The article is devoted to solution of actual task – the search of new types of stabilizers and emulsifiers for ice cream production without a code E. On the basis of analyzed materials the table of property characteristics of hydrocolloids – stabilizers applied in production of ice cream and frozen desserts is composed. It is noted that the majority of domestic and foreign manufacturers of ice cream tends to be used for stabilization of systems with natural stabilizers and emulsifiers of plant and animal origin – food fibers, pectins, native starches, milk protein. The introduction to the recipe of ice cream dietary fiber increases the viscosity of the mixture, stabilizing its structure, increasing the overrun of the finished product, enrichment of ice cream dietary fiber and increase its biological value.Keywords: ice cream, hydrocolloids, stabiliser systems, food fiber, native starch, milk proteins, functional ingredients.
Table of contents for # 4 (358), 2017
The information on the number and production capacity of enterprises of the oil-extracting industry of the Russian Federation is given. The analysis of data on the gross collection of sunflower seeds for 2014–2016 was carried out. It is shown that waste of cleaning seed sunflower (WCSS) is the most common type of waste of oil-extracting industry. The amount of WCSS of the oil-extracting industry of the RF for 2014–2016 and their costs for disposal of waste have been calculated. The component and chemical compositions WCSS of to determine their potential value as raw materials to produce feed products were considered It is shown that the processing of waste products of fat and oil production will significantly improve the ecological situation, expand the forage base of livestock, raise the profitability of enterprises.Keywords: waste of cleaning seed sunflower, secondary raw materials, disposal of waste, recycling of waste.
Food Raw Materials & Ingredients
The structural features of the fruits of hazelnuts of different varieties of Adygei, Chocolate, Buttner, Louise Lombard red, Royal were studied. On based the ratio of the linear dimensions of length and width of the fruit classification fruits of considered varieties of hazelnuts was held. The studied varieties were divided into 3 groups: round, pointed and long. The highest content quality of cores was observed among the varieties with round shape of fruit– varieties Buttner and Louise. The maximum theoretical yield of the kernel was at varieties of the long shape of the fruit – grade Royal, minimal – at varieties of round shape. It is found that when selecting hazelnut varieties it is necessary to consider that the thinner shell of nuts of varieties with a pointed and long forms of the fruit by traditional methods of processing will inevitably lead to mechanical destruction of the kernel and loss of raw materials, so from a technological point of view it is advisable to process the hazelnuts with round shape of fruit.Keywords: fruits hazelnut, hazelnut kernel, hazelnut varieties, morphological characteristics of fruits of hazelnut.
Antioxidant activity (AOA) and chemical composition of honeysuckle berries of different varieties and elites, grown in the Institute of horticulture and drug plants “Zhigulevskie sady” in 2016, defined. Grade “Tornado” among the studied samples has the highest indicators of AOA by the method of FRAP – 12,24 mol Fe2+/1 kg of the feedstock and the system of linoleic acid was 19,5% and the content of phenols and flavonoids – 448 mg of gallic acid/100 g of the feedstock and 151 mg of catechin/100 g of the feedstock respectively. The highest content of soluble solids and reducing sugars has elite 7-2-2 – 8 and 6,45% respectively. It is established that all investigated varieties of the Samara region introduced species of honeysuckle edible is characterized by a moderate content of organic acids and sugars are quite high AOA and nutritional value and can compete with raw materials traditionally grown in the region.Keywords: honeysuckle variety, antioxidant activity, chemical composition, nutritional value.
Chemistry of Food Products & Materials
Chemical composition of germinated beans brown lentils is investigated. Their biotechnological potential in relation to production of meat products is estimated. A significant increase of methionine, lysine and tryptophan in germinated grains is marked. It is established that in the process of germination the total number of carbohydrates, including oligosaccharides and polysaccharides that cause intestinal flatulence, is reduced, and the contents of glucose and vitamins B1, B2, PP are increasing. Significant – up to 60% differences in the qualitative composition of flavors germination and native grains are revealed. Significant – up to 60% differences in the qualitative composition of flavors of the sprouted grains and the non-germinated grains are revealed. It is of practical importance in determining the volume of vegetative raw for the composition of meat products. It is shown that the biological value of sprouted lentils exceeds the biological value of various types of meat, and the replacement of 40-50% of raw meat, sprouted lentils improves functional and technological properties of the product and reduces the cost of its production. Thus, the addition of sprouted grains of lentils not impair the organoleptic characteristics of finished meat product, and will enrich its amino acids – lysine, tryptophan and methionine, as well as dietary fiber, vitamin C, ?-carotene and minerals that are missing in meat.Keywords: legumes, lentils, germination, amino acid composition of proteins, biological value.
Use of chitosan to ensure the microbiological safety of germinated seeds oats when obtaining grain additive functional purpose
The effect of soaking the seeds germinated naked oats in 0,1 and 0,5% solutions of chitosan in food acid in 5% solution of succinic acid (SA) for microbiological parameters of seed – QMAFAnM, coliforms, number of yeasts and molds and their acidity is considered. Soaking of the samples was conducted after germination for 20, 40, 60 min in 100 ml of solution at room temperature with occasional stirring. Disinfected seeds were washed three times in sterile distilled water, dried in a drying cabinet at a temperature of 45°C to a moisture content of 14%. It is established that microbiological parameters studied seed samples correspond to the normative documentation during the processing of germinated seeds oats 0,1–0,5% solution of chitosan in the SA for 60 min, and the concentration of SA solution does not affect the acidity of treated seed. The effect of chitosan on the degree of germination of seeds of oats was investigated. It is established that the treatment of 0,5% solution of chitosan in 1% solution SA the degree of germinated seeds increases by almost 5%, length of seedling – 3,5 mm, but when the concentration of SA the degree of germination is significantly reduced.Keywords: germinated seeds, oats, microbiological parameters, functional properties, chitosan, succinic acid.
Study of the influence of dairy leaven “Atsatan” in the process of preparation of the dough is carried out. It is established that addition of the leaven in the dough reduces the duration of its formation from 6,5 to 5,0 min. The use of leaven “Atsatan” leads to improved consistency and humidity of the dough at 1–2%, while in the finished product of the magnitude of the index of the dough sample and the control are equal, ensures reduction cooking time wheat bread on 2,5–3 h, the stability of its quality and also provides the products with characteristic aroma and taste of traditional breads, can improve the nutritional value of products and increase its shelf life. The percentage of dry leaven “Atsatan” is % by weight of flour: 1,5–3,5 in accelerated (discrete) and of 0,15–0,3 at the traditional methods of making bread.Keywords: leaven, Atsatan, duration of the formation dough, consistency dough, quality of the bread, yeast.
Use of cultural liquid kombucha (Medusomyces Gisevi Lindau) in bread baking an inhibitor of potato disease of bread
The possibility of using a culture liquid of Kombucha (Medusomyces Gisevi Lindau) to prevent the development of potato disease in wheat bread, which is triggered by a spore-forming bacterium Bacilius subtilis, called potato sticks (PS), is investigated. The effectiveness of the culture fluid Kombucha (K) on pure culture of PS is determined. It is established that complete suppression of growth and development of vegetative cells of the PS present in the solution prepared agent in an amount of 1,5 ? 108 CFU/cm3, occurs at a cell concentration of culture K 5,5 ? 105 CFU/cm3 of the solution. Two trial laboratory baking in accordance with GOST 27669–88 “Flour. Method of test laboratory baking bread” using the culture fluid K are produced. During the 1st baking to the standard formulation of the test was added to 5% culture fluid of K by weight of flour, and 15% reduced the number of yeast. During the 2nd baking to the standard formulation of the test was added 5% wheat sourdough daily exposure to 70% humidity prepared from wheat flour 1st grade and the culture fluid K. The addition of culture liquid Kombucha in the formulation in the form of native fluids or wheat sourdough is contributes to the prevention of potato disease in bread wheat, stimulates the development of yeast, which allows to reduce their dosage, improves the appearance, odor and taste of finished products; allows to reduce the duration of baking that will reduce energy costs and losses in baking and therefore increase product yield.Keywords: Kombucha (Medusomyces Gisevi Lindau), Medusin, potato disease of bread, potato sticks (Bacilius subtilis), bread baking.
The formulation of the bread with the use of non-traditional plant materials (NPM) – hop ordinary, of burdock, garden burnet, and oat flour, replacing in the developed formulation part of the wheat, was developed. Traditional recipe of bread from wheat flour 1st grade was selected as base. Mathematical modeling with using the Solver package was used to optimize the product composition with the desired properties, whereby the variant of the formulation, which simultaneously meet the conditions – optimum content of vitamins, macro- and microelements in the bakery product and the minimal index of its energy value was obtained. The content of protein in the experimental sample of bread is 8% higher than in the control. The presence of biologically active substances in the developed product – alkaloids flavonoids, carotene testifies about possibility of its use as a functional. A sample of the bread «Profilakticheskiy» with the contents NPM of the has energy value 293 kcal/100 g of product, the highest organoleptic rating of 4,9 points (on a 5-point scale) and all indicators meets the requirements of the standard. Supplement NPM increases the biological value, ecology of the developed bread products and is making its production economically advantageous.Keywords: non-traditional plant materials, hop ordinary, of burdock, garden burnet, ecologically pure products, functional farinaceous products, biologically active substances.
Study of the influence of food additives from secondary resources processing of grapes on the properties of wheat flour dough and quality of bakery products
The influence of food additives “Powder from the seeds of grapes”, obtained from secondary resources, processing of grapes on the properties of wheat flour dough and quality of bakery products was investigated. Macro – and micro nutrient compounds of food additives were identified. The additive was made in the amount of 6, 8, 10 and 12% by weight of flour. Introduction of food additives has a strengthening effect on the gluten of wheat flour, as well as provides improve its gas-forming ability. The introduction of the investigational food additive improves the rheological properties of dough: the potential for water absorption test samples with the introduction of food additives depending on its dosage has increased by 7,2–17,7%, the stability of dough has increased, and degree of dilution has decreased in comparison with a control test sample without additives. It is revealed that bakery products with food additives in an amount of 10–12% by weight of flour 34,5% specific volume and 14,5% of the porosity of the crumb have increased in comparison with the control sample. The obtained results allow to develop scientifically-based formulations and technological modes of production of bakery products enriched with food additives “Powder from the seeds of grapes”.Keywords: food additive, baking properties of flour, rheological properties of dough, quality of bread, crumb porosity, product enrichment.
The technological potential of the concentrate of dietary fiber (DF) carrot, obtained from secondary raw materials, resulting in the production of fruit and vegetable juices is investigated. To prepare investigated samples prototypes of a fermented dairy product a weighed amount of concentrate DF carrots were added to 200 cm3 of milk fat content of 2,5%. The mixture stirred and pasteurized for 10 min at a temperature of (85 ± 2)°C, then cooled up to the temperature of fermentation, added prepared ferment “Bifilact-Pro”. The fermentation was carried out for 10 h at a temperature of (37 ± 2)°C, fixing every 30 min changes the pH of the mixture. According to the measurement results build schedules of dependence рН from time and calculated kinetic parameters: maximum speed of fermentation and the time of achievement of pH values of 4.6, which determined the completion of the fermentation process. The organoleptic assessment of the obtained samples of the fermented product is carried out by parameters: color, taste, smell and texture. The influence of the quantity of components of concentrate DF carrot, sourdough and particle size of the concentrate DF at the maximum speed of fermentation, duration of fermentation and organoleptic assessment of the product is investigated. Introduction in a normalized mixture of concentrate DF carrots and ferment “Bifilact-Pro” in the amount of respectively 2,5 and 6% of the total weight of the product when the particle size of the concentrate (230 ± 30) µm reduces the duration of ripening from 8 to 6 h and allows to obtain the finished product the probiotic with high organoleptic characteristics and content DF in one portion (200 g) not less 20% of the daily value.Keywords: dietary fiber, secondary raw materials, carrots, probiotic culture, functional dairy product, the optimization formulation of the product.
Technology of functional symbiotic – with pro – and prebiotic properties of fermented milk product with amaranth seeds and flax is developed. Strains of probiotic lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus brevis B 2792, Lactobacillus buchneri B 5812 and producer Lactococcus lactis B 2014, the crushed seeds of amaranth grade Ultra and seeds of flax were selected as objects of research. Special preparation of raw materials carried out. Natural cow milk held cleaning, cooling, normalization, homogenization at a pressure of (15 ± 2,5) MPa and at a temperature of 45–85°C. Ultra-high-temperature processing was performed at 140°C for 1-2 s. After heat treatment the milk is cooled to a temperature of fermentation (37 ± 2)°C. Flax seeds crushed, insisted in water at a temperature of 60–70°C, filtered to obtain a uniform mass without seed particles, crushed seeds of amaranth were added and the resulting mixture was subjected to a heat treatment at 121°C for 15 min. The mixture of plant raw materials in the amount of 3% and the dry yeast containing probiotic bacteria in an amount of 0.1% have been added in ready for fermentation of milk. The fermentation of the mixture is carried out at a temperature of (37 ± 2)°C for 5–6 h. It is established that introduction of plant material prior to fermentation increases the titer of lactic acid cultures and the quality of the product and increases its shelf life up to 29 days – more than in 2 times in comparison with the probiotic product.Keywords: symbiotik fermented milk, probiotic, prebiotic, amaranth seeds, flax seeds.
Effect of prebiotic and antioxidant properties of arabinogalactan during storage of fermented milk product
Substantiates the actuality of development of a new foodstuff with prolonged shelf life. Provides an analysis of means of foodstuff storability. Provides a study of the influence of prebiotic and antioxidant properties of arabinogalactan on physical, chemical and microbiological properties of a cultured milk food during its storage process. It has been noted that the titratable acidity of a product enriched with arabinogalactan rises considerably more slowly compared to the reference sample without arabinogalactan.The analysis of the microbiological studies of the product in the process of its storage showed that a number of lactic acid microorganisms and bifidus bacteria in the sample with arabinogalactan remained at the necessary level during 8 days. However, only after 6 days, the number of lactic acid microorganisms and bifidus bacteria was lower than the necessary measure in the reference sample without arabinogalactan. According to the results of complex analysis a guaranteed shelf life of cultured milk food, enriched with arabinogalactan, on milk-soya basis was established. The analysis of the experiment indicated a positive influence of arabinogalactan on quality indicators and stability of microflora (Streptococcus thermohilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii is a subtype of Bulgaricus and Bifidobacterium lactis) in the process of product storage. The advisability of using of arabinogalactan as a bifidogenic factor while producing cultured milk foods was proven.Keywords: fermented milk produkt, antioxidant, prebiotic, arabinogalactan, storability.
The possibility of using bio-preservation for dietary fibers (DF) obtained from carrots, beets, pumpkin and Jerusalem artichoke tubers after processing of vegetables for juices, ferment “Bifilact-Pro”, is installed. The solid fraction of processed raw material (pomace) homogenized to puree, added pre-prepared ferment in an amount of 5%. The samples were soured under anaerobic conditions at a temperature of (37 ± 2)°C for 28–32 hours before reaching total acidity (0,7–0,8)%, then cooled of they and kept in the refrigerator at a temperature (4 ± 2)°C for 6 weeks. Weekly samples were measured titratable acidity, the amount of bacteria of group of intestinal sticks (coliforms), yeast and mold fungi bacteria and bifidobacteria. Coliforms in test samples before fermentation, after it and during storage of the product are not detected. In the studied samples of the concentrate DF of pumpkin and carrot maximum permissible levels of fungi and yeast in fermented foods – 102 CFU/g was not reached at 42 days and in samples beet and Jerusalem artichoke tubers was exceeded in 35 days. Thus, the shelf life of the studied samples, given the reserve ratio of 1,3 is days: for pumpkin – 42, carrot – 32, beets and Jerusalem artichoke – 26. The content of bifidobacteria during storage decreased, but their number in the studied samples exceeded the human needs a minimum of 106 CFU/g. Fermentation concentrates DF allows not only to increase their shelf life up to 1 month, but also to obtain probiotic properties, which gives the possibility to use bio-preservation concentrates of DF as a functional additive in the development of new food products.Keywords: bio-preservation, vegetable raw materials, secondary raw materials, ferment, fermented product, dietary fiber, microbiological safety, shelf life.
The possibility of using powder from lupine seeds (PLS) for making shortbread is investigated. Its influence of various dosages on the quality of finished product was studied. As a result of the experiments, it was discovered that the shortbread with 7% PLS from the total mass of wheat meal in dough showed the best organoleptic and physical-chemical characteristics. It was experimentally established that adding the powder with the above-mentioned dosage has a positive influence on elastic and adhesive properties of the dough. The moisture of the ready shortbread is 2,1%, soakability is 161%, acidity is 1,2 degrees. The nutritive value of the shortbread “Lyupinushka” and of the control sample was estimated. The results indicated that human organism after consuming 100 g of the developed shortbread receives 18% more protein than after consuming the control sample of sandy cookie. The developed cookie, by its content of microelements, excels the regular one which was made without the additives. In terms of the findings, a complex of technical documentation has been developed and approved for producing shortbread “Lyupinushka” with the powder of lupine seeds.Keywords: lupine, enrichment product, precautions, dietary fibers, shortbread.
The results of the development of the formulation and technology of preparation of concentrated base for the manufacture of beverages from plant material are presented. Samples of water extracts of ginger root, thyme and angelica and lemon juice characterized by high content of biologically active substances, were selected for research. The extract was obtained by the adding shredded raw ginger root, thyme and Angelica in sugar syrup with a mass fraction of solids of 62% cooked by hot method. On the base of planned experiment the optimal time of extraction of plant raw materials based on the content of the main biologically active substances – organic acids, tannins and phenolic compounds, and vitamin C was determined. The duration of extraction for ginger and thyme was 10 min, for angelica – 5 min. On the base of the matrix functional orientation 5 samples of blends of sugar syrup with the additives of extracts of vegetative raw materials are made. Formulation of the sample at a ratio of ginger : thyme : angelica lemon juice as 50 : 30 : 10 : 10 respectively was recognized as the optimal organoleptic characteristics. The beverage from produced semifinished product has a refreshing ginger taste, pleasant herbaceous aroma of thyme, light astringent bitterness of angelica, aroma of lemon, has a lemon-yellow color and characteristic for the selected plant material specific aroma; is rich in organic acids, phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity, tannins, vitamins A and C, which are beneficial to the human body.Keywords: concentrated basis for beverage, functional properties, biologically active substances, vegetable raw materials, ginger, thyme, angelica.
Processes & Apparatus
Statistical analysis of the factors determining the work of the screw press in the pressing of vegetable oil is carried out. The experiments were performed with four levels of bandwidth of the output device by the press, caused by width of the output gap, three levels of speed of rotation and three temperature levels. The present in the industrial range of the work screw press FP factors – speed of rotation shaft and the width of the output gap were defined. It is established that the form-factors of the flow depend only on the geometry of the coils and does not depend on the rheological properties of the material. The dependence of characteristic size of the coil along the length of the screw shaft is decreasing. The influence of temperature because of the small range of variation of its values can be neglected. The calculation of the shape factor of the flow, which is determined by the throughput of the screw press, is given.Keywords: pressing, screw press, output device press, speed of rotation, flow shape coefficient, volume flight, moulder surface area.
The results of measurements of the compression properties of the pomace from apples “Simirenko” are presented. The studies were performed under uniaxial compression in the pressure range of 0,2–1,0 MPa for a layer of pomace with a thickness of 25–100 mm, with an average particle size of 2–4 mm. The optimum value of compacting pressure and the average thickness of the layer of pomace are established. The coefficients of the nonlinear dependence of the yield of juice from the pressing pressure and pressure diffusivity in the process of extraction of Apple pomace at different pressing pressures for a layer thickness of 20 mm, which allow to determine the spin speed of the pomace are calculated.Keywords: Apple pomace, rheology, compression and filtration properties, coefficient of pressure diffusivity.
A stochastic model of drying process in fluidized bed is proposed based on the theory of Markov chains. The model allows considering shrinkage, heat and mass transfer and hydrodynamics of fluidized bed on the common basis. An experimental verification of the model is carried out by drying of potato particles in the cylindrical fluidized bed. The values of fluidized bed expansion and particles moisture content were obtained from experiments. The drying experiments were performed at different rates of air: 0,041 m3/s, 0,045 m3/s and 0,049 m3/s. The gas temperature was kept constant (45°С). The calculation and experimental results are in good agreement.Keywords: fluidized bed, Markov chains, drying.
The velocity of fluid in a distillation apparatus with a rotating nozzle is defined. An attempt was made to characterize the speed of the liquid ejected from the nozzle holes by the energy of air (speed) of flow, required to give the liquid a certain speed. To check the correctness of the velocity of the liquid in this way was done shooting process high-speed camera. Are screenshots of the process of movement of liquid droplets from the nozzle holes, analysis of which allowed to determine the average velocity on the path from the exit of the nozzle to strike the wall of the apparatus and to obtain an expression to determine its speed. Analysis of the values of velocities of the fluid calculated on the basis of the expression for determining the turbulent friction in the rotary apparatus and the values calculated by our method, have shown that they are of the same order. Thus, the proposed approach to determining the speed of movement of the liquid in a distillation apparatus with a rotating nozzle allows to describe the process of mass transfer in zone II with sufficient accuracy, indicating the possibility of its application in practice.Keywords: a mass transfer, rectifying devices, mass transfer coefficient, the rotating nozzle, vapor-liquid mix.
Food Engineering, Proesses, Equipment & Automation of Food Production
Developed installation for the preparation of oil seeds for hulling consists of loading bunker, equipped with vertically movable relative to the output window of a gate valve, a drying chamber, means overload and cooling device mounted on the frame. Installation is designed for drying fruit coat oil seeds in preparing them to be fallen upon. Drying chamber is a heat-insulated casing with nozzles for discharging moist air and windows insulated casing, inside which the reflectors above the trays, the bottom of which is made in the form of teflon tape endless conveyor driven by motor-gear units, installed in a distributed manner infrared tube emitters with a wavelength of 1,5–3,0 mm and increments of 1,1–1,3 distance to the layer of oil-bearing seeds with a height of 2–3 cm on the tapes of the endless conveyors. A means of overload consists of a box with a conical narrowing of the angle exceeding the angle of repose of oilseeds with vertically movable relative to the output window of a gate valve and a nozzle for discharging air. The cooling installation comprises a vertical housing in the form of a box with a nozzle for discharging air, interlard elements mounted inside in a staggered manner on opposite walls at angles greater than the angles of repose of oilseeds, blinds and device of discharge of the seeds. The application of the proposed installation reduces the time of heating and cooling oilseeds, and reduces the concentration of dust during processing.Keywords: oil seeds, drying, drying chamber, infrared emitters.
Drawbacks of known reactors for physical-chemical processes in heterogeneous environments were analyzed. Reactor-amalgamator is designed for carrying out the processes in heterogeneous environments, is fitted with an agitator in the form of shaft-plow, shredders, temperature and pH sensors and the safety valve. The reactor-amalgamator is efficient and reliable in operation, provides the handling of fluid high-viscosity media, allows to carry out the processes of mixing powders and reaction between their components in dry form.Keywords: heterogeneous environment, mixing, reactor-amalgamator, shredders, mixing device.
The results of tests of a laboratory reactor equipped with rotationally reciprocating stirred tanks (RRST) with the possibility of adjusting the frequency and the angle of oscillations of the impeller are considered. As the converter of the electric motor rotational motion into rotationally reciprocating motion of the impeller, the original planetary mechanism with elliptical gearwheels is proposed. The efficiency of mixing by a classical rotational stirrer and RRST is estimated on the example of heat exchange process. It is shown that the use of RRST with a working angle of 147° allowed to shorten the mixing time by 35% in comparison with the classical stirred tank.Keywords: rotationally reciprocating stirred tank, planetary actuator, elliptical gearwheels, impeller, heat exchange.
Methods of Investigation, Quality & Safety of Food Products
A number of proposals on improving the methodology for the sensory evaluation based on the analysis of domestic scientific and technical literature for the period 2000–2016 on technology of food products from aquatic biological resources and of meat of warm-blooded animals, as well as from related fields – biotechnology and merchandizing was introduced. Circuit training to expert evaluation of product and construction of its organoleptic profile is developed. Methodology the relevant quantitative descriptive analysis was considered, variants for improving its objectivity are offered.Keywords: profile organoleptic, methods of evaluation, objectification.
Totality of the ways and means of supplying of prescription components of the dough in dough mixing machine
Characteristic of the subsystem elements “The totality of the ways and means of supplying of prescription components of the dough” has been given. Ways and means of supplying of prescription components of the dough in a dough mixing machine are analyzed. The structural scheme of subsystem “The totality of the ways and means of supplying of prescription components of the dough” has been developed and its systematization was made. The reasons of occurrence of errors during the supplying of prescription components of the dough have been considered. It is shown that the minimization of errors during the feeding of the prescription components of dough provides the dough with preset properties and production of bread with the required quality.Keywords: kneading, dough, ways and means of supplying of prescription components of the dough, batching.
An important quality factor of brewing barley is the protein content, on the amount of which the quality of malt and, accordingly, the beer significantly depends. Most of the currently used methods for determination of protein content vary in duration and labor content, or require the use of expensive equipment. The aim of the work was to research the protein content in brewing barley by express method using an infrared spectrometer. The object of the research was samples of brewing barley with different protein content. The researches were carried out on an infrared spectrometer with the built-in monochromator. The protein content was measured at a wavelength in the range 850–1050 nm. To establish the reliability of the obtained results, the following metrological characteristics of the protein determination method in brewing barley were calculated: measuring range is 9,0–14,0%; the repeatability indicator is 0,1%; the intermediate precision index is 0,2%; extended uncertainty of the measurement result for the level of confidence is 0,95 – 0,4%. Comparison of the measurement results of protein content in brewing barley obtained by infrared spectrometry in comparison with the classical Kjeldahl method has shown that this method allows to receive comparably reliable results, and the absence of sample preparation significantly accelerate the analysis with good reproducibility, reliability and accuracy of the obtained results. It is important to control the quality of brewing barley.Keywords: brewing barley, protein, control method, infrared spectrometer.
Development of the quality scale of wines supersaturated with carbon dioxide on the base of characteristics their sparkling properties and foaming abilities
The properties of the wines supersaturated with carbon dioxide on the base the developed quality scale to identify their authenticity are analyzed. The objects of the study were 11 samples of wines Russian and foreign production. Made of wine stock carbonated wine bottling which was carried out according to the technology ensuring the conservation of the phase equilibrium of system the wine–gas, were taken as a control sample. The results show that, despite the high content of carbon dioxide in the sample of the aerated wine, what pressure level in the gas chamber of the bottle shows the value of the index sparkling properties of m does not exceed unity in contrast to the values of this index in samples of sparkling wines and champagnes, which reaches 10 units or more. The correlation values of the index sparkling properties and the duration of the “game” wines supersaturated with carbon dioxide is established. Correlation between index of sparkling properties of wine m and increased its foaming ability F is not installed. High performance foaming capacities of wine (~30 s) is indirect evidence of the introduction to his blend of artificial surfactants. Analysis of the index properties of sparkling wines m coupled with organoleptic evaluation provides the accuracy of recognition of the quality of the product at the analytical level.Keywords: sparkling wine, sparkling properties of wines, foaming properties of wines, the authenticity of the wines, the level of pressure CO2, the scale of quality wines.
The working qualities of express analyzer-infrared Bruker Alpha wine analyzer (Germany) were tested with the aim of improving the quality control of wine products. Dry and special wines and the wine materials of different grape varieties, years production and coloring, produced at the enterprise of JSC APF “Fanagoriya”, were objects of study. The work on the additional calibration of the instrument parameters – volume fraction of ethanol and mass concentration of reducing sugars, titratable and volatile acids was carried out to improve the accuracy of research results. Calibration for the new parameters of mass concentrations of sulphur dioxide total and sulfur dioxide free was expanded. Advanced calibration can be used for the analysis of wine products, providing more accurate results and reduce load on a production laboratory.Keywords: quality control of wine, physical-chemical parameters of wine, express-analysis of wine, IR-analysis, Bruker Alpha wine analyzer.
The results of the monitoring of the quality and safety of seafood realized in the trading network. Krasnodar are presented. The object of the study was seafood: peeled shrimp cooked-frozen “Kazhdyy den” (OOO “Vichyunay-Rus”), shrimp, cleaned cooked-frozen ”Polar” and mussels “Bon De La Mar” (OOO “Polar Seafood Russia”), mussels “Bukhta izobiliya” (OOO “Agama Impe””), mussels “Kazhdyy den” (OOO “Promore”). The quality of the seafood was assessed in accordance with the requirements of GOST 32005–2012 and GOST R 51496–99, safety performance and evaluation of the quality of the marking of consumer packaging in accordance with Uniform sanitary and epidemiological and hygienic requirements for products (goods) which is subject to sanitary-epidemiological supervision (control). It is established that the quality and safety of the most studied samples of seafood meets the requirements of the standards. The presence of the non-conformity by two values of the two samples requires the strengthening of the control of seafood safety by conducting mandatory monitoring, with government financial support in accredited laboratories.Keywords: seafood, quality of products, the safety performance of products.
A promising method of decontamination of wastewater of agro-industrial complex is considered. The essence of the method lies in the complex physical and chemical effects of alternating electromagnetic fields in combination with active chlorine on the wastewater. The inductor is the device for implementing of the proposed method. The number of colony forming units of total coliform bacteria (TCB) was chosen as the most significant parameter to characterize the epidemiological status of the process of waste water disinfection of livestock. The created mathematical model allows to estimate the influence of technological factors on the number of TCB. There is the effect of pair interaction of magnetic induction and the concentration of active chlorine in the sample. The ranking of technological factors was produced according to the force of influence on the epidemiological status of wastewater: concentration of active chlorine in the sample; magnetic induction; the duration of the joint effects of electromagnetic fields, AK-chlorine and working substances in the sample; filling with the working bodies of the working zone of the inductor; the ratio of the length of the working bodies to their diameter.Keywords: disinfection of wastewater, agro industrial wastes, inductor, total coliform bacteria, mathematical model, the mathematical theory of experiment planning.
The method of forming multidimensional trial functions that allows one to apply the Galerkin method for solving problems of no stationary heat transfer, mass or potential by sequential transformation of a partial differential equation to a system of ordinary differential equations with the subsequent solution of this system on the basis of algebraic equations obtained by calculating the residual of the inner product of the trial function.Keywords: multidimensional heat transfer, trial multidimensional function, Galerkin method, coefficient of thermal diffusivity.