimer disease and with respiratory diseases. It is a point of great interest to find ways of plasmalogens replacement for these diseases. At the same time, methods for plasmalogen preparation that are proposed in the recent scientific literature cannot provide sufficient amount of these phospholipids for preclinical and clinical study. As a possible solution to this problem, authors suggest a new method of enzymatic extraction of plasmalogens from bovine brain in order to further their use in technologies of specialized food products.

Keywords: plasmalogen, bioactive lipids, bovine brain, polyunsaturated fatty acids, enzymatic extraction, Leсitase Ultra.

Use of fractionated sunflower lecithins as functional ingredients

S.A. Kalmanovich, E.A. Butina, E.O. Gerasimenko, E.A. Butina, S.A. Kharchenko

The work is dealing with scientific and practical substantiation of the prospects for the use of fractionated sunflower lecithins (FSL) as encapsulating agent in relation to hydrophilic and lipophilic physiologically functional micronutrients. The article presents the results of comparative studies of the composition, physicochemical indicators and ability to form the FSL-based microemulsions produced by the innovative technology, which consists in processing of cover-free sunflower seeds using a reduced impact technology conditions and ethanol as the extractant. As samples for comparison were used soy lecithin Solec FP-40 (The Solae Company, USA), as well as domestic fractionated lecithin “Choline” produced by fractionation of liquid sunflower lecithin (NPF “Rosma-Plus”, Russia). It was found that the microemulsions formed FSL differ from emulsions formed by sunflower and soy lecithins a narrower interval of distribution of particle size and a predominance of smaller particles. This indicates a higher emulsifying ability FSL owing to best ratio of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine in group composition and the predominance in fatty acid composition of oleic acid.A certain method is proposed to produce the FSL-based microemulsions with encapsulated hydro- and lipophilic micronutrients, consisting of vitamin C and oil solution of ?-carotene. It is shown that treatment of the FSL-based microemulsion by electromagnetic field with magnetic induction of 0,5 T during 5 min provides degrees of encapsulation of vitamin C at a level of 83% and ?-carotene – at a level of 100%.

Keywords: phospholipids, lecithin, micronutrients, microemulsions, encapsulation, magnetic field.

Concept of functional foods at the present stage

E.I. Sas

A wide distribution of functional food products in recent years requires clarifying the notions of “functional products” and “functional nutrition”. Among functional products, a special place is occupied by the “enriched products” with useful properties increased by raising the content of some components – antioxidants, vitamins, microelements, dietary fiber, etc. To achieve the optimal effect of the functional foods must consider the complex interdependencies of the individual ingredients. For example, ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have therapeutic qualities only if combined with vitamin E. A successful example of “enriched products” is represented by those with an increased phospholipid content. They have demonstrated their high clinical efficiency in relation to a wide range of internal organ diseases.

Keywords: functional nutrition, functional products, health, phospholipids.

Antioxidant properties of wheat-amaranth bun with lecithin

I.M. Zharkova, YU.F. Roslyakov, L.A. Miroshnichenko

There has been analyzed the data on features of antioxidant properties of cereal cultures and possibility of their improvement in bakery products. On the example of a bun made of wheat bakery flour, it is shown that introducing 2,5% soya lecithin by the weight of flour to the baking formula of a sweet bun reduces the antioxidant capacity (AOC) of the hydrophilic fraction by 34,2% and increases the AOC of the lipophilic fraction by 4,07%.At the combined introduction of 40% of amaranth flour (by the weight of the total flour in the dough) and 2,5% soy lecithin by the total weight of the flour, the changes in AOC characteristics are more significant: the AOC of the hydrophilic fraction is reduced by 3,52 times, and the AOC of lipophilic fraction increases by 2,03 times. Biological studies have confirmed the presence of a significant antioxidant effect in the use of sweet wheat-amaranth buns with lecithin.

Keywords: antioxidant properties, antioxidant capacity, amaranth flour, sweet bun, soy lecithin.

Improvement of rapid method of quality assessing of sunflower lecithins using the method of nuclear magnetic relaxation

E.P. Viktorovа, S.M. Prudnikov, O.S. Agafonov, E.V. Lisovaya, T.A. Shakhray

The article presents an improved rapid method of assessing the quality of sunflower lecithins using the method of nuclear magnetic relaxation (NMR). It is established that at a temperature of 23?С with a mass fraction of substances insoluble in acetone, and the sum of the amplitudes of the NMR signals of protons of the third and fourth component (A3 + A4), expressed in percent by Asis, there is a directly proportional linear relationship, which is described by equation (correlation coefficient R2 = 0,9967) of the following form: y = 0,8484x + 7,35. The data on influence of mass of sample of sample of lecithin on the value of the analytical parameter (A3 + A4)/Asis,, and the measured value of the mass fraction of substances insoluble in acetone, using the method of NMR. It is established that at change of the mass of sample 6 to 14 g, the deviation of the measured values of the mass fraction of substances insoluble in acetone, from a base value did not exceed ± 0,2 abs. It is established that the working temperature range of the NMR-analyzer (from 20 to 30°C) allows to effectively measure the values of the selected analytical parameter, the change in the sample temperature by 1°C leads to a change in the value of the analytical parameter of 0,5% abs.

Keywords: vegetable lecithins, quality assessment of lecithins, mass fraction of phospholipids, rapid method of determining phospholipids content, nuclear magnetic relaxation.

Processes & Apparatus


Circulating power in the roll gear roller mill when grinding grain products

V.P. Borodyanskiy

When working roller mill because speed difference of the pair of rolls there is a braking power to slow the roll. In the presence of the roll transfer braking power N2 returns to the high-speed roll, thus, power circulates N2 = Nc. The technique of determination of power parameters roller mill using the data values of the limit stresses on the contact surfaces of the rolls is proposed. Determined circulating power and circulation ratio of power of Kc (the ratio of power consumed by the motor drive of the rollers, Nmd to Nc) using the calculation of the pressure angles ?1 and ?2, the resultant pressure of the rolls and the values of the speeds of the rolls i. It is shown that i is the main factor affecting the value of Kc. The range of Kc can be less than unity, i. e. the power circulating more power consumed by the motor drive of the rollers. Given the sequence and key dependencies of the calculations associated with Kc.

Keywords: roller mill, roll gear, circulation ratio of power, elementary physical model.

Method exact calculation of the volume of liquid in the ellipsoidal head of cylindrical tanks

L.L. Ganizheva, O.S. Kruglaya, D.B. Ponomarenko

In the work the authors present universal formulas for the exact calculation of the volume of liquid occupying the ellipsoidal head of cylindrical tank. The obtained formulas allow to calculate the liquid volume for the case when the fluid occupies the entire volume of the bottom or part of it. The formulas are obtained by integrating the volume of semi ellipsoid as a body of rotation. They allow you to get the same exact result for the horizontal and vertical location of the reservoirs and will be useful for engineering-technical personnel engaged in their operation and maintenance.

Keywords: cylindrical tank, ellipsoidal head, calculate liquid volume.

Experimental determination of circulating power in the transmission of the roll flour-milling roller mill

V.P. Borodyanskiy, D.I. Polovykh

The developed method experimental determination of the circulating power in the roll gear roller mill. Used laboratory roller mills the machine is equipped with two dynamometers designed to register efforts on high-speed and low-speed rolls, and then to calculate the torque, the power consumed by the motor Nmd and the power circulating in the roll gear N2. The results of the experiments showed that when the ratio of the speeds of the rolls i = V1/V2 = 1,6 and the work of friction of the circuit without material value of the coefficient of the circulating power Kc = Nmd/N2 = 0,85 and close to the theoretical Kc = 0,6. This means that braking power N2 more power consumed by the motor of the machine. In the processing of millet with the performance of the machine 70–80 kg/h and the roll gap of 0,3 the value of Kc = 1,59…1,64, when the gap value of 0,2 Kc = 1,31…1,36, which is approximately two times higher than the theoretical values of Kc. This can be explained by the fact that the interaction between the two rolls is a kind of friction transmission cylindrical gears, in which slow roll is loaded the brake torque due to a predetermined speed, low-speed roll in the rolling process of the material layer.

Keywords: roller mill, roll gear, roll speed, circulating power.

Calculation of balance of croton aldehyde in the circuit of distillation

T.G. Korotkova

Croton aldehyde (CA) distillation formed in the circuit as a result of neoplasms. Tests with a magnet it is determined that if the column distillation installation made of nickel-free steel food (for example H18T), this leads to the appearance in alcoholic liquids iron ions and CA, authorizing red-brown coating on the metal. Croton aldehyde is an irritant and general toxic effect, reduces the sample indicators in the oxidation and reported a sharp unpleasant odor and taste rectified alcohol. To select CA when distillation considered description of equilibrium systems “CA–ethanol” and “CA–water” on methods of group composition NRTL and UNIQUAC. It is found that CA at low concentrations, occurring at distillation is volatility relative to ethanol and highly volatile relative to water and the water is stratified. Estimated value of the point of the azeotrope mixture to “CA–water”, calculated on the NRTL method: x = y = 73,8% wt.; t = 86,05°C and the method UNIQUAC: x = y = 74,2% wt.; t = 86,05°C. Acceptable quantitative content of CA solubility in water gives the NRTL method. The calculation of the distillation column in the medium Hysys using NRTL method showed that fusel fraction taken with 6–8 plates below nutritious, stratified in the extractor fusel oil, and CA mostly goes into fusel oil, that confirms the data of practical experience on allocation of CA at distillation.

Keywords: croton aldehyde, distillation, calculation of distillation column.

Methods of Investigation, Quality & Safety of Food Products


Improving the quality of dairy products based on QFD methodology

A.YU. Chechetkina, T.N. Belyakova, L.A. Zabodalova

The possibility of application for Russian enterprises QFD methodology for the purpose of improvement of quality, enhancement of range of dairy products and creation of competitive production is considered. Presents the results of a marketing research based on consumer survey through questionnaires with further analysis of the data. The focus is on fermented milk and cheese products. A survey was also conducted among the producers of these products. The analysis showed that the views of consumers and producers on key indicators of quality dairy products overlap, but there are differences. To overcome these differences in accordance with the QFD methodology built the so-called “House of Quality”, based on which manufacturers will be able to take account of consumer requirements to product quality and use them when designing new products. Thus, QFD methodology is allows to identify the main and priority consumer requirements; translate these subjective quality criteria into product specifications that should be used in its development and design; to produce a quality product with features designed to meet the basic needs of the consumer.

Keywords: QFD methodology, quality house, dairy produce, cheese, sour-milk products, assessment of consumer preferences, improving the product quality.

Complex of methods and means of preparation of dough formulation components

E.E. Bayramov

The subsystem “Complex of methods and means of preparation of dough formulation components” of the primary topological scheme has been developed, and carried out detailing that allows you to identify the most significant factors affecting properties of dough, and reveal the regularities of their changes, which can be used in the improvement of existing or development of new technology for dough kneading and related equipment. The proposed subsystem would provide the necessary technology for operative information in the implementation of the input control of incoming raw materials for optimum performance evaluations and making decisions on the use of certain methods and means of preparation of the formulation components for dough kneading and production of bread with certain desired properties.

Keywords: formulation components of dough, flour, yeast, salt, water, sugar, fat, butter, dough kneading.

Theoretical bases of formation of taste sensations in the use of food

YU.F. Roslyakov, I.M. Pochytskaya, V.V. Litvyak

It is shown that when consuming the food product an important role in forming taste sensations in human belongs to the geometry of taste receptors in the tongue and geometry of analyzed objects taste (food), which represent the diversity of structural elements (molecules, atoms, or ions), each of which has its own unique spatial geometry. Tongue taste analyzers and analyzed objects of taste are universal in terms of their size and have a fractal structure. An electron is the smallest indivisible unit of a fractal. Fractal structure taste analyzers is continuous and the structure of analyzed objects of taste and flavor is intermittent, depend on the purities degree of tastes object. Carbohydrates have crystal structure: glucose, fructose, sucrose, maltose, lactose, and rhamnose, as well as sodium chloride; native starches – amorphous-crystal (transition or intermediate) structure, and maltodextrins – the amorphous structure. Many substances have a complex hierarchical structure and are able to exercise their taste features in stages, i. e. these substances exert their taste characteristics on each of the hierarchical levels of the organization. The geometry of these substances tends to spherical (neutral) form on the last hierarchical level. Thus, the formation of various taste sensations at the person in the use of food occurs in direct proportion to the individual geometric parameters of taste receptors in the tongue and the geometry of the structural elements of materials (ingredients) that make up the food consumed by the principle of complementarity.

Keywords: flavour of food, taste sense, taste analyzer, fractal structure.

Evaluation of degree of antibacterial activity of hygienic detergents

E.N. Guba, L.I. Ambartsumyan, M.V. Guseva, V.V. Illarionova

The degree of antibacterial effect of solid and liquid soap with the stated antibacterial activity was investigated. Research selected 15 samples of solid soap and 16 samples of liquid soap with antibacterial effect the most popular domestic and foreign manufacturers. To assess the antibacterial properties of samples of soap used method used to determine the sensitivity of bacteria to various antibiotics by crops in Petri dishes, swabs from hands. To improve the reliability of the obtained results was determined the biomass of microorganisms, obtained by run-off from the owner, in relation to the control of optical density on the refractometer after 24 h. Found that the greatest antibacterial activity of the samples have liquid soap and solid soap, containing as the main components of birch tar and triclocarban.

Keywords: toilet solid soap, liquid soap, antibacterial properties, zone of no growth of bacteria, microflora of skin, antibacterial components of soaps.

Monitoring of crystalline turbidity wine products manufactured by enterprises of Krasnodar region

А.А. Khrapov, N.M. Ageeva

The materials of monitoring of turbidity of red and white grape table wines produced by enterprises of Krasnodar region are presented here. It has been established that the major part of turbid wines was inclined to crystalline turbidity. It has been discovered that various quantity of wines was inclined to colloid (reversible and irreversible), biological turbidity and metal kass. The character of crystalline turbidity has been identified. It has been displayed that in the composition of sediments turbidity wines are salts of potassium and calcium nature. It is established that sediments of red wines are characterized by large variety of shapes and sizes of crystals in comparison with sediments of white wines. Classification of wines depending on potassium and calcium cations concentration has been offered. All analyzed wine samples are divided into stable, conditionally stable, requiring technological improvements and unstable. Determined the proportion of each class in the studied wines.

Keywords: turbidity of grape wines, crystalline turbidity, wine sediments, potassium cations, calcium cations, stability of wine.

Ecological and chemical analysis of waste from wine production

A.A. Levchuk, A.V. Aleksandrova, S.A. Bushumov, A.V. Klochko

The article is consist the results of the ecological and chemical analysis waste of wine production as an example of samples taken in the processing of grape variety Chardonnay, grown in the Krasnodar region. The objects of study were the husks of grapes and ridges, thick glutinous precipitates from filtering wine, as well as dense lees of wine production. Determined moisture, ash and mineral components, the total content of the organic part in the investigated samples of waste. Determined samples of waste to the environment by calculation methods in relation to the hazard class. All the investigated types of waste related to V (lowest) class of hazard. The experimental by bioassay aqueous extracts of waste was determine of the hazard class. The quantitative results of toxicological analysis, confirming the absence of an acute toxic effect of waste water extract of the test organisms: daphnia and algae.

Keywords: waste of wine production, pomace and grape ridges, thick glutinous precipitates from filtering wine, thick yeast sediment of wine production, chemical composition, toxicological analysis.
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