Food technologyIssues → № 5-6 (353-354), 2016

Table of contents for # 5-6 (353-354), 2016

Scientific Review

6

Types of nontraditional vegetable raw materials and its use

N.A. Tarasenko, N.S. Bykova, YU.N. Nikonovich
Annotation

The overview of the types of nontraditional vegetative raw materials and its use in the food industry are presented. Classification nontraditional raw materials depending on its purpose and direction is given. Melon seeds, pumpkin, alfalfa, buckwheat, spirulina algae, Jerusalem artichoke, sea buckthorn seeds, sprouted wheat, flax seed oil, chitosan, obtained from the carapace of crayfish, etc. are considered as sources of such raw materials. Technology uses food fibers Camecel FW 200 for the production of bakery products with low content of digestible carbohydrates and food fibers Citri-Fi in production souffle, marshmallow, marmalade, accelerating the process of structure formation and allows stabilizing the process of storage products, is presented. Compositions of different groups of products prophylactic appointment with use of nontraditional raw materials, greatly extending the range of functional foods, have been considered. It is established that nontraditional vegetable raw materials changes technological characteristics of products and promotes their enrichment of valuable components.

Keywords: nontraditional vegetative raw materials, products of functional purpose, enrichment of products, dietary fiber, nutrition structure, prevention of diseases.

Technology

10

Influence of flaxseed flour additives on quality parameters of bakery products

S.P. Merenkova, A.A. Lukin, D.A. Kleyman
Annotation

The article analyzes the chemical composition of flax seeds, determined a high concentration of the physiologically active components, essential structures exercising regulatory functions in the body. Conducted test baking of bakery products, in the formulation was replaced with wheat flour of first grade on flour flax LM-98 variety. Prototypes prepared from 10 to 40% with an additive of flax flour. The resulting products had optimum organoleptic properties, have bright yellow-brown crust color and yellow crumb color, delicate taste with a nutty flavor, soft elastic crumb with a thin uniform porosity. Monitoring changes of acid value and peroxide value of fat in bakery products during storage led to the conclusion that the samples with the addition of flax meal in concentrations of 10-40% do not change the properties after 72 hours of storage. The concentration of flax flour in the formulation of bakery products 30% is optimum, it allows you to use the best extent biocapacity raw materials and does not cause negative changes in the organoleptic properties of the product.

Keywords: processing of flax seed products, ?-3, ?-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, bakery products, organoleptic evaluation, peroxide value, acid value.
13

Development of bread formulation with addition of modifications lentils products

A.S. Khamitsaeva, F.L. Kudzieva, О.А. Kesaeva, A.S. Tsarueva, A.R. Budaev
Annotation

Using the methods of mathematical modeling to optimize the qualitative and quantitative ingredient composition providing the specified level of nutritional value of the developed product, developed the bread formulation with the addition of modifications lentils products (MLP) and aromatic plants (AP). As MLP used powders of germinated lentil (PGL) and sprouts of lentils (PSL) in the ratio 1 : 1, as a AP – fennel seeds and thyme in 1 : 1 ratio. For the design of formulations developed products with a specified chemical composition used the Solver package. The optimization problem of formulation of bread were decided on the choice of micronutrients: the maximum content of vitamins C, B2, B6, B12, and minerals potassium, iron, selenium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, essential amino acids, and the minimum energy value. Based on the results of computer simulation and organoleptic evaluation of the samples developed the following formulation, %: wheat flour baking – 90, PGL and PSL – in 5,0, AP – 0,3.

Keywords: development of bread formulation, modification lentils products, spices and aromatic plants, flour products, essential nutrients.
16

New technology of hard biscuits with flour from jerusalem artichoke tubers

V.K. Kochetov, V.V. Gonchar, A.S. Shulga, YU.F. Roslyakov, O.L. Vershinina
Annotation

The article investigates the possibility of using the flour obtained from the tubers of Jerusalem artichoke in the production of hard biscuits. Presented by the chemical composition of Jerusalem artichoke tubers with unique curative properties. Used the flour obtained from the Jerusalem artichoke tubers varieties of “Interest”. The effect of the flour obtained from the tubers of Jerusalem artichoke, the course of technological process and the quality of the finished hard biscuits is investigated. Substantiated rational dosage of flour obtained from the tubers of Jerusalem artichoke in the amount of 5% by total weight of wheat flour, developed formulation and manufacturing technology of the new varieties of biscuits. The new product is characterized by a pleasant taste and aroma. Uniform color from light yellow to dark brown shades. On the fracture type uniformly porous, layered, without a trace of non-kneading and tempers, well-baked. On physical and chemical parameters of a new variety of hard biscuits was not inferior to the control sample. On the basis of the research developed a new formulation grade hard biscuits “Biscuits with Jerusalem artichoke”.

Keywords: bakery confectionery products, flour from the tubers of Jerusalem artichoke, hard biscuits, biological value.
18

Camecel FW 200: composition, properties, application

YU.N. Nikonovich, N.A. Tarasenko
Annotation

The results of studies of physico-chemical quality parameters of dietary fibers Camecel FW 200, as well as their moisture binding bound and fat-bound abilities. Dependence of degree of swelling of dietary fiber Camecel FW 200 from the temperature is established. For the development of new functional products studied the water absorption of wheat dietary fiber Camecel FW 200. Presents an overview of the products and technologies with the use of dietary fibers Camecel. Investigated the possibility of introducing wheat fiber Camecel FW 200 previously dissolved in water in the formulation of sugar wafers to replace part of the fat component. Noted that enrichment of food product dietary fibers in the amount of 3–6 g per 100 g of the finished product might change its quality. Therefore, when developing functional foods with dietary fibers in each case it is necessary to conduct experimental research to address technological challenges.

Keywords: dietary fibers, Camecel FW 200, confectionery, enrichment of food product.
21

Features of biotechnology analog of the altai national dairy drink chegen

L.CH. Bukachakova, L.V. Krasnikova, T.P. Arseneva
Annotation

For industrial production of analog of the Altai dairy drink chegen compositions of various ferments on structure of microorganisms close to microflora of chegen are constituted. The organoleptic indicators of the compositions are researched. The ratio between ferments allowing to produced a ready-made product the most approximate on organoleptic and physical and chemical properties to natural chegen is picked up. The 3-staged industrial production technology of chegen considering various temperature conditions and durations of growth necessary for thermophilic and mesophilic lactic bacteria and yeast is developed: 37°C – 3–4 h, 30°C – 4–5 h, 12°C – 12–14 h. The technological scheme and the modes of production of analog of chegen in industrial conditions allowing to manufacture the product possessing specific properties of the Altai dairy drink chegen is developed.

Keywords: Altai dairy drink chegen, ferment, fermented dairy product.
24

Influence of complex technological methods of processing on extraction of berry raw materials

I.A. Bakin, A.S. Mustafina, P.N. Lunin
Annotation

The description of the complex methods when processing berry raw materials providing the greatest output of biologically active agents and their safety is given. The purpose of work was the identification of change of quality factors of blackcurrant berries extracts from parameters of the complex processing of raw materials by ultrasonic and co-impact of enzymatic hydrolysis with of the pectolytic enzyme preparation Fructozym® P. The quality factors of berries raw materials and extracts were determined by standard methods of research, by set of organoleptic, physical and chemical factors, factors of safety. Three variants of processing with use of hydrolysis extraction and combination of physical methods (mixing and ultrasonic with a frequency of 22 kHz) are studied. A water extractant and defrozen berries pomace at a ratio 1 : 2,5 are investigated in two variants. In the third option variant the processed raw materials were thinned with aqueous-alcoholic solvent (ethanol 60% by volume, hydromodule at a ratio 1 : 2,5). Comparison was carried out with the check sample received at a stationary method of extraction. It is established that the combination of enzymatic hydrolysis and ultrasonic increases the output of extractives by 1,5 times in comparison with check sample. The degree of extraction of phenolic substances increases at 3 times when using an aqueous-alcoholic extractant. It is obtained that the increase in duration of extraction from 60 to 90 min reduces the content of ascorbic acid in extracts by 50%. It is proved that no destruction of an enzyme preparation in water extracts under the influence of ultrasound power less 160 V • A and till 10 min. At the same time temperature of the environment is 30–35°C, and enzymatic hydrolysis proceeds under optimum conditions that promotes the greatest degree of extraction of components of berry raw materials.

Keywords: blackcurrant, extraction, extract, fermentation, Fructozym® P, processing by ultrasonic, temperature.
27

Effect sweeteners on the viscosity and fluidity of the chocolate mass

I.A.Chernyh, P.S.Krasin, S.A.Kalmanovich, I.B.Krasina
Annotation

Researches of the effect of particle sizes of sucrose and sweeteners on rheological properties of chocolate mass are conducted. Sugar, maltitol, isomalt and erythritol ware separated into three fractions having the following ranges of the particle sizes: 1 – 20–38, 2 – 38–53, 3 – 53–106 µm. Rheological properties of chocolate samples ware measured using a rheometer with a concentric cylinder system at change of shear rate. Each chocolate sample was incubated at 50°C for 75 min for melting and placed in the cube of the rheometer, before the start of the measurement cycles was stirred at a speed of 5 s-1 for 10 min at 40°C. Shearing stress was determined at 40°C as a function by increasing shear rate from 5 to 60 s–1 for 120 s, and then reduced the shear rate from 60 to 5 s–1, in each cycle was performed 50 measurements. Each measurement cycle was repeated 30 times consecutively until, while in samples the effects of thixotropy ware not eliminated. Found that the use of erythritol and maltitol plastic viscosity of the chocolate mass the same as with sucrose, whereas the plastic viscosity of chocolate with isomalt was much higher. With increasing particle size plastic viscosity was significantly reduced. The effective viscosity determined at a shear rate of 30 s–1 and different particle size samples of chocolate, obtained using different various sweeteners. The yield strength of samples of chocolate with maltitol was significantly higher than isomaltol, whereas among the other samples the differences have not been established. The effect of influence sweeteners on the effective viscosity depend on the particle size: the effect was not seen with the larger particle size and become evident when particle size decreases.

Keywords: rheological properties of chocolate mass, sweeteners, plastic viscosity, fluidity, effective viscosity.
31

Development of food products for people with intense intellectual labor

V.S. Grinchenko, G.I. Kasyanov
Annotation

It is established that the diet of the people of intellectual labor is significantly lacking in essential amino acids and fatty acids, dietary fiber, B-group vitamins, essential trace minerals, phospholipids. For the development of food products, compensating the lack of essential ingredients in the diet of people of intense intellectual labor, athletes, chess players, was chosen plant and animal raw materials. Structural, rheological and sensory characteristics and chemical properties of dishes prepared from selected raw materials was investigated. To stabilize the structure of the developed products and increase their biological value included in the formulation of CO2-extracts from medicinal vegetative raw material.

Keywords: diet for people with intense mental labor, improving the biological value of the product, the rheological characteristics of the product, CO2-extracts from vegetable raw materials, functional food.
34

Use of calcium-containing reagents for increasing of sucrose extraction efficiency from beet tissue

R.S. Reshetova, V.O. Gorodetskiy, O.YU. Bgantseva, YU.I. Molotilin, S.O. Semenikhin
Annotation

During extraction from sugar beet cossettes in the diffusion juice passes about 98% of sucrose and 80% of non-sugars of cell juice, including from 20 to 30% of colloidal-dispersion substances (proteins) and 5 to 10% of pectin. During the conduction of sucrose extraction from sugar beet cossettes toughtness properties reduce. In a result of treating of sugar beet cossettes by calcium-containing reagents increases the toughtness of cossettes, which not only improves the purity of diffusion juice, but provides more rhythmic work of the diffuser. To increase the completeness of extraction of sucrose from beet tissue and the subsequent removal of these non-sugars from raw juice large expenditures of energy and material resources are required. Researched and offered a method of preliminary treatment of sugar beet cossettes with calcium-containing reagents, that allows to increase the purity of the raw juice on account of calcium ions binding of colloidal-dispersion substances and pectin in cells of beet and prevention of their transition into the raw juice. It was found that the most effective calcium-containing reagent is gypsum. On the basis of studies the optimal consumption of gypsum and contacting time with the cossettes were determined.

Keywords: sugar beet cossettes, calcium-containing reagents, extraction, sucrose, high-molecular compounds, diffusion juice.
38

Impact of the degree of dispersion of potassium bitartrate preparations on efficiency of their use for stabilization of wines

А.А. Khrapov, N.M. Ageeva
Annotation

The studies results of the effect of the degree of dispersion of potassium bitartrate preparations on the efficiency of its use to prevent crystal wines turbidity are presented. Objects of research were dry table wine produced from grape varieties Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc and Cabernet Sauvignon. Treatment of wine to prevent crystal wines turbidity was achieved by aging for 7–10 days prototypes with additive potassium bitartrate preparations of Russian production and preparation Kalinat (Erbsl?h Geisenheim AG, Germany) in an amount of 3 g/dm3. As a control using samples of the wine is aged at temperature of –4 to –6°C. The mass concentration of potassium cations and calcium cations was determined by capillary electrophoresis on the device Kapel 105R. It is established that the use of potassium bitartrate preparations to reduce the concentration of cations of potassium and calcium in wine was significantly more effective treatment of cold. To determine the effect of the degree of dispersion of potassium bitartrate preparations on the effectiveness of their actions preparations are crushed and divided into fractions with a particle size of from 0,25 to 2,0 mm for the bitartrate potassium, and from 0,25 to 1,0 mm of the preparation Kalinat. It is established that the optimum for the sorption of cations of potassium particle size of 0,5–0,75 mm, and the cations of calcium is about 1 mm. Reduction of degree of dispersion in case of the sizes of particles more than 1 mm in general reduces efficiency of action of both preparations.

Keywords: crystal wine turbidity, precipitation, potassium cations, calcium cations, potassium bitartrate, dispersion.
41

Effect of natural and activated forms of chitosan on the clarification and chemical composition of wine materials

Z.M. Chermit, N.M. Ageeva
Annotation

The effect of natural and activated forms of chitosan on the clarification of chemical composition of white and red table wine materials with defects of hydrogen sulfide and a mouse tones has been studied. A suspension of bentonite was control. Activation of chitosan was carried out citric and tartaric acids by the developed technique. Natural and activated forms of chitosan were added to the treated wine materials in a dosage of from 50 to 500 mg/dm3. Physical and chemical characteristics of wine materials and their sensory properties have been defined after clarification. The dynamics of the clarification was monitored by the change value of the optical density of wine materials using spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 420 nm. The appearance of the wine was evaluated visually. The results showed that the dynamics of the clarification of wine of natural and activated chitosan varies. The best results, of clarification the white table wine materials obtained from the use of natural chitosan at a dosage of 300–500 mg/dm3, chitosan, activated carbon acids, at a dose of 200–300 mg/dm3. In the treatment of red table wine materials: the optimum dosage of natural chitosan amounted to 300–400 mg/dm3, activated chitosan – 200–250 mg/dm3. Similar quality of clarification was obtained from the processing of wine materials by bentonite suspension, but the amount of precipitation, and with it the loss of the wine was twice more in comparison with chitosan. It is established that in comparison with bentonite, chitosan, natural and activated, capable of greater to reduce the concentration of titratable and volatile acids, especially at a dose of 500 mg/dm3. The use of chitosan not only improves the quality of clarification, but also the elimination of the vices of wine materials – sulphide and even a mouse tones. The recommended dosage of activated chitosan 200–300 mg/dm3.

Keywords: wine materials, quality wines, wines vices, sorption, clarification of wines, organoleptic properties, chitosan, acid activation, bentonite.
45

Development of functional product for nutrition in fitness

N.A. Tarasenko, S.N. Nikonovich
Annotation

Composition fitness bars for human consumption at low power loads is developed. Developed product contains succinic acid, L-carnitine, buckwheat flakes, molasses as a sweet component – sugar and erythritol, taken in the ratio with sugar 1 : 20, citric acid, glycerin, dry whey protein concentrate milk, cake from pine nut kernels, hemoglobin powder, powder of pomegranate seeds. The rationale for the use of each of the components of the composition of the developed product is given. Organoleptic evaluation showed that the fitness bars have a smooth consistency with a stable structure, spicy taste with the effect of cool, dark brown color and original spicy-woody scent. Synergy of functional ingredients in the composition accelerates recovery of physical strength during and after fitness. Ergogenesis properties of the developed food product confirmed by control tests on the persons daily involved in fitness: course reception fitness bars for 30 days in an amount of 50 g/day after exercise contributed to the increase in power index, speed-strength endurance and overall physical performance of the subjects. Use in the diet of the fitness bars is an additional adaptogenic factor to optimize the effect of fitness-training.

Keywords: functional product, food for fitness, fitness bars, optimization effect of fitness training.
48

Designing food for people with increased physical activity

E.A. Mazurenko, G.I. Kasyanov
Annotation

Recipes for new food products for athletes subject to intensive physical loads and high neuro-emotional stress during training and competition were developed. The obtained products are enriched with CO2-extracts and CO2-oil-cakes from vegetable raw materials containing valuable biologically active substances. The block diagram of the production of pastes “Regbi” and “Sportivnyy”, recommended for inclusion in the diet of the Rugby players, is presented. The chemical composition and indicators of metabolism developed meat-vegatable pastes are identified. Draft technical documentation and specifications TС 9160–169–04801346–16 to specialized meat-vegatable products at proposed formulations were developed. Performed testing of the results of research and calculation of the expected economic effect in terms of one company ranged from 4,2 to 4,9 thousand ruble 1 thousand cans of products.

Keywords: specialty products, sports nutrition, diet, product enrichment, formulation of pastes.

Food Service Industry

52

Influence of technological factors on the process of food masses capsulating

R.A. Zhuravlev, M.YU. Tamova, E.S. Franchenko
Annotation

The influence of some technological factors: the diameter of the outlet and concentration of the structure-forming agent (sodium alginate) in the process of capsulating of food systems is investigated. For the implementation of the task was modeled and conducted a two-factor experiment is planned using rotatable plan of the second order of Box–Hunter. The limit values for selected factors: the mass fraction of sodium alginate is from 0,6 to 1,4%, the diameter of the outlet is from 1 to 5 mm. It is established that the diameter of the capsule within the considered process parameters increases with increase in concentration of structure-forming agent in the capsulated solution. The same dependence is observed with increasing diameter of the nozzle. The diameter of the resulting capsules under specified conditions varies from 3,7 to 5,7 mm. To clarify the optimum conditions of capsule formation the dynamic viscosity of solutions of sodium alginate at various concentrations of the structure-forming agent is investigated. The developed technology will allow to expand the range of encapsulated food products and is recommended for implementation at the enterprises of public catering and food industry.

Keywords: capsulating, structure-forming agent, sodium alginate, food system, whey.
55

Fruit and vegetable sauces of the increased food density

E.V. Barashkina, N.R. Tretyakova, I.A. Rogovenko, E.V. Agafonova
Annotation

As objects of modification for the purpose of forming of functional properties the basic products representing homogeneous food systems – sauces on a fruit and vegetable basis are chosen. Increase in food density of these products of mass consumption, their transformation to products of functional purpose is urgent in case of correction of basic diets. It is established that a residue of Jerusalem artichoke tubers of varieties Interest contains the greatest number of food fibers (cellulose and pectinaceous substances), possess a high sorption capability and can be used as ingredients in compoundings of sauces of functional purpose. Prescription compositions are developed and technologies of sauces with the increased food density are enhanced. It is established that introduction in a compounding of sauces of a residue of Jerusalem artichoke with a mass fraction of solids of 5% provides viscosity, characteristic of sauces, high organoleptic characteristics and sorption properties. Consumption of 50 g of developed sauces satisfies 25% of the daily need of an organism for food fibers.

Keywords: food fibers, sauces with the increased food density, functional products, Jerusalem artichoke, binding capacity.
58

Principles of structure of food systems based forcemeat and puree masses

N.T. Shamkova
Annotation

The principles of structure of food systems based forcemeat and puree the masses, their internal structure as a factor determining the quality indicators molded culinary products are considered. The influence of moisture, forms its communication on the structural and mechanical properties of biotechnological systems is shown. The effect of polysaccharides and proteins on the rheological properties of food products from the perspective of the modern theory of gelation is describes. It is concluded that for the quality control of food products is required of investigation the structural and mechanical properties and principles of forming the structural stability of the composite food systems based on forcemeat and puree the masses.

Keywords: structure formation, disperse systems, forcemeat, puree mass, moisture, polysaccharides, protein, pectin.
64

Training specialists for the hospitality industry in Kuban State Technological University

V.G. Lobanov, M.YU. Tamova
Annotation

A brief historical background of one of the departments of Kuban State Technological University – the Department of public catering and service (PСS): the formation and development of scientific schools of the department, the main indicators of its activities and achievements was given. The results of the training department PСS specialists in the sphere of public catering, technology and commodity research of food products presented.

Keywords: public catering, food industry and service, scientific school, training specialist.

Processes & Apparatus

66

Effect of air temperature in its forced convection in a confined space to wet-bulb temperature

T.G. Korotkova, E.N. Konstantinov, A.S. Danilchenko, S.YU. Ksandopulo
Annotation

Experimental study of wet-bulb temperature as the water evaporates from the free surface in a forced convection at different temperatures in an oven to 60, 70, 80, 90 and 105°C. Weigh the water in a volume of 50 ml was placed in a petri dish, an inner diameter of 0,094 m, and placed in an oven Memmert (Germany), middle layer of liquid temperature measured by the sensor – digital multimeter Mastech M838 series. Wet-bulb temperature is considered established if at least 15 min, they can not change. The equation of the heat balance on the border “water–air” and criterial equations for determining the coefficients of heat transfer from air to water and from the air to a solid surface. The methods of calculating the wet-bulb temperature. Analysis of measured and calculated values shows good agreement between theory and experiment. The calculated curve and the experimental values of the wet-bulb temperature. It is found that for a closed volume: the forced convection over the natural wet-bulb temperature during the removal of free moisture and above increases with the temperature of the drying agent; heat and mass transfer coefficients between liquid and a drying agent (air) with forced convection increases with the temperature of the drying agent and the heat transfer coefficient between the drying agent and the wall decreases; during removal of free moisture, and the moisture content of the drying agent partial pressure increases with the temperature of the drying agent.

Keywords: wet-bulb temperature, drying, forced convection, system “water–air”.
70

Comparison of analysis results of rice humidity according to GOST 26312.7–88 and using the humidity meter grain Pfeuffer

A.P. Donenko, T.G. Korotkova
Annotation

The comparison of the analyses results of humidity content of paddy rice during drying mine in the dryer Cimbria of “South Rice Company”, completed according to the standard method according to GOST 26312.7–88, and rapid analysis with humidity meter grain Pfeuffer (Germany). The sampling of the grain produced from the device at the outlet of the dryer. Determination of moisture in grain was carried out for two samples of paddy rice varieties Regul with high initial moisture content of 17,1 and 15,8% weight. With the aim of achieving optimum moisture content drying of samples was carried out in two sequentially installed the Cimbria dryers. Plot a graph of changes in the moisture of the paddy rice as determined by two methods. The obtained results show good qualitative and quantitative agreement of measurement data. The discrepancy between the results, on average, amounted to 0,84%, indicating high accuracy of the express method.

Keywords: rice grain, drying of paddy rice, Cimbria dryer, humidity meter grain Pfeuffer, humidity of grains.
74

Effect of reflux ratio on efficiency of rectification apparatus for explosive and fire-dangerous productions

I.N. Ryvkin, V.I. Demin, M.A. Khamula, E.V. Dmitrenko, O.V. Melechina, V.V. Sorokina
Annotation

Since the process of rectification in industrial units is carried out at finite values of the reflux drum numbers in work studies is the influence of reflux ratio on the efficiency of the device with a rotating nozzle in experimental studies, taken into account in the calculation of the industrial unit and tested production. The effect of reflux ratio R on the efficiency of separation is examined. A comparative study of the process of rectification is conducted when R is 1, 2, 3, and ?, the results of which showed that changing the reflux ratio R from 1 to ? of its influence on the value of the volumetric mass transfer coefficient KV was observed. Study of the dependence of the number of revolutions of the nozzle n from the linear steam velocity ? at R is equal to 1, 2, 3 and ? showed that with decreasing reflux ratio, the rotation speed increases by 20%. But the observed increase in speed may not have a significant impact on the efficiency of the process of mass transfer, as the survey rotary devices, an increase in n, for example, 2 times, causing the gain KV of no more than 10–12%. Thus, consistent comparative study of hydrodynamic and mass transfer processes for the considered devices were determined load on the liquid and gas phases, and their effectiveness in the process of mass transfer clarified the nature of the influence of various factors on the operation of the machines.

Keywords: rectification, mass exchange, mass transfer, reflux ratio, industrial device with rotating nozzle, rotor.

Methods of Investigation, Quality & Safety of Food Products

77

Improving food safety by reducing the content of nitrates

M.P. Mogilny
Annotation

The results of study of opportunities to improve food safety by reducing nitrates are presented. Determined the biological effect of nitrates on the body due to their carcinogenic and toxic properties, the influence on the metabolism and immune system. The content of nitrates in some products of plant origin, including grown using nitrogen-containing fertilizers is investigated. The influence of various factors on the accumulation of nitrates in vegetables is noted. The influence of technological operations on the content of nitrates in food products is shown. The characteristics of organic substances which are inhibitors nitrosation amines are presented. Identify the impact of certain substances and foods by inhibitors of nitrosamines. Recommendations for use of foodstuffs containing nitrates in the nutrition are developed.

Keywords: nitrates, nitrites, nitrosation amines, inhibitors, food components, cooking, healthy nutrition.
80

Methods of determining cheese stretchability for pizza

N.YU. Moiseev, E.P. Suchkova
Annotation

The methods of determining cheese stretchability using various instrumental methods, from simple to complex in technical terms are studied. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. Cheese with cheddaring and cooking cheese mass commonly used in the pizza industry, as they have high plastic properties and also capable of stretched cheese strands when heated above 60°C. These properties are valued pizza-makers, so they are used in topping for pizza – cheese mozzarella. But in order to predict how behaves cheese in baking, and how well it will stretch in the fiber is hard to say, because there is no generally accepted method, both abroad and in Russia. In the studied foreign literature scientists use methods for determining the stretchability of cheese with the empirical method – the fork test and instrumental methods, more complex, based on the tensile tester. Fork test is subjective, since its conduct is not clearly controlled parameters such as the temperature of the cheese, the direction and speed of stretching. Instrumental methods are very sensitive to changes in the composition of the test cheese and its production process. During these operations the strain rate during the test remains constant. Therefore, these methods are widely used by researchers in their work to determine the stretchability of cheese.

Keywords: cheese, pizza, mozzarella, stretchability.
85

Evaluation of the functionality of iodine-containing product on the dairy-plant basis

L.A. Nadtochii, A.V. Koryagina, E.P. Guseva, E.V. Kiryacheva
Annotation

The consequences of iodine deficiency in the human body are analyzed. The list of products in which the content of iodine in 100 g exceeds 5 g, is given. Recipe cheese product using seaweed – laminaria developed. Based on the results of the organoleptic evaluation taking into account features taste characteristics of laminaria the share of its introduction in payment in the amount of 5% in the composition of the cheese product selected. As the basic technology of dairy and plant product production technology of cheese Adyghe selected. The results of the calculation of the satisfy the daily requirement in nutrients when consuming 100 g and the daily requirement (16,4 g) of Adygei cheese presented. On the iodine content developed cheese product with a content of laminaria 5% may be considered functional according to GOST R 52349–2005. The functionality of cheese-vegetable product with the addition of 5% of laminaria, as satisfy the daily requirement in iodine exceeds the minimum required value more than 2 times, is confirmed. Developed cheese product can be recommended for nutrition of people suffering from thyroid disease, as well as for the broad masses of the population as a preventive measure.

Keywords: cheese-vegetable product, functional product, product enrichment, laminaria, Adygei cheese, prevention of iodine deficiency diseases.
89

Analysis of features of the blood sausages range realized in Kemerovo

A.A. Prokhorov, E.O. Ermolaeva
Annotation

Marketing researches are investigated by method a retail audit according to the analysis of the blood sausages range realized in distribution networks of Kemerovo. Identified the leading producers of these products. The conclusion about not the wide blood sausages range, by results of research is drawn. Lack of an expansion tendency of the products range, including lack of the functional blood sausages, is described. The outlets realizing this products type are determined. Studying criteria of the blood sausages range are studied. The blood sausages types realized in a distribution network are analyzed. The weight, product unit price, average cost in the market of Kemerovo for unit and 1 kg of a product are identified. The conclusion about expansion possibility of the blood sausages range realized in distribution networks of Kemerovo by development, industrial approbation and implementation of functional blood sausage, by research results is drawn.

Keywords: blood sausage, analysis of range, market researches, range indicators, structure of range.
92

Experimental verification of mathematical model of nonstationary evaporation of the liquid

A.S. Danilchenko, T.G. Korotkova
Annotation

Experimental and calculated data of the kinetics of heating and kinetics of evaporation of the water in oven Memmert at temperatures of 60, 70, 80 and 90°C with forced convection given. The object of the study was the weight of water, poured into a Petri dish, 50 ml of the heating up and 10 ml by evaporation. Temperature measurement of heating at a fixed temperature in oven with the help of digital multimeter Mastech M838 series, the measuring device which was fixed in the middle layer of weight water. The processing of data carried out on the developed mathematical model of nonstationary process of liquid evaporation. Graphics based on comparison of experimental and calculated data showed consistency in the warm-up period and the period of removal of free moisture. The peculiarity of the mathematical model of evaporation of a liquid, which is nonlinear, to describe the process of evaporation in the period of constant drying rate direct line confirmed. It was established experimentally that upon reaching the evaporation process of water amount 1 g experimental points deviate from the linear dependence, which leads to an increase in the time of complete evaporation of water compared to the theoretically predicted. This indicates the presence of adsorption effects between the film of water remaining at the end of the evaporation process, and glass. Given that the dried solutions are subjected to, it is necessary to introduce a model developed theoretical positions, taking into account the adsorption effect between moisture and the porous body.

Keywords: warm-up period, kinetics of evaporation, forced convection, system water–air.
95

Use of mathematical models for the characterization of rheological properties of chocolate mass

I.A. Chernykh, P.S. Krasin, S.A. Kalmanovich, I.B. Krasina
Annotation

The dependence of the rheological properties of the chocolate mass from the particle size of sucrose and sweeteners – isomalt, maltitol, erythritol is considered. The measurements were carried out with a rheometer with a concentric cylinder system at change of shear rate. Data on the distribution of particles of bulk sweetener according to the dimensions for the three different intervals are shown in table. Based on these data 30 measurements rheological model the dependence of the shear rate and shearing stress for all samples of chocolate with the use of mathematical models, Casson, Bigman and Herschel–Bulkley was built. The best model was selected using statistical analysis all rheological parameters: plastic viscosity, yield strength, flow index. Data of the rheological measurements were analyzed using linear and nonlinear regression analysis for the evaluation of various mathematical models using software package Statistica. It is established that the model of Herschel–Bulkley better of other models describe the real rheological properties of the chocolate mass. It is determined that the maltitol is influenced on rheological properties of chocolate is similar to sucrose and, thus, can be a good alternative in the production of chocolate masses.

Keywords: chocolate masse, rheological properties, bulk sweeteners, size of the particles of substance, mathematical model, statistical analysis.
98

Using the haccp system for improving the “Riesling” white table wine production control at the “Kuban-Vino” LLC

A.M. Malyshev, YA.M. Molchanova
Annotation

A safety management system (the HACCP system) of wine as a set of an arranging structure, documents, processes and resources crucial for its implementation was developed for the “Kuban-Vino” LLC. The system documentation sets the parameters limit values to confirm that the critical control points, i. e. the control location to identify the hazard and (or) the risk management, is being monitored. The analysis of the quality and safety of the factors of production of LLC “Kuban-Vino”, its assessment methods. The HACCP system plan is a set of the HACCP worksheets, containing information for each critical control point. The risk analysis diagram was constructed, and an inventory of hazards as well as preventive and corrective actions to eliminate or reduce them was compiled. Built wine production is a block diagram indicating her places of control to identify the hazard and (or) risk management. The system is easily integrated into the overall management structured activities LLC “Kuban-Vino”, which ensures its effectiveness for product safety and maximum benefit for the organization and interested parties.

Keywords: hazard analysis, system of product safety management, critical control points, preventing and correcting actions.
101

Development of evaluation criteria of the ripeness of ordinary cognac alcohols at aging in oak casks

T.M. Panakhov
Annotation

During maturing of young cognac alcohol at aging in oak casks there are difficult physical and biochemical processes in which, along with the substances which are a part of alcohol chemical components of an oak clapboard actively participate. At quality assessment of cognac on the basis of the analysis of his physical and chemical structure the preference is given to products of transformation of lignin – to vanillin, syring, sinapic and coniferyl aldehydes. However these components don’t reflect fully scale of the aromatic components of an oak passing into cognac alcohol at aging. Us it is offered to use for this purpose concentration indicators in the sustained cognac alcohols of phenolic substances, a scopoletin, eugenol, vanillin, cis- and trans-?methyl?-octa-lactone for the purpose of oak wood influence determination on quality of cognac alcohols (age index). The research results of dependence of concentration of the specified oak components in cognac alcohol from duration of his aging within 1–5 years are presented. The formula of age index of quality is derived and the necessary coefficients on the main aromatic components of oak clapboard are calculated. Correlation between the aging period (age index) and accumulation in cognac alcohol of phenolic substances and aromatic components of oak is established.

Keywords: wine distillate (cognac alcohol), aging in oak cask, oak clapboard, phenolic substances, age index of cognac.

105

Deposited scientific works

Industrial ecology & Biotechnology of Food Systems

106

Scientific bases of increase of the labor protection level at enterprises of food industry

S.YU. Ksandopulo, V.V. Novikov, A.R. Stepanyan
Annotation

The possibility of increase of the labor protection level at the enterprises of food industry are considered. As one of the measures of organization of work of service of labor protection the proposed equipment cabinet (room) of labor protection to ensure the health and safety requirements, dissemination of legal knowledge. Developed computer program “Room of labor protection”, the introduction to which the company contributes to the prevention of occupational accidents and diseases, to reduce the cost of social security against accidents on enterprises, allows rapid learning of the basics of labor protection, all kinds of training experience used in the plant means of individual protection. The program “Room of labor protection” it is recommended to use in small enterprises of the food industry.

Keywords: labor protection, accident, traumatism, room of labor protection.
109

Experience of introduction of management system labor protection in small enterprises of the food industry

T.V. Riger, V.I. Demin, N.YU. Istoshina, ZH.P. Soloveva, D.V. Lomonosova
Annotation

The analysis of a condition of work on labor protection (LP) at small enterprises of the food industry and in other organizations and at the entities showed the low level of the organization of this work. The most efficient means of increase in overall performance on LP at small enterprises of the food industry is implementation of management system labor protection (MSLP). Small enterprises of the food industry have the features which shall be considered in case of development and implementation of MSLP. Efficiency of implementation and functioning of MSLP is determined by quality of the local regulatory base of this entity. As the local regulatory base of the MSLP management system of small enterprise of food industry “IP Naumova” we have developed and proposed standards in the form of standards of the entities (SE) OSSS on organization of the MSLP management system and a separate procedure LP. In work the conclusion is drawn that SE constituting the local regulatory base MSLP can differ depending on features and the sizes of small enterprise of the food industry, but they are the guide to action on all work types on LP. Implementation of MSLP at small enterprise of the food industry of “IP Naumova”, allowed: to increase the responsibility of each employee of the entity for fulfillment of requirements of safety on its workplace and prevent injuries; to improve a sanitary and hygienic condition of rooms and the production environment; to staticize all documentation on LP; to effectively use the funds allocated on LP; to get rid of penalties for discrepancy of the organization of work to requirements LP. Increase in safety and improvement of working conditions at small enterprise “IP Naumova” promoted not only to injury prevention and incidence as professional, and general, but also allowed to lower a staff turnover and to increase production efficiency.

Keywords: small enterprise, labor protection, occupational diseases, system safety management, working conditions, special assessment of working conditions, occupational hazard.

113

Monograph «Amaranth in food industry»

V.D. Nadykta
Annotation

Presents a review of the monograph “Amaranth in Food Industry” (authors N.A. Shmalko, Yu.F. Roslyakov). The authors provides information on the morphology, chemical composition and biochemical characteristics of amaranth; the analysis of literary and experimental data on the qualitative composition of proteins, essential amino acid content of their functional and technological properties, activity of proteolytic enzymes is carried out. Special attention is given to the authors of monograph the methods of processing grain and vegetative biomass of amaranth, adapted for the food industry. The basic directions of use of grain and vegetative biomass of amaranth as promising food crop in the technologies of various food products, including bakery, confectionery and pasta are presented.

Keywords: amaranth, non-traditional vegetable raw materials, by-products of grain amaranth, enrichment of foodstuff.
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