Review of innovations in technology and technique smoking of food products is given. It was noted that today the smoke is processed not only traditional but also new raw materials – eggs, vegetable raw materials, drinks, sauce, bakery products, variety of seafood, extrusion products and even desserts. The new schemes of preparation of semi-finished products have appeared, the list used food additives has been expanded. Instrumentally improved methods of smoke generation by smoldering wood (exothermic smoke) and friction (frictional or endothermic smoke). To obtain smoke with specified properties, infrared radiation, pyrolysis of wood in vacuum, carbon dioxide medium, inert gas, under pressure is used. Modern smoke generators are compact, standalone or embedded in smoking plants. They have devices for controlling the pyrolysis temperature, the amount of oxygen and air in the combustion zone. The proposed smoking facilities are diverse in performance and performance, universal thermal cameras with programmatically controlled modes and schemes for supplying smoke and air mixtures, temperature in the chamber and the product prevail. New smokeless smoking environments are developed. Priority is purified of carcinogenic substances, aqueous solutions and condensates of smoking components, oil flavorants, smoke powders, emulsions, CO2-extracts. The main way to use smoking media is to atomize them with special sprayers. Smoking media are added when the product is salted, used in the composition with bipolymers and various food additives. Significantly improved electro smoking installations. Developed modern devices for smoking at home, offers packages for smoking from heat resistant materials. Monitoring the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in smokehouse and smoked products indicates an increased level of their safety.Keywords: smoking, smokeless smoking, electric smoking, smoke generators, pyrolysis, smoking equipment, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
Table of contents for # 2-3 (356-357), 2017
Prospects for the use of secondary products of processing of plant origin in the creation of protein-carbohydrate enricher
Presents an overview of studies on the development of foods with the increased biological value. Prospects of the introduction in the formulation of bakery and flour confectionery products of plant origin with a high content of proteins, essential amino acids, rich dietary fibers, vitamins and minerals are grounded. Presents a number of technological developments with the use of lentil flour, torments from seeds Masha, protein preparations, that produced from seeds of chickpea, kernel of an apricot stone and peas, powders from seeds of sainfoin and lupine, filling, which is consist pureed boiled beans black Preto (Vigna mungo), Azuki (Vigna angularis) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum) in the production of confectionery preventive and functional purpose.Keywords: secondary products of processing of plant origin, protein-carbohydrate enricher, products of preventive and functional purpose.
Analysis of structure and properties of modern stabilizing systems for ice cream, frozen desserts and food ice on russian market
Qualitative and quantitative composition and properties of stabilizing systems for ice cream, desserts and edible ice largest on the Russian market of manufacturers: “Danisco” (Danisco, Denmark), brand Kramden (Cremodan), “Tetra Pak” (Tetra Pak, France), brand, Luxis™ (Luxice™), “Palsgaard” (Palsgaard, Denmark) with the same brand, “Soyuzsnab” (Russia), the brand Denis considered. It is noted, that in the Russian market of ice-cream both integrated and non-integrated (mixed, automatic) stabilization systems are represented. Integrated systems have significant technological advantages compared to non-integrated, because they have a higher solubility in the mixture of ice cream and do not require additional technological methods for dissolution, that enables continuous production of the mixture. The average dosage of stabilization of the mixture is from 0,3 to 0,55% by weight of the product depending on the mass fraction of solids and fat in the ice mixture. Structure-forming agents: Е412 guar gum, gum carob Е410, Tara gum Е417, carrageenan Е407, sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose Е466 as a stabilization component stabilization systems most often use. As an emulsifying component in all of the stabilization systems use E471 – mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids both independently and in combination with Polysorbate 80 Е433. It is established that the stabilization design of integrated systems based on natural raw materials – fiber, lecithins necessary, which will reduce the cost of stabilization systems and products emulsion-structured nature.Keywords: ice cream, stabilization systems, emulsifiers, structure-forming agents, structure and texture of the product.
Chemistry of Food Products & Materials
Investigation of flax seed oil composition and its properties with given fatty acid composition as an ingredien of cosmetic products
Flax seed oil with given ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids ?-6 and ?-3 that has been pressed from the blend of varieties of flax seeds which have low (variety “Syurpriz”) and high (variety “VNIIMK 630”) content of linolenic acid is proposed for using as an ingredient in cosmetics. The high quality of flax seed oil in terms of acid number and peroxide value provides the increase of safe shelf life final products which are produced on their base and it can enhance the capacity to use flax seed oil as an ingredient of cosmetic products. Found that sample of oil from mixture of seeds has a high content of unsaturated fatty acids. Of unsaturated fatty acids dominated by linoleic acid (54,70%), oleic (17,90%) and linolenic (16,10%); marginal – palmitic (6,20%), the ratio of physiologically active acids ?-6 and ?-3 in the sample of oil meets in the recommended for cosmetics range – 3,4 : 1. Sensory characteristics of flax seed oil sample with the given fatty acid composition have been investigated which form consumer properties of final cosmetic products. Oil is characterized by low surface tension and low viscosity, and medium level of pourability. The introduction of flax seed oil with the given fatty acid composition into the formulation of cosmetic emulsions enables to produce products which have biological activity and high sensory properties after putting these products on skin: there is no greasy feeling, no tacky feeling, it is easy to put, to spread it on skin and it has high absorption capacity.Keywords: flax seed oil, fatty acids composition, cosmetic ingredient, pourability, viscosity, surface tension, sensor evaluation.
Influence of the yeast-saccharomyces isolated from the spontaneous microflora of grapes on the chemical composition of red table wine
The possibility of using natural populations of yeasts-saccharomyces, isolated from the spontaneous microflora of grape berries in red table wines is proven. The object of the study was the yeast Saccharomyces isolated from the spontaneous microflora of grapes of Cabernet-Sauvignon. Samples of grapes were selected in vineyards of Krasnodar region: ZAO (JSC) “Myskhako” (Novorossiysk), OAO “Lefkadia” (Krymskiy r-n), SPK im. V.I. Lenin (village Vinogradny, Anapskiy r-n), OOO AF “Yuzhnaya” (village Taman, Temryukskiy r-n). It is established that the yeasts-saccharomycetes of spontaneous microflora were distinguished insignificantly by the cultural-morphological signs. The oval or elliptical cells 3–5 ? 6–8 um are identified predominantly (to 95%) in the biomass of yeasts. The pointed rounded cells are identified in some populations. The chemical composition of red table winemakings material, obtained by the fermentation of grape must by the saccharomycetes of spontaneous microflora, is investigated in the comparison with the clean cultures of the wine yeast – domestic (race Claret) and imported (race Joos Terruar, France). Identity of the qualitative composition of organic and phenolcarboxylic acids, component mix of phenol compounds in winemaking material, obtained with the use of both the experimental biomasses of local yeasts, and the known clean cultures of yeasts was shown. It is established that in the value of antioxidant activity some versions of wines, prepared with the aid of the local saccharomycetes, exceed control models.Keywords: yeasts-saccharomyces, spontaneous microflora, winemakings material, terruar, fermentation, phenol connections, antioxidant activity.
The studies results of the effect of viscosity of the wine on the crystal formation the processing with bitartrate potassium to stabilize against formation of crystal in white and red grape table wines, having different viscosity are present. In the experiments used the method of capillary electrophoresis with the use of the device “Kapel 105R”. The viscosity was determined at different temperatures with a viscometer Ostwald. Potassium bitartrate of Russian production at a dosage of 3 g/dm3 with the degree of dispersion of 1,0–1,2 mm were added to the cooled to –5°C the wine. It is found the process of crystal formation was completed in the white table wine materials after 6–7 days of reaction, in a semi-sweet white table wine for 10 days, and red wines – two weeks, which correlates with the viscosity of wines. The concentration of potassium cations and calcium, as well as the stability of wines to the crystalline turbidity on the 3rd, 7th and 14th day was determined. In samples of red table dry wines and both semi-sweet wines has a tendency to crystalline turbidity, dry table white wine was stable. It is found that viscosity effect of wine on the effectiveness of the bitartrate of potassium in the processing of wines with the purpose of prevention and elimination of crystalline turbidity is significant.Keywords: turbidity of grape wines, viscosity of the wine, bitartrate potassium, crystal formation, calcium cations, potassium cations, stability of wine.
The possibility of using boiled cucumaria (Сucumaria japonica) as an additive in the manufacture of cooked sausage with high biological value is considered. It is established that welded to readiness for 2,5 h milled cucumaria contains large amounts of protein – 20,3%, minerals – 3,2% and a biologically active glycosides – 1951,6 µg/g. Organoleptic quality of cooked sausages was studied and positively affected by supplementation with cucumaria in an amount of from 5 to 15% of the meat raw material is installed. It is shown that the addition of cucumaria significantly affects the content of the components of amino acid composition of the products: the number of amino acids increases markedly, especially glycine, aspartic and glutamic acids, and рroline, which amount to control is 404,70 mg/g protein, for experimental samples with 5, 10 and 15% additives cucumaria – 443,20; 503,10; 498,0 mg/g protein, respectively. This shows that, firstly, product is contains the significant number of collagen fibers, and secondly, experimental models are a source of amino acids that have a positive impact on the human body. It is shown that this nutritional value of the obtained product is somewhat reduced, but the content of physiologically important components in it increases. Research on the biological values showed that the addition of cucumaria contributes to the intensification of growth Тetrathymena pyriformis by 10–20%. The use of cucumaria in the manufacturing of meat products contributes to the increase in the content of physiologically important dietary fibers in finished products.Keywords: boiled sausage, cucumaria, collagen, dietary fiber, biological value.
Substantiation for use of natural biopolymer of chitosan in technology of foodstuff from aquatic bioresources
The results of a research of potential of use of a natural biopolimer of chitosan in the technology of foodstuff from aquatic resources are presented. The subjects of the study were chitosan of different molecular weight (30–600 kDa), as well as frozen fish (sockeye salmon, halibut, herring and sturgeon). The organoleptic, chemical, microbiological and medical-biological methods of investigation were used in the work. The new terms reflecting features of barrier properties of chitosan in the food environment are described. The relative proportion of each barrier in the total antimicrobial effect in the technology of chitosan-containing products was determined by calculation. The antioxidant effect of chitosan has been confirmed. A direct correlation between the level of malonic dialdehyde and the intensity of the smell of oxidized fat, perceived organoleptically, was found. The chitosan has exhibited antimicrobial action and antioxidant activities in the range of polymer concentrations allowed in food technology. The studies have shown that chitosan possesses expressed medicobiological, namely lipotropic effect, level of which in various degree is influenced by concentration of polymer, a type of the nutritional supplements which are at the same time with him in the food environment and preliminary processing of polymer in the environment of liquid nitrogen. Impact on parameters of process of a salting, maturing and the storage of fish has affected as a result quality of a product the organoleptic properties and size of biological value that is important for development the new range of the products containing chitosan.Keywords: materials from chitin, chitosan, aquatic biological resources, storage, barrier connection, food safety, product quality.
Technological properties of ice for cooling of seafood obtained on the basis of polyelectrolyte complexes of chitosan
The possibility of using in technology of cooling products from aquatic biological resources of ice with modified properties was considered. The marine origin polysaccharides – chitosan and sodium alginate were used as modifying additives. Water-soluble chitosan molecular weight of 55 kDa with a concentration of 1,5; 3 and 4,5% was used to obtain ice samples. A solution of polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) chitosan with sodium alginate was obtained when the ratio of the copolymers is 1 : 1. The PEC solution was a homogeneous mass of light-beige color, without taste and smell of chitosan, characterized by a short period of freezing and long thawing period than other samples of chitosan solutions. Study of organoleptic and physical properties of ice: microstructure, temperature and duration of crystal formation and melting are carried out. Samples of fish (herring) with identical size-mass characteristics, having initial temperature of 15°C were used as the cooling object. Cooling was carried out at an ambient temperature of 5°C using ice-based drinking water and ice derived from PEC, in the amount of 75% by weight of fish. A sample of the fish has reached the temperature of 0°C by cooling with ice water based for 9 h, and ice-based PEC for 5 h. The ice on the basis of PEC chitosan+sodium alginate is allowed to maintain the current temperature level is 4 times longer than ice, water-based, and cooling object kept high level of organoleptic properties. These data confirm the advantage of the modified ice obtained on the basis of polyelectrolyte complex of chitosan with sodium alginate when cooling fish compared to ice and water based.Keywords: ice, cooling, chitosan, sodium alginate, polyelectrolyte complex, aquatic biological resources.
The studies results of change of active acidity of camel milk during 24 h spontaneous fermentation at a temperature of 30 °C , that optimum for cultivation of the microorganisms inherent in a traditional Kazakh product – to shubat, are presented. The diversity of the microflora of the product that obtained in the result of mixed fermentation, in particular the presence in the composition of lactic acid bacteria, mainly lactic acid rods, yeast in a large number of that may be due to the native microflora of milk-raw material has been defined. During storage of the finished product at 4-6°C for 21 days an intense increase of titratable acidity and significant development of lactic acid bacteria has been determined.Keywords: camel milk, shubat, active acidity, lactic fermentation, alcoholic fermentation, the number of lactic acid bacteria.
Formulation and technology of fermented milk product enriched with potato fibers Fiber Bind 300 are developed. Mode of preliminary preparation of the fiber determined. Yogurt with grain fillers was selected as the product for enrichment. The optimum mass fraction potato dietary fibers – 2% by weight of the product determined by the results of measurement of active and titratable acidity, relative viscosity, water-holding capacity, and organoleptic evaluation of the samples. The selection of fillers – sugar syrup in the amount of 10% and grain additive “Talkan” (OOO “Shifa”) in the amount of 2% by weight of the product and the method of their inclusion in the product are defined. Yogurt enriched potato fibers, with addition of grain filler and sugar syrup produced as a result of research. Consumption of the developed product will reduce the deficit of dietary fibers in the diets of different population groups.Keywords: dietary fibers, potato fiber, fermented milk products, grain additive, functional product, enrichment of product.
Influence of drying conditions of sunflower seeds of different ripeness level on the extraction of phospholipids and their hydrotability
The influence of the preparation technology of sunflower seeds of different ripeness level to oil extraction on the content and hydrotability of phospholipids in the oils has been researched. It is established that these indicators are strongly influenced by the drying conditions of the seeds. All oils extracted in mild conditions – diethyl ether, as well as pressed and extracted oils, obtained by the technology adopted in the oil industry, the content of phospholipids increases when using high temperature agent. From unripe seed, dried hot air is extracted by 25–30% more phospholipids than dried at room temperature, and 1,5–2,0 times greater than from seeds ripened and attained optimum moisture at the root. The phospholipids of the oils extracted under mild conditions from unripe seeds, dried at all investigated modes are characterized by a high degree of hydrotability. Hydrotability phospholipids pressed and extracted oils obtained from seeds of different ripeness level in conditions close to production, depend essentially on the drying conditions. Drying of seeds physiological and harvesting ripeness level the hot air from their heating to 70–75°C causes an increase in the content of phospholipids in the pressed and extracted oils while maintaining a high degree of hydrotability. The content of phospholipids in hydrated oils does not exceed 0,04%. Phospholipids in the pressed and extracted oil extracted from unripe seeds, dried at room temperature and ripened at the root, are characterized by a low degree of hydrotability. The residual content of phospholipids in the oils after hydration is 0,27–0,34%. Presence in the production of a mixture of immature sunflower seeds, past drying with hot air, has no negative impact on hydrotability phospholipids.Keywords: sunflower seeds, ripeness level of seeds, the drying conditions, moisture content of raw materials, phospholipids, oils, hydrotability phospholipids.
The possibility of using an aqueous solution of lactic acid as a leaching agent when washing neutralized oils to obtain products of high quality and exclude defects taking place in traditional methods of flushing oils – increase of the acid number of the oil and the large consumption of soft water was investigated. The object of the study was 3 samples oils, refined on previously developed technology with the use of sodium hydroxide on the activated electromagnetic field of the UV radiation spectrum water with concentration of 40 g/l with an excess of 5%. The obtained samples of refined oils had an acid number of from 0,26 to 0,14 mg KOH/g and mass fraction of soap from 0,07 to 0,30%. The optimal molar ratio of soap : lactic acid of 4 : 1, in which the most fully remove the remains of soaps and phospholipids from the oil, reduced content of unsaponifiable substances in it, including waxes, while the absence of significant growth in the acid and peroxide values of the oil chosen. The number of lactic acid solution, ensuring complete removal of residual soap from the neutralized oil – 6% by weight oil installed. The effectiveness of the proposed technology is confirmed by the indicators of the quality of the examined samples in comparison with similar indicators of samples of oils, subjected to a washing with water. Developed technology helps reduce the consumption of leaching reagent because of single treatment of oil.Keywords: the neutralized vegetable oil, soap, washing reagent, lactic acid, molar ratio.
Chickpea flour is a promising component for the development of confectionery products with increased food and biological value. The compounding of a cracker is developed from composite mix of wheat flour of the premium and flour coarse grinding chick-pea grain of grade Krasnokutsky 28. The recommended value of mass fraction of chick-pea flour in the composite flour, does not reduce the organoleptic characteristics of the final product is 10%. The rheological properties and water absorbtion of dough from composite flour using a Mixolab have been determined. It was revealed that with increase in amount of chickpeas flour in composite mix time of formation of dough is reduced and the speed of its fluidifying increases. Analysis of mixsolab-graph allowed to determine the rational ratio of the components (flour derived from wheat and chickpea) flour in the composite mixture: 90:10 and 85:15, provide the necessary rheological properties of the dough for the production of crackers. Entering of chickpeas flour in a compounding of a cracker promotes increase in protein content and mineral elements in a ready-made product. In cracker samples with chickpeas flour the mass fraction of moisture and soakage increases, than in a sample control. Chickpeas flour retains moisture and helps extend the shelf life of cookies. Values of moisture content and soakage for samples of cookies from composite flour, exceed the analogous values for the control sample during the whole period of observation.Keywords: cracker; wheat flour, сhickpeas flour; mixolab-graph; nutritional value; dough; rheological properties; water absorbing capacity, swelling in water.
Formulation shortcake – of functional product with wheaten fibers Camecel FW 200 is developed for the prophylaxis of obesity. It includes wheaten flour, wheaten bran, flavouring agent is a mixture of sugar and Kola nuts, the fatty component is a mixture of margarine and edible fibers Camecel FW 200 in the ratio of 6 : 1, soda, salt. This recipe shortcake significantly reduces time for preparation of flour confectionery. The qualitative analysis of the developed product shows that it has a pleasant original scent, mass fraction of fat in terms of dry substance of 19,5%, the energy value of 380 kcal (in a control sample of 24,3 and 448 respectively), in contrast to the control sample contains 3,5 times more functional ingredients – dietary fiber (7,6 g/100 g product), which makes the new developed product – shortbread is not only delicious confection, but also optimal preventive nutritional form low iron castle.Keywords: obesity, prevention, dietary fiber, Chamarel, shortcake, functional product, the energy value of the product.
Developed technology of enriched candy with the introduction of bifidobacteria (bifidobacterium adolescentis) and lactobacilli (lactobacillus plantarum and lactobacillus acidophilus) in the number of CFU/ 100 g, not less than 5 ? 109 and 5 ? 108 respectively, with the application of biotechnology of microencapsulation, in which bacteria are the thin microcapsule coated with a protective shell of biopolymer materials, providing stability in the acidic environment of the stomach and other effects. The core of the microcapsules is a frame made of natural fibers, which are the breeding ground for bacteria, which allows to preserve the properties of microorganisms for a long period, including during transportation to the place of their active life. Technological parameters of production – slight humidity and the absence of active aeration, ensures high safety of the active principles biologically active components of the formulation (stability of ascorbic acid – 100%) and high consumer properties of products. The recommended number of specialty confectionery products provides a guaranteed intake of vitamin C and beneficial microflora in the amount of 30-50% of the recommended daily requirement that is positioning products as functional. The developed technology was tested at the enterprises of the company “YUG” (Biysk), certified under requirements of international standards ISO 9001, 2200, and GMP regulations, technical documentation for mass production was approved.Keywords: probiotic candy, bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, biotechnology of microencapsulation, products of functional purpose.
Development of composition and technology of the lactic frozen dessert for diabetic diet with using sesame flour
The results of a research of on definition of a dose of introduction of a stevioside and syrup of a topinambur, flour of sesame and type of the stabilizer to the compounding of milk ice cream calculated theoretically on dry matter according to GOST 31457-2012 for creation a dessert of a functional orientation with the low content of fat, without sugar are presented. It is found that the dose of introduction of a stevioside and syrup of a topinambur in number of 0,03 and 5% to the mass of mix of the frozen dessert respectively allows to receive a product with pleasant taste and a smell, and use of the stabilizer PGX-1 (Germany) with a dose of introduction of 0,4% to the mass of mix ? with the best indicators of the ice-cream overrun, the resilience to thawing, density and uniformity of a consistence. The dose of introduction of sesame flour varies from 1,5 to 2% to the mass of mix was determined. It is introduced directly after process of homogenization in the normalized mix before maturing, previously brewing water in the ratio 1: 10 within 15–20 min to humidity (80 ± 1) %. It is found that the expiration date of the frozen dessert without sugar with use of sesame flour makes 6 months at a temperature of –18 °C.Keywords: frozen dessert, stevioside, syrup of a topinambur, stabilizer, flour of sesame, products of preventive and functional purpose.
Researches of processes of transformation of aromatic components of oak clapboard in the period of natural drying-maturity in comparison with artificial
The concentration of aromatic whisky lactones isomers of ?
methyl?-octadecene, eugenol, vanillin, lilac aldehyde and phenolic compounds in samples of wood oak clapboard of English oak and the Georgian age from 66 to 225 years selected 12 forest regions of Azerbaijan are defined. It is established that in the process of natural drying riveting for 3 years in wood, naturally dried, concentrations of whisky lactones was 6.4 µg/g (80,61% of its natural reserves), eugenol – of 1.64 µg/g (75,89%), vanillin – of 2,99 µg/g (84,74%), lilac aldehyde is of 7,34 µg/g (78,92%), mass concentration of phenolic substances decreased from 61,1 mg/g to 35,4 mg/g. Studies to determine the effective method of preparation of oak clapboard to manufacture barrels and use them when laying in large tanks were conducted. Two ways of maturity oak clapboard in closed and open stacks have been compared. It is established that the transformation and accumulation of aromatic components and modify properties of wood during drying oak clapboard in open piles occurs more intensively than in stacks under a canopy. Comparison of qualitative indices of oak wood after natural drying oak clapboard in open stacks and artificial drying in a chamber dryer is a convective-type mode of medium intensity was performed. Found that if natural drying-maturation of oak clapboard, the mass concentration of whisky lactones increased 4,2 times, vanillin – 4,8 times, lilac aldehyde – 3,9 times, eugenol 2,2 times more than during artificial drying chamber. Concentration of phenolic substances (tannins) and dry extract for natural air-drying is reduced to 1,53 and 1,32 times, respectively in comparison with artificial drying. It is established that in the natural drying of oak clapboard to extract from them the astringency and bitterness of the oak is less pronounced compared to the extracts from the rivets, dried artificially. Full superiority of the natural drying-maturation of oak clapboards before artificial is shown.
Processes & Apparatus
Moisture removal kinetics and determination of the drying process duration of high-moisture disperse materials
The kinetic features of drying of apple pomace with superheated low-pressure steam in a vibro-boiling layer presents. The influence of the basic regime process parameters tп = 100–140°С; pп = 30–100 kPa, vп = 1–3 m/s; qуд = 2,5–20 kg/m2 on the intensity is studied. Analysis of experimental data for different initial moisture content of apple pomace was allowed to determine the critical values of humidity and relative coefficients of drying: when Wн = 60% Wкр1 = 20%, Wкр2 = 15%, ?1 = 0,023, ?2 = 0,022; when Wн = 50% Wкр1 = 15%, Wкр2 = 12%, ?1 = 0,033, ?2 = 0,032. The calculation of the duration of the drying process of apple pomace with superheated low-pressure steam is suggested by the method of experimental data generalization. The advantage of the considered method of determining the total time of drying is that the results of the experiment in a certain mode it is possible to calculate the duration of the process and for the other modes.Keywords: drying, high-moisture disperse materials, apple pomace, superheated low-pressure steam, moisture, parameters of modes, kinetics.
The approaches to the modeling of thermophysical frying processes in frying oil with the purpose of stable increase of the product quality indicators are considered. The influence of moisture and its forms on the formation of crust during frying is shown. It is concluded that for the management of food quality, a mathematical model of the process is required on the basis of a theory developed for simple media with memory.Keywords: frying in deep fat, frying fat, the stabilization of the quality indicators of the technological process, heat treatment, heat transfer, mass transfer.
The process of making the dough for butter biscuits is investigated. The kneading was performed in four phases in the mixers that have two kneading body with adjustable speed of rotation of the blades. 10 kneadings were conducted, each of which is regulated by the frequency of rotation of the blades of the mixers. Indicators – duration of kneading in each phase, temperature and humidity dough were determined in each batch. Models of the dependence of the duration of kneading and churning in the phases of making the dough were obtained as a result of mathematical processing of the obtained results in the program Stаtisticа. Three-dimensional diagrams of dough in each phase representing a set of points on which you can graphically determine the optimal parameters of the kneading batch were built. The rotation speed of kneading body can vary from 70 to 150 rpm, the temperature of the semifinished product at each phase – from 20 to 22,3°C, the optimum moisture test for butter biscuits should be in the range of 13 to 15%.Keywords: butter biscuits, dough, kneading modes, humidity of the dough, temperature of the kneading.
Food Engineering, Proesses, Equipment & Automation of Food Production
Schemes of designed axial and centrifugal pumps for food liquids are given. In the developed pumps the stator winding of the electric motor is protected against harmful mechanical and chemical effects of the fluid, the clearance between the stator and rotor of engine-pump is reduced by increasing stiffness of device. The mass-dimensional indicators of pump is improved, the cost is reduced, constructional features are simplified, the reliability of device overall is increased. Energy losses are reduced and efficiency is increased by reducing the heating of the fluid.Keywords: axial centrifugal motor-pump, pumped food liquids, stator, rotor, size indicators, magnetic core, loss of energy, efficiency.
The scheme of the advanced installer for bottling sparkling beverages in containers of irregular shapes and sizes has been proposed, basic constructive elements have been pointed out, and the operation principle has been given. On the basis of experimental data an optimal number of pressure relief cycles – 10–12, meeting technological parameters of bottling process has been suggested. The application of the given bottling line for different bottles has been substantiated. The features – minimum internal volume, obtained by eliminating from the filling tank, and a microprocessor control that allows you to quickly change the settings of the filling process, and advantages of advanced bottling line over other high performance machines on the market have been shown.Keywords: sparkling wines, champagne, bottling line, non-standard containers, pressure relief cycle.
Tobacco bails are processed at direct conditioning line to break the bails down to the leaf, destroy tobacco moth and tobacco beetle and to increase leaf moisture. This increases tobacco elasticity and durability for further processing. In direct conditioning cylinder dry tobacco is moisturized with steam, which is supplied via cylinders nozzles, then heat to required temperature by circulating hot air and steam. Finally at DCC exit even tobacco flow is created. Tobacco temperature and moisture are the main parameters of conditioning process. Heavy Particles Sorter (HPS) is constructed to remove all heavy non-tobacco materials and big tobacco pieces. String removers are designated to remove from tobacco strings twine and down. In casing area and Total Blend Silos (TBS) casing is applied to tobacco to increase plasticity and rigidity of tobacco, increase hygroscopic qualities of tobacco and correct taste of tobacco according to blend requirements. After that all tobaccos that are part of the blend are mixed in silos for even application of casings and moisture across whole batch.Keywords: tobacco conditioning, casing, Heavy Particles Sorter, String Removers, hygroscopic qualities of tobacco, correction of taste qualities, quality control.
The conditions for work of the equipment, wear of its working bodies and parts at the enterprises of baking production “Neon”, Gabala canning factory and brewery Ganja were investigated. The tests were conducted in the laboratory of food industry “Neon”. Working parts and items of equipment of bakery production, operating in corrosion-active media, namely the dough-rounding machine, and knifes-notching of device were the object of research. The existing methods of lubrication equipment are analyzed. To reduce friction losses, reduce the wear of the friction surfaces in the gears and bearings and also to improve the reliability and durability of the equipment offered: use the map lubrication of machines, designed according to a special form, in which listed the names of places the lubrication points, the symbols of the lubrication, the number of similar places and methods of lubrication, variety and rate of flow of lubricant, frequency of lubrication; when choosing oils to be guided by the following rules: the required viscosity is determined by the working oil temperature; if high peripheral speeds of the shafts is more than 3 m/s and low specific pressure in the bearing up to 0,4 MPa should be used less viscous oil; this is especially important for start-up from cold machines operating at low ambient temperatures; range of oils for one machine and for groups of jointly operated machines should be the least possible, so the oil should be selected with regard to the possibility of using it for lubrication of bearings and other friction pairs of machines; centralized lubrication this condition is necessary. It is determined that the lubrication of the friction surfaces of gears and bearings and also used as lubricant oils brand US-2 significantly increase the service life of equipment for food industry.Keywords: lubricants, gears, bearings, viscosity, wear.
Methods of Investigation, Quality & Safety of Food Products
The combination of the composition and properties of recipe components dough can act as a second subsystem in the overall structure of primary topological diagram of the kneading process. By changing the number of components and their ratio can get the dough and the finished product with predetermined properties. Assessment of the quality of mixing requires new methods of analysis. The requirements to the test sample of dough of different composition can be formulated based on the analysis of aggregate composition and properties of components in the dough.Keywords: flour, yeast, salt, water, sugar, fat, recipe ingredients, kneading dough, shear deformation.
The density of the far Eastern cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) before freezing was determined. It is 1030,2 kg/m3. The regularity of changes of density of the sea cucumber when its is frozen was installed. When the temperature drops from cryoscopic up to –70°C and water passes into the crystalline state, the decrease of the density of sea cucumber happens by 10%. Mathematical relationship that describes the relationship of the density of the sea cucumber, the number of frozen water and freezing temperature, are derived. Bulk density of dry concentrate of sea cucumber was identified. Its value is in the range from 66,7–144,4 kg/m3 depending on the particle size of the concentrate. By prepressing bulk density of dry concentrate sea cucumber increases in 1,8–2,5 times depending on the particle size of the concentrate.Keywords: sea cucumber, cryotreatment, dry concentrate, cryoscopic temperature, chilled water, density, bulk density, prepressing.
Substantiates in the study of assortment of mayonnaise sauce as a promising emulsion of oil and fat products, are widely demanded in the global market due to low caloric value, significant storage periods, a high degree of absorption and the possibility of enrichment of various biologically active substances: proteins, essential amino acids, dietary fiber, vitamin-mineral complexes and others that significantly increases the physiological value of the finished products. It depicts the main trends of improvement of the assortment of the given kind of oil and fat emulsion products, as well as technological peculiarities of obtaining and maintaining stable uniform consistency throughout shelf life. The objects of the study were prototypes of mayonnaise sauce, realized to the population in supermarkets of Vladivostok. In the study was used the observation method on based the collection of information. Was studied the structure of the range of mayonnaise sauces depending on the brand of the manufacturer, the mass fraction of fat, the ingredients, type and weight of packaging as well as pricing policy of the supermarkets.Keywords: emulsion, mayonnaise sauce, low-calorie product, marketing research, the structure of the assortment, market, brand, biologically active substances, functional properties.
Evaluation of the effectiveness of stabilization systems brand, Luxis™ 3670, 6700, 8635, 8701 (“Tetra-Pak”, France), their impact on the quality of ice cream according to the following criteria: the overrun, viscosity before and after aging, resistance to melting, resistance during the storage is given. Indicators of effective viscosity of all samples of the mixture are within the optimum viscosity for ice cream production of 200–300 MPa ? с. Marked high temperature resistance of all the samples of ice cream using different stabilization systems brand Luxis™. Mass fraction of melted ice cream in all samples after 60 min does not exceed 10%. A high level of dispersion of the samples of ice cream prepared with the use of stabilization systems brand Luxis™ revealed. The proportion of air bubbles smaller than 50 microns after hardening of the product ranged from 77 to 88%, which guarantees ice cream with a creamy texture. The results show that the best quality of ice cream is provided when using the system, Luxis™ 8701. The least resistance to melting and resistance during storage the sample has a stabilization system, Luxis™ 3670, which is designed for filling ice cream (Cup, container, package).Keywords: stabilization system, ice-cream, structure of the product, overrun, effective viscosity, air phase dispersion, thermostability.
Industrial ecology & Biotechnology of Food Systems
Calculation of the class of the hazard of the pressed yeast and dense adhesive sediments obtained as the result of the technological processing of wine materials
The hazard class of the waste of winemaking – pressed yeast and glutinous dense precipitation formed during the fermentation of the wort and technological treatment of wine materials and wines are defined. Waste of CJSC “Abrau-Durso” was the object of the study. The hazard class of waste for the environment was determined using the calculation method based on the quantitative chemical analysis according to the indicator K, characterizing the degree of danger of waste when it affects the environment, calculated by the sum of the hazard indicators of the substances that make up the waste. The total value of K for each of the studied waste is less than 10, so the hazard class of each waste V – practically non-hazardous. The calculation of the coefficients of the degree of danger components for the environment: calcium oxide and manganese oxide (in terms of manganese (IV) oxide). Squeezed yeast sediments of wine production have the composition, %: water – 93,1; mineral constituents – 1,704; calcium oxide – 0,076; manganese oxide – 0,09; organic constituents – 5,1. Dense glutinous deposits from the filtration of wine materials have the composition, %: water – 76,8; mineral constituents – 17,82, including: calcium oxide – 0,29, manganese oxide – 0,09; organic constituents – 5,0. The degree of environmental impact is very low.Keywords: yeast precipitation, dense glue precipitation, waste of winemaking, hazard class of waste.
The definition of the law of distribution of density of probabilities of specific electrical energy consumption during the disinfection of wastewater of agroindustrial complex
The method of waste water disinfection, agriculture, and in particular the food industry, the essence of which lies in the complex physical and chemical effects of alternating electromagnetic fields in combination with chemical reagent. The inductor device for implementing. Specific electrical energy consumption is selected as the most important parameter characterizing the quality of the technological process of waste water disinfection. Determined the law of distribution of density probability of this parameter as normal, which allows to increase the efficiency of further studies to use the mathematical theory of experiment planning.Keywords: disinfection of wastewater of agroindustrial complex, inductor, specific electrical energy consumption, normal law of distribution of density of probabilities.
Economics of Food Industry
Improving the efficiency of state regulation of economic systems by allocating priorities for the structural development of the industrial complex
The need for a methodological approach, institutional frameworks and economic methods that allow to solve the problem of increment of efficiency of the state stimulation of industrial complex at the regional level is substantiated. The interrelation between regional sectoral structural policies with the strategy of socio-economic development of the region is shown. It is noted that the successful development of regional socio-economic system is due to effective policy of structural development of industrial complex based on improving regional labor productivity. The sequence of defining a set of priority sectors for the region in the framework of the structural adjustment programmes of industrial development, the regional systems is proposed.Keywords: industrial complex, structural development, state regulation, preferences, intensive and extensive development, investment climate, labor productivity.