Table of contents for # 5-6 (359-360), 2017
For the anniversary of the journal
Establishment of university science in the Kuban region in the years 1920–1945 and its link with the food industries in the region
The history of formation and development of science in the universities of the Kuban in the years 1920-1945 is shown. It is established that the results of the research work of individual departments and teams of higher education institutions became the basis of the technical and technological re-equipment of enterprises of food industry of the region. Examples of effective technical and scientific interaction between the university science and food industry of the Kuban are given.Keywords: high school of the Kuban, the history of academic science, the food-processing industry of Kuban, the connection of science and production.
Logistics the formation of a new technological structure of the food industry agro-industrial complex on the example of the dairy industry
Attempt to formulate in a system look on the basis of proven materials the possibility of modernization of the dairy industry, food industry agro-industrial complex on the principles of the fifth technological way – bionanomembrane technology clusters on the finished cycle of production is made. Forecast the sixth technological mode – picotechnology with obtaining the derivatives of the components of milk hydrolysates of lactose, lactulose, microparticulated protein, peptide and amino acid pool is considered. The possibility of involvement in the production cycle of secondary raw milk – skim (low-fat) milk, buttermilk and especially of whey in functional food products for deterministic populations and forage resources of new generation is realized.Keywords: food industry, agro-industrial complex, dairy industry, secondary dairy raw materials, new technological way.
Chemistry of Food Products & Materials
The impact of a grape quality on the concentration of the biogenic amines in the grape must was determined. Grapes of white and red varieties grown in various farms of Anapa-Taman zone of Krasnodar region had collected in the age of technical maturity were the object of the study. The grape damage degree has not exceeded the allowable norms. Mass concentration of biogenic amines was determined with a high performance liquid chromatograph by Agilent technologies. Microscope Biolam was applied for a direct microscopy of the must samples. Microscopy of the must samples has shown the presence of high amount and variety of microorganisms in the grape damage zones independent of a grape variety. Yeasts of different species and conidiums of molds Muxor, Aspergillus niger were identified. At that time the amount of the microorganism colonies on the surface of Cabernet Sauvignon of red grape variety was smaller in comparison with the white grape varieties using the same dilution regardless of origin. It was determined, that a summary mass concentration of biogenic amines in the grape must varied in a wide range regardless of the grape variety and origin. Concentration of some biogenic amines, e.g. histamine, phenylethylamine, in the must depends on the grape variety. The grape quality, especially its microbiological state, shows a significant impact on the biogenic amines accumulation, resulting in the increase of summary concentration as well as concentration of separate biogenic amines.Keywords: grape must, raw material quality, biogenic amines.
The results of studies of dihydroxylated forms of anthocyanins in red wines and their share in the total content of monomeric forms are presented. 14 samples of red and pink dry and sweet wines made from the grape varieties Cabernet, Saperavi, Merlot, Krasnostop, Pinot Noir and fruity cherry wine, were chosen as object of research. For determine the total content of monomeric forms of anthocyanins used method of pH-differential spectrophotometry; for determine the total content of dihydroxylated forms was used the reaction of complexation with Al3+. In the selected conditions, the content of dihydroxylated anthocyanins in wines made from grape of different varieties, in terms of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, was determined. It was found, that the share of these forms of anthocyanins in the total content of monomeric forms was 9–14%. The index of color intensity of wine is defined. For the studied wine samples the value of the index of color intensity wine ranged from 0,89 to 16,1; the wine samples in which were installed the highest content dihydroxylated and monomeric forms of anthocyanins, have the highest values of color intensity. Samples of wines made from grapes of several varieties, have lower color intensity than the samples of wines from the grapes of a single variety. It is established that indicators of the total content dihydroxylated and monomeric forms of anthocyanins, share dihydroxylated forms in the total content of monomeric anthocyanins, color intensity are the spectral characteristics of the wines, which can be used in the evaluation of their quality.Keywords: forms of anthocyanins, wine, spectrophotometry, index of color intensity wine, evaluation of the quality of wines.
Use of microwave radiation for the optimization of extraction process of fruit and berry raw materials
The influence of microwave (MW) radiation on the properties of extracts from fruits and berries: chemical composition, antiradical, antioxidant activity, restoring force was studied. The objects of study are the extracts of fruits and berries: cherry chokeberry, black currant and raspberry, growing on the territory of Samara region. It is established that the use of MW-radiation allows to increase the content of phenolic compounds in the extract compared with the traditional extraction method of maceration. Optimal parameters of the extraction process with the use MW-radiation are: the extraction time is 1 min at radiation power of 90 watts. The long processing of raw materials MV-radiation and its high power at the extraction leads to degradation of target compounds. Despite the fact that some of the indicators studied samples extracts during the classic maceration is higher than when using MW-radiation, reducing the duration of the extraction process from 120 to 1 min makes a preferable extraction with the use of microwave radiation.Keywords: extraction, microwave radiation, fruit and berry raw materials, safety of antioxidants.
Development of technology and research of sorption properties of wheat bread with the addition of herbs
The technology is developed and the technological scheme of production of wheat bread with addition of 2% of the mixture of 4 herbs: thyme, oregano, lemon balm and fenugreek in a ratio of 1 : 1 : 1 : 1 is composed. This composition of herbs is justified. Granulometric composition used for kneading dough of wheat flour, herbal mixtures and dough-herbal mixtures and their physico-chemical characteristics is investigated. It is established that the homogeneity of the granulometric composition used for kneading of dough the components and their physico-chemical parameters allow to provide for normal flow of the processes of obtaining dough and to obtain a product with good performance quality. Samples of wheat bread with the addition of herbs with good quality indicators are obtained. Sorption properties of the obtained samples of wheat bread with the addition of herbs are investigated. It is established that the sorption isotherms of the samples of wheat bread with the addition of herbs have the typical for food products of the S-shaped character, i.e. are of type II according to Brunauer classification. Optimal storage conditions developed by the wheat bread with the addition of herbs are determined: moisture content monomolecular adsorption of 4,10%, while the desorption of 5,05%; temperature 25°C, relative humidity of 20–60%.Keywords: wheat bread with the addition of herbs, enrichment product, sorption.
Influence of nutritional supplements on wheat flour baking properties and rheological dough properties during bakery goods enrichment
Investigation of nutritional supplements influence “Jerusalem artichoke powder” (PJA) and “Tomato powder” (PTM) which were obtained from second resources Jerusalem artichoke and tomato processing on wheat flour baking properties and dough rheological during bakery goods enrichment was done. The choice of nutritional supplements was proved. It was determined, that substitution of some wheat flour for nutritional supplements gives gluten decrease and acts as a clear strengthening factor. Adding nutritional supplements PJA which amount is 3, 5, 7 and 9% to flour mass reduces flour water absorption property index from 0,7% to 6,7%. It depends on nutritional supplements doses in comparison with test sample of dough without supplements. Adding supplement PTM in the same amount increases water absorption property from 0,5 to 4,1% which depends on doses in comparison with test sample. The investigation of structural-mechanical dough properties proves that nutritional supplement adding influences on wheat flour water absorption, makes dough thinner for shorter period of time. It also influences on dough resistance. It was defined, that nutritional supplement (PJA and PTM) may be recommended to use in bakery industry including buns, because nutritional supplements improves rheological dough properties-elasticity, flexibility and resistance. As a result these factors can intensify dough kneading, and cutting and decrease of thin rate shows that formed goods during waiting process will not be deformed.Keywords: bakery goods, nutritional supplements, second resources, Jerusalem artichokes, tomato, baking properties, rheological properties, enrichment of product.
Research of the rheological characteristics of a fermented milk beverage enriched with biologically active substances
Structural and mechanical properties of fermented milk beverage enriched with biologically active components, in comparison with the control yoghurt without additives, prepared according to traditional recipes are investigated. For studies used a set of the measuring system with coaxial cylinders: a stationary outer cylinder and rotating at a predetermined shear rate of the inner cylinder. Formulas for calculating coefficient of dynamic viscosity of the samples of fermented milk beverage after mathematical processing of research results are presented. It is established that a sample fermented milk beverage, which includes milk, supplement with Selenium Alga Plus, starter culture Streptococcus thermophilus of viscous strains and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus in the ratio 2 : 1, Jerusalem artichoke syrup and stevioside, cinnamon and ginger, has the optimal recoverability of the structure after its destruction. The inclusion in the composition of fermented milk beverage special supplement allows to obtain a product the organoleptic characteristics of which are not inferior to the control sample, and the ability to restore the structure surpasses it.Keywords: enrichment of fermented milk beverage, biologically active substances, rheology, structural and mechanical properties.
Efficient technological regimes of obtaining non-deodorization of refined vegetable oils with using universal reagent in the form of lactic acid and the activated water are developed and proved. As raw materials were used for the study unrefined sunflower oil produced in the factories of Krasnodar region. The use of lactic acid solution makes it possible to remove phospholipids and metals, wax substances and traces of soap from the neutralized oil. High level of reduction of ions of metals of variable valence can be the guarantor of sufficient stability refined non-deodorization of sunflower oil to oxidation. Activation of water in the electromagnetic field of the UV-spectrum to obtain working solutions of alkali provides high efficiency removal of free fatty acids and improves composition and properties of the secondary product – soap stock. Developed technological solution allows to offer an integrated technology of refining vegetable oils in the existing equipment, providing a high economic impact.Keywords: vegetable oil, refining complex, the universal reagent, related of the substances, lactic acid, activated water.
An improved method for carrying out carbonation of limed juice after the separation of the preliming sediment has been developed to achieve the maximum purification effect of the raw juice with minimum sucrose losses and consumption of calcium oxide. Laboratory researches aimed at comparing a typical scheme of lime-carbon dioxide purification of raw juice and proposed with the separation of preliming sediment before the main liming and a one-stage carbonation are carried out. According to the developed scheme, the preliminary progressive liming process was carried out with using the return of the mud suspension of II carbonation activated by overcarbonation to a pH value of 7,0 ± 0,2 at a temperature of 60–65°C and a process time of 20–25 min. After that, the preliming sediment was separated, and the decantate was sent to the main liming with the active alkalinity for phenolphthalein of 0,7–0,8% CaO and kept at a temperature of about 60°C for 20 min. Limed juice was then heated to a temperature of 82–85°C, maintained for 10 min and subjected to a carbon dioxide precarbonation in order to reduce active alkalinity of the juice to values of 0,30–0,35% CaO. A portion of the precarbonated juice was placed in a laboratory unit for bicarbonation to a pH value of 7,0–7,2, and then mixed with precarbonated juice. Finally, the pH of the mixture was adjusted with carbon dioxide to a pH value of 8,9–9,2 – the pH value of the II carbonation. Quality parameters of intermediate products and purified juices, obtained according to the standard and developed, with preliming sediment separation and single stage carbonation, raw juice purifying methods, were compared. It is established that during the lime-carbon dioxide purification according to the developed method increases raw juice purification effect on 5,8% while reducing the consumption of calcium oxide on 0.2% by weight of juice and decreasing the apparatus capacity of the technological scheme.Keywords: sugar beet processing, raw juice, lime-carbon dioxide purification, progressive preliming, mud suspension, mud suspension activation, precarbonation, carbonation, purified juice.
Influence of various dosages of wheaten alimentary fibers (AF) Kametsel FW 200 on quality of soft wafers was studied. Wheat gel which was received by mixing of a wheaten fiber Kametsel FW 200 and waters in ratios 1 : 5, 1 : 7 and 1 : 9 respectively and at various water temperature 20 and 50°C was added to a formulation mix in number of 10, 15 and 20% of mass of a fatty component. For physico-chemical and organoleptic characteristics as the best specimen was sample of soft wafers with replacement 15% fatty component by wheat gel when the balance between AF and water 1 : 7 at water temperature for the mixture of 20°C. The compounding of a new type of soft wafers of preventive appointment with use of wheaten alimentary fibers Kametsel FW 200 is developed. It is established that the introduction of wheat AF Kametsel FW 200 in the formulation of wafers reduces the fat content in them by 12%.The technical documentation set on soft wafers “Lyubimye” with alimentary fibers Kametsel FW 200 is developed and approved.Keywords: fatty component, alimentary fibers Kametsel FW 200, substitute, the fat content of the product, prophylaxis products, wafers.
On the example cupcakes and cookies using standard research methods the authors are considered basic regularities of changes of properties of flour mixes, dough and finished products made with partial replacement of flour wheaten for flour from the pumpkin seeds in an amount of from 5 to 30% (with step of 5%) with a fat content of (16,5 ± 1,8)%. It is established that partial replacement of wheat flour in the flour from the pumpkin seeds accompanied by a decrease in moisture and water absorption ability, weaken the glutens and increase in titratable acidity of the flour mixture. Flour confectionery products with a dosage of flour from the pumpkin seeds up to 20% inclusive have of regular shape and smooth surface, developed porosity, baked, acquire greenish olive shade in different degrees of intensity. The structure of biscuits and cupcakes with the addition of flour from the pumpkin seeds becomes more porous, fragile and brittle. Along with this revealed a natural reduction of moisture of flour confectionery products, the reduction of the density of cupcakes, the increase speed of soaking of cookies. According to the results of research for cupcakes and for butter cookies the optimum ratio, %, of wheat flour and of flour from the pumpkin seeds is 80 : 20 respectively. Wherein the flour confectionery products the standard values regulated indicators of quality.Keywords: flour confectionery products, flour of pumpkin seeds, cupcakes, butter cookies, product enrichment, the measure of quality.
Selection of components with radioprotective properties of tea-sea-buckthorn and curd layers of blancmange
New three-layer dessert – blancmange is proposed. The first layer of wine and sea buckthorn jelly, the second is tea and sea buckthorn jelly, and the third cottage cheese mousse with sea-buckthorn syrup. Included in the blancmange components – pectin, red wine, green tea and sea buckthorn promotes the excretion of radionuclides from the human body. Adjusting the ratio of cottage cheese and sea buckthorn syrup, concentration of green tea, sea buckthorn syrup and pectin to obtain jelly of the interlayer is implemented. It is established that green tea extract concentration of 5%, sea buckthorn syrup in the amount of 44% of green tea extract and pectin Classic AY 901 concentration of 25% to allow to obtain a tea and coconut jelly pleasant taste, greenish-brown, moderately thick consistency with a delicate porous structure and a glossy shine. The number of sea buckthorn syrup 28 g/100 g for cottage cheese layer of dessert is determined. This allows to obtain to mix orange color with a pronounced taste and aroma of sea buckthorn, soft spotting consistency.Keywords: radioprotective properties, dessert, blancmange, sea buckthorn syrup, green tea, pectin, cottage cheese.
Technological methods, providing the intensification of enzymatic reactions in the yeast biomass in the process after-tirage aging sparkling wines, which contributes to significant reduction of periods of exposure and improve the quality of the finished product, is considered. In order of the study the mechanism of autolysis of yeast during the period after-tirage aging the effect of temperature treatments of the tirage of the change of its physico-chemical and biochemical parameters in conditions that preclude high blood pressure and the integrity of the environment is investigated. To do this, in the original wine materials and model of the tirage the analysis of the activity of oxidative and hydrolytic enzymes is carried out, the protein content and amino nitrogen, the rate of foam-forming ability are defined. The increase in the concentration of the amine nitrogen with 175 mg/dm3 in the feedstock to 259 mg/dm3 in the test samples subjected to heat treatments – heat to 30°C for 4 days followed by cooling to –4°C for 2 days and aged at 12°C 9 days, testifies to the enrichment of the wine with amino acids as a result of the decomposition of protein structures of the yeast cells by increasing activity of oxidative and hydrolytic enzymes. It is established that after-tirage aging cuvee at low temperatures contributes to the increase in foaming ability from 26,6 to 28,1 sec, which affects the formation of the sparkling properties of wine. The obtained results indicate the possibility of shortening in 2 times after-tirage aging cuvee champagne and improve its foam-forming ability as a result of the intensification of the processes of maturation of the wine by increasing the enzymatic activity of yeast biomass during heat treatment.Keywords: wine material, active dry yeast, sparkling wine, champagne, after-tirage aging, foam-foaming ability.
The effect of different doses of ionizing radiation on antioxidant activity of fresh apples pomological varieties Renet Semerenko of domestic production are investigated. Samples of apples treated with ionizing radiation using a linear accelerator of electrons model UELR-10-10С2 with energies up to 10 MeV the following doses: 3, 6, 9 and 12 kGy. With increasing irradiation dose from 3 to 12 kGy the peak area of EPR-spectra increases significantly by 61,4%, the amplitude is 120,2%, the width of the peak decreases by 24,5%, while the ratio between the radiation dose and dose absorption is increased by 34,1% (from 0,41 to 0,55). Found that the higher the radiation dose, the higher absorbed dose. When the irradiation dose 3 kGy dose absorption is 1,23 ± 0,07 kGy (the ratio between radiation dose and dose absorption is equal to 0,41), with increasing doses of irradiation up to 12 kGy absorption dose was 6,64 ± 0,11 kGy (the ratio increased to 0,55). The concentration of antioxidants in apples depends on the dose of irradiation. With increasing doses of irradiation with 3 kGy to 12 kGy significantly decreased the AOA by 62,4%, the correlation between the concentration of antioxidants in the apples and a dose of 0,921.Keywords: apples fresh, dose of irradiation, EPR signal, free radicals, antioxidants.
Efficiency of the application of chitosane and electromagnetic fields at the extreme low frequencies in improving the microbiological safety of cold dishes
The mechanism of the bacteriostatic action of the proposed complex barrier technologies – the processing of a 1% solution of high molecular weight chitosan MM 200 kDa in citric acid, in combination with the electromagnetic field of extremely low frequency (EMF ELF) – pure culture of Proteus vulgaris 222 and model food system – a salad of tomatoes and cucumbers, purchased in the trading network, was tested. Reducing contamination of samples with the integrated use of the proposed barriers is installed: immediately after production and the impact of barrier factors in 2,6 times, in storage for 8, 16 and 24 h – in 5,15; 6,5 and 7 times, respectively. The effectiveness of the integrated use of basic and additional barriers to safety cold dishes is appreciated. Found that integrated use of chitosan and EMF ELF provides the reduction of bacterial contamination of samples at 85,53% from initial. Thus, each of the barriers has bacteriostatic action, but the effectiveness of chitosan in 2 times exceeds the effect of EMF ELF. The performance of the complex use of barriers to 1,1 times higher than the bacteriostatic effect of chitosan, and 2,3 times the electromagnetic fields.Keywords: safety of cold dishes, chitosan, electromagnetic field of extremely low frequency, microbial contamination, quality of culinary products.
The possibility of using sea stars for the production of biologically valuable ingredients through the use of hydrolysis is considered. The process of thermal hydrolysis was conducted at a temperature of 140°C for 90 min and combined – thermal and enzymatic methods. In the experiments we used a single-stage enzymatic hydrolysis with using proteolytic enzyme preparation Alcalase 2.5 L and two-stage with using the same drug in combination with enzyme preparations Viscozyme L and pectinase Aspergillus aculeatus. Investigated fractional composition of proteins of the sea stars, hydrolyzed a variety of ways. Physiologically useful peptide fractions and mineral substances in all hydrolyzates are found. On the basis of the obtained results conclusion can be drawn about slight increase in the number of proteins with 81,4% of the thermal hydrolysis to 82,6% when using a combined single-stage enzymatic hydrolysis in combination with heat. However the maximum exit (92,68%) small, up to 10 kDa, the most active fractions of peptides provides the combined hydrolysis with a one-stage fermentoliz. Peptides of this size group have high biological activity – immune, antioxidant, antiseptic, anti-stress and improved digestibility. Existence of physiologically useful peptide fractions, mineral substances in hydrolyzates of sea stars allows to position the obtained products as biologically valuable.Keywords: sea stars, thermal hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis, peptides, biological value.
Food Engineering, Proesses, Equipment & Automation of Food Production
Developed installation for separation of the products hulling (particles crashed) of oil seeds in the oil industry, including aspiration device, pneumatic duct and sedimentary chamber. The aspiration device comprises a cylindrical case, fixtures for feeding of the particles crashed and the withdrawal of heavy and light fractions, the dispenser with the fixture for orienting, interlard elements with ribs between them and the coaxial duct, resting on a perforated surface. Pneumatic duct includes an air duct with variable speed air stream. Sedimentary chamber contains a perforated drum mounted vertically with the possibility of rotation of the feed channels of the original product and the channels for removal free of husk with cleaning unit. The aspiration system is made of two autonomous circuits. When applying the developed installation increases the efficiency of separation of kernel from free-husk, fewer husks at a fraction of the kernel and reduces oil content of waste husk.Keywords: oil seeds, separation, particles crashed, kernel, husk, oil dust.
The experiments on determination of the value of advancing or lagging slide of hard roller at its sliding influenced by moving force Fm and F0 – force of pressing it to elastic base – foam rubber on the hard basis are given. Three variants of location of moving force are investigated: on flu roller axis, which is parallel to the basis, horizontally on the tangent to the roller surface, on the tangent to the roller surface. This method of calculating the relative slip is confirmed by experimentally obtained values of sliding by a rolling roller with a diameter of 100 mm and weight 4,8 kg. Relative actual slip is not more than 1%. The difference between the actual and the estimated values of the slip ratio is less than 0,5%. The main factors are defined: the point of application of the vector of resultant and the state of the instant center of the roller speeds at its sliding.Keywords: rolling of the wheel, relative slip, ratio of slip, instant centre of velocity.
Methods of Investigation, Quality & Safety of Food Products
Sources from the scientific literature (SL) and normative documentation (ND) for the period 1996 – first half of 2017 with the goal of correlation of terms method quantitative descriptive analysis of sensory properties of food products were considered. Resolution of the method organoleptic profile (OP) in the study and the FDA was shown. Classification of data by kind of OP and the hierarchy of the descriptors is given. Features of the descriptors forming OP, depending on the objectives of the study are noted. The compilation of a dictionary of organoleptic indicators and the mapping of terms from the SL and ND for example salted fish products and preserves made. Examples of new fish products, in the OP of the main descriptors which revised the existing ND the descriptors are given. The feasibility of using OP main descriptors for assessing the quality of finished products and ND are justified.Keywords: organoleptic profile, method quantitative descriptive analysis, main descriptors, control of quality food products.
Qualitative detection of krill oil adulteration with fish species and synthetic oil by 13C NMR spectroscopy
Krill oil is most highly promoted products on the dietary supplements market, which, due to its high price, can be potentially adulterated by fish oil from different species.13C NMR spectroscopy was used to distinguish between krill and fish oil – based dietary supplements. The object of the study was 15 samples Supplements of krill oil and the same number of samples of fish oil supplements purchased at retail stores in Germany. For the analysis of the oil sample was dissolved in CDCl3 and for 20 min measured by the spectrometer Avance III (Bruker, Germany) with a frequency of 600 MHz equipped with a QNP cryoprobe. Upon receipt of the 13C NMR spectra used the following parameters: 2048 scans, 4 dummy scans, 262k time domain, the spectral width 3657,691 Hz, the gain of the receiver 362 and the time of registration 3,355 s. The adulteration of krill oil can be detected by fatty acid distribution in the sn-2 TAG position. The sensitivity of the method is about 10% of the content of fish content in blends, which is enough to detect deliberate adulteration. The same methodology can be used to recognize synthetically modified krill oil.Keywords: krill oil, fish oil, 13C NMR spectroscopy, triglycerides, fatty acid profile.