Table of contents for # 1 (361), 2018
The basic requirements for nutritional science and new approaches to improve the composition, properties and technologies of food products due to changes in the nutritional status of the person to which higher demands are placed, taking into account environmental changes, conditions and intensity of labour, the impact of stress on mental and emotional state, are considered. It is established that the main directions of improvement of the biopotential and the hygienic status of food products at the design stage prescription decisions are based on the attraction of new nutraceuticals and parapharmaceutics, eubiotikov from raw materials of natural origin or products of its deep processing. A promising direction in improving the technology and expanding the range of functional foods aimed diet, therapeutic and preventive actions needed for the organization of bio correction power and to eliminate the nutritional-deficient states of various groups population groups, is the application of neural network mathematical modeling methods, which allow with high accuracy to obtain values of output indicators of the quality of food systems, depending on the variation of initial characteristics and parameters of technological processes.Keywords: requirements of nutritional science, ways to improve composition, properties and food technology, neural network modeling of technology products.
It is shown that secondary fish raw materials (SFRM) is a source of complete peptides, fats, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, valuable minerals – calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sulfur, potassium, sodium. The using the action potential of the raw material is rationally by molecular separation into fractions of protein, lipid and mineral-protein. Innovative processing technology VRS – its hydrothermal treatment under pressure with a pre-fermentation or without it was considered. The amino acid compositions of protein products derived from the scales of sardines and heads of salmon were presented. The benefits SFRM of processing for new technology are shown. Overview developed on the basis of new technologies of bio-products for pupils and students, sports and elderly persons nutrition is given.Keywords: secondary fish raw materials, hydrothermolysis, fermentolysis, proteins, protein-mineral supplement, sports and elderly persons nutrition.
Researches in the using of the fulfilled diatomaceous earth from the brewing industry are considered. Diatomaceous earth resources are limited, its disposal is burial in landfills and costly, so search the possibilities of the use of kieselguhr sludge cost-effective, and their implementation in manufacturing will contribute to improving the environment. Kieselguhr sludge can be subjected to thermal regeneration in special plants, and then used again in the filtering process of beer. The using of reclaim of the fulfilled diatomaceous earth as a supplement in the diet of laying hens and broiler chickens increases their productivity and the quality of the products. Also the preparation of additive based on spent diatomaceous earth to the feed of cows is possible. Kieselguhr sludge can be used for cleaning soil from petroleum products and water from the herbicide paraquat and dye methylene blue. As a component of construction waste mixtures of the fulfilled diatomaceous earth improves their properties.Keywords: diatomaceous earth, kieselguhr sludge, waste from the brewing industry, additive for feed, water and soil treatment, ecology.
Food Raw Materials & Ingredients
Research of the red grapes which are grown up in the Samara region for the production of the winemaking materials
The possibility of use for production of wine-making production of the grapes which are grown up in the Samara region is studied. Two technical grades of red grapes of harvests of 2015–2016 Livadia black and Merlots are investigated. The quality of the grapes meets the requirements of GOST 31782–2012. Grapes processed by red method in semi-conditions. Fermentation was carried out on pulp with a floating cap. Dry wine yeast “Sainte Georges S101” (Fermentis, France) were used for fermentation of grape pulp. The temperature of the fermenting pulp did not exceed 28–30°C. After-fermentation of the received wine materials and the subsequent their endurance was carried out at a temperature of (14 ± 1)°C. Dry table wine materials are as a result received. The resulting wine materials meet the requirements of GOST 32030–2013 in all basic physical and chemical indicators of quality and characterized by a rather high content of phenolic substances. Wine materials had a rich ruby color, characteristic varietal taste and aroma. These results confirm the usefulness of further research in the field of study and the development of technologies for the production of wine production in the Samara region.Keywords: red grapes, grape must, fermentation, wine materials, physical and chemical indicators.
Studying of nutriyentny structure of the fruits of the apricot which are grown up in various zones of fruit growing of Dagestan
Results of studying of qualitative structure and quantitative content of saccharums, titrable acids, vitamins C and P, phenolic and pectinaceous bonds in fetuses of an apricot of grades Dzhengutayevsky, Krasnoshcheky, Honobakh and Shalakh of the flat, foothill and mountain and valley fruit zones which are well adapted to soil climatic conditions are presented in article. The work purpose – studying of features of formation of nutriyentny structure in apricot fetuses depending on high-quality accessory and influence of a high-rise gradient of the places of cultivation located at various heights above sea level. The problem of the choice of the most perspective rich was solved it is nutritious valuable components of fruit raw materials for production of superfine import-substituting food products. The taped high-quality differences of biochemical complexes of the studied fetuses allow to estimate objectively their alimentary and gustatory advantages. Content of saccharums and titrable acids in the apricots which are grown up in a flat fruit zone varied respectively from 8,2 (Dzhengutayevsky) to 11,5 g/100 см3 (Honobakh) and from 1,19 (Honobakh) to 1,54% (Dzhengutayevsky). In grade fetuses Shalakh the greatest number of pectinaceous substances – 0,84%, vitamin C – 15,7 mg %, phenolic substances – 157,1 mg % and vitamin P – 72,5 mg % is defined. Quantitative content of all identified nutrients in apricots differed depending on in what soil climatic conditions they grow. An environment of the foothills and mountain valleys promote the strengthened accumulation in apricots of titrable acids, vitamins C and P, phenolic and pectinaceous substances, and soil climatic conditions of the plain gave the chance to concentrate more saccharum in apricot fetuses. The received data on nutritional value of the studied apricots can be applied to development of compoundings of the new foodstuff intended for normalization of activity of various systems in a human body and deficiency restores on nutrients.Keywords: apricot grades, nutriyentny structure of fruits, soil and climatic factors, high-rise gradient.
Chemistry of Food Products & Materials
Justification of the powdered malt extracts characteristics as the ingredients of functional products
The design of beverages for mass and functional purposes based on powder malt (PSE) and polymalt (PPE) extracts, which are shown for use in various diets, taking into account medical and biological requirements and balance of the component composition, is still relevant. The purpose of the study is to control the composition of powdered ingredients in terms of the presence of the main components that have the maximum influence on the technological and functional properties of the extracts and retain their properties after spray drying. The task of the study is to evaluate the functional properties of extracts in terms of content, vitamins, trace elements, bioflavonoids, gluten in comparison with the value of CPR. The quantitative determination of bioflavonoids was carried out by spectrophotometric method using the Specord M-40 UV spectrophotometer (Analytik Jena AG, Germany). The activity of redox enzymes was monitored: superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was performed by a technique based on the intensity of inhibition by the source of the tetrazolium-N-blue, catalase activity – according to a method based on measuring the volume of released oxygen, peroxidase activity was determined by the colorimetric Boyarkin,s method but with modifications. The content of vitamin E was monitored by spectrophotometric method, the amount of vitamin C was determined by the iodometric method. The analysis of the gluten content was carried out by the standard method of enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) using R5 antibodies. In the composition of PSE and PPE the content of vitamins B1 was 0,69–1,33 mg %, B2 0,26–1,22 mg %, B4 9,5–11,0 mg %, the content of vitamins C and E is small and is in the interval 0,2–1,1, 0,64–0,72 mg %, respectively. Experimental data showed the presence of activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase (maximum in pea malt extract), catalase (most pronounced in buckwheat malt), which indicates the preservation of the biological activity of the extract components in the process of spray drying under optimal conditions. The maximum amount of bioflavonoids in terms of rutin was found in the extract of buckwheat malt, which predetermines the prospects for its use in the technology of functional beverages.Keywords: malt extracts, powdered ingredients, functional properties.
Study of the composition and content of organic acids in juice and wine from grapes grown in the north-western zone of Dagestan
The qualitative composition and quantitative content of organic acids in juices and wine materials from grapes of Rkatsiteli and Moldova grown under the ecological conditions of the plains and foothills of the North West zone of Dagestan were studied by the method of drip electrophoresis. Eight components are identified: wine, lemon, dairy, ant, acetic, oxalic, apple and amber acids. The amount of the found organic acids was 0,01 (dairy and amber acids) – 3,31 g/dm3 (wine acid). Their highest general mass concentration is defined in juice from Rkatsiteli – 5,3 g/dm3. It is noted that the total content of these components in the samples of juice and wine materials from grapes of Rkatsiteli and Moldova slightly depends on the height of your growing grapes above the sea level. This natural factor causes differences in ratios of acids, especially when forming their pools in wine materials. The organic acids found in the studied products of processing made from Rkatsiteli and Moldova grapes are capable to influence emergence of the extraordinary nuances of color, taste and aroma increasing quality of sparkling wines and cognacs.Keywords: organic acids, grape juice, wine materials, zoning of the grapes, Rkatsiteli, Moldova.
Study of biologically active substances of complex CO2-extract of rose hips and hawthorn as an ingredient of cosmetic products
The necessity to provide normative documentation of CO2-extracts with the aim of increasing the objectivity of assessment of their quality is shown. Three samples of complex CO2-extract of rose hips and hawthorn (firma “Yaventa”, Krasnodar) have been the object of research. The percentage masses of rose hips and hawthorn in the feedstock was accordingly 70 : 30. Main organoleptic and physico-chemical characteristics of complex CO2-extract of rose hips and hawthorn – acid value, ester value, peroxide value, mass fraction of essential oil determined. Values of peroxide value of a sample of complex CO2-extract of rose hips and hawthorn amounted to 6,8 mEq/kg and may serve as identification of the authenticity of the extract. The presence of studied complex CO2-extract of rose hips and hawthorn of biologically active substances: carotenoids, tocopherols, unsaturated fatty acids, flavonoids, terpene compounds, confirming the feasibility of its use in formulations of cosmetic products, was installed.Keywords: complex CO2-extract, rose hips, hawthorn, tocopherols, carotenoids, fatty acid composition, of terpene compounds, flavonoids.
Polysaccharides from plants of E. hissaricus which are most widespread in the region of the southern slope of the Gissar Range of the Republic of Tajikistan, are insufficiently investigated. In available literature of the data concerning selection and cleaning and also physical and chemical properties of polysaccharides from korneklubny E. hissaricus are absent. Besides questions of selection and studying of principal components of biochemical connections, such as fatty fraction, phenolic, nitrogen compounds and proteins, water-soluble sugar and also mono-, oligo- and polysaccharides from the whole roots E. hissaricus in different phases of development were not investigated that is the purpose of this work. For studying used the roots E. hissaricus, grown up at the mountain biological station Siyakukh at Institute of botany, physiology and genetics of plants of AN of RT (the southern slope of the Gissar Range, 2200 m above sea level). The content of the main biochemical compounds – fat fraction, phenolic compounds, proteins and nitrogenous compounds, water-soluble sugars, as well as polysaccharides from whole roots of E. hissaricus _in different periods of development has been studied. It was found that in the deep-dormant phase the content of fat fraction, phenolic compounds and water-soluble sugars in the roots of _E. hissaricus increases in relation to other plant grows phases.Keywords: E. hissaricus, phytochemical analysis, plant grows phases.
The technology of a semi-finished product from a grain bean in the form of a puree-like mass is developed. It has been established that the viscosity of bean pulp decreases with increasing shear rate, while increasing its moisture leads to a change in structural and mechanical parameters in accordance with known data on the weakening of structural bonds in coagulation and coagulation-condensation systems. The nature of the flow of semi-finished products from grain beans, high nutritional and biological value prove the possibility of its use in the production of a wide range of culinary products.Keywords: grain beans, haricot puree, nutritional value, rheological properties.
The influence of the race of yeast on the concentration of biogenic amines in the white table materials was explored. The sterile must of a grape variety Aligote without bacterial cells was used for the experiment. The must was fermented in the sterile conditions using races of yeasts of Russian manufacture and races of the European produced active dry yeasts. Applied races of yeasts differ by the end use. Fermentation was carried out in the similar conditions for all samples at temperature 18–20°C. On completion of the fermentation wine materials were separated from the yeast sediment and the concentrations of biogenic amines were determined by a method of high-performance liquid chromatography. Significant difference in the biogenic amines concentrations has been established in the samples of white table materials developed with various races of yeasts: amount of histamine varied from 0,08 (Vinomax Yeast) to 4,26 mg/dm3 (Pro Elif); amount of tyramine varied from 0,36 (Oenoferm Rouge) to 2,21 mg/dm3 (OK 2); amount of phenylethylamine in the wine material varied from 0,17 (Oenoferm Rouge) to 1,23 mg/dm3 (Prise de Musso); amount of putrescine varied from 0,01 (Oenoferm Rouge) to 0,33 mg/dm3 (Viniferm). Cadaverine was not found in the wine samples obtained using races of yeasts Oenoferm Rouge, SP 49, Vinomax Yeast. Must fermentation using races of yeasts Viniferm, L?food I fantastici, Shampanskaya 7-10C, France Cuve, Prise de Musso resulted in the cadaverine accumulation in amount greater than 0,27 mg/dm3. Therefore, it was proved that the race of yeast applied to the grape must fermentation makes an impact on the biogenic amines concentration in a wine material.Keywords: biogenic amines, race of yeasts, white table material.
In the formation of consumer preferences FOR food an important role belongs to appearance and aroma. At baking as a result of the melanoid formation process the color changes and typical of bread aroma appears. The purpose of work was studying the aroma-forming substances and color characteristics of the white bread at heat treatment. The objects of the research were samples of white bread heated in a drying oven at temperatures of 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210°C with a time interval of 10 minutes for 2 hours. The volatiles were investigated by gas chromatography with mass-selective detection. The image was recorded on a Canon EOS 750D camera. As a result of the research more than 120 volatile substances were detected, it is identified 76 from which 31 make an essential contribution to aroma of white bread. Basically, these are carbonyl compounds and lower fatty acids, as well as alcohols, esters and some sulfur-containing compounds. An analysis of the change in the color characteristics of white bread showed that with an increase in the heating temperature a significant darkening of the samples is observed. At a temperature of 90°C there is still a slight color change even after a 2-hour exposure to temperature, then as the temperature increases to 180–210°C, the color of the bread samples becomes darker within the first 10 minutes and then changes insignificantly. Thus, the results of research have shown that the temperature and duration of roasting should be optimized to create the most popular consumer properties of the product.Keywords: heat treatment, melanoidin reaction, white bread, aroma-forming compounds, color characteristics.
The article is devoted of method of production of bakery products from wheat flour with addition of amaranth flake flour. Important are scientific research on the development of a range of bakery products of high nutritional and biological value with the use of flour from cereal crops. Proposed for implementation in the production of baking amaranth flake flour ? a product of the “anatomical” grinding of food grains amaranth is characterized by the specific properties allowing its use for food purposes. Recommended indicators of the quality and safety of amaranth flake flour account for the peculiarities of chemical composition and technological properties as a perspective for bakery raw material. A comprehensive study carried out in laboratory conditions on the basis of a computerized assessment tool autolysis activity of bakery mixtures, allowed to predict the optimum ratio of baking wheat flour and additives in the bread recipe. Industrial approbation of a method of producing bakery products, in bakery terms, the company showed the possibility of using new raw materials when positive to wheat flour without deterioration of bakery products. The control recipe was the recipe of the loaf of sliced wheat flour with a mass of 0,4 kg, produced in industrial volume. The dough for the loaf of sliced cooked portioned straight dough method with reducing the duration of fermentation. The advantage of the proposed method of production of bakery products is strengthening its flavour and aroma as a result of input additives. The optimal dosage of amaranth flake flour in the recipe bakery products by type of loaf of sliced of 7,0% instead of the wheat flour of the highest grade not lower than group I quality.Keywords: bakery, long loaf, amaranth flake flour, the autolysis activity.
The chemical composition and biochemical properties of flour oat, barley, chickpeas, lupine and corn are given. The nutrition value of different types of flour is studied, the materials confirming relevance of use of flour composite mixes from grain and bean crops which promote expansion of the range, increase in nutrition value, improvement of quality of bakery products are presented. Composite mixes are developed for production of bread of the increased nutrition value. The prescription composition of flour composite mixes is offered. It is established that in comparison with a control sample at the bread baked of the studied composite mixes at a ratio of components, %: wheat flour 65, lupine flour 25, flour barley 5, cornmeal 5 – for the 1st composite mix and wheat flour 65, bran oat 25, flour chickpeas 5, cornmeal 5 – for the 2nd composite mix, there was no deterioration in organoleptic and physical and chemical indicators of quality. For elimination of negative impact of flour components of composite mixes on quality of white bread, carried out preliminary preparation them before a dough batch. Investigated various ways of preparation of wheat dough for the purpose of definition rational. At assessment of quality of products with the studied composite mixes established that the samples cooked on a support with cornmeal tea leaves were characterized by the best organoleptic and physical and chemical indicators in comparison with the samples cooked accelerated and non basic in the ways.Keywords: quality of wheat bread, cornmeal, flour barley, flour chickpeas, lupine flour, oat bran, flour composite mixes, non-traditional raw materials, technology of preparation of dough.
It is shown that the efficiency of the complex of refining depends on the organization and quality of the primary refining of vegetable oils directly after their retrieval. Is offered use as a plant adsorbent a fine powder of grain beans obtained by their grinding in a rotary roller disintegrator at a pressure of from 50 to 60 MPa. For the experiment, crude sunflower press oil was used. Oil treatment of the obtained organic powder from the grain beans was performed in the following way. The oil from forpress at a temperature of from 95 to 100°C were mixed in a rotary roller disintegrator with the adsorbent in the amount of 0,2% by weight of oil, kept in exposure at 90°C for 30 min and then filtered. It is determined that the new adsorbent improves the quality of oil and completely eliminates the presence in him of non-lipid impurities and chlorogenic acid. In the next step the possibility of using electroactivated water in the catholyte or anolyte as a hydrating agent in the hydration of vegetable oils studied. tap water with pH 7,1 and redox potential Eh +1,64 mV were used to obtain electroactivated water. Electroactivated water was obtained in the periodically current electrolytic cell, varying the duration of electrolysis from 1 to 30 min. Trial hydration of sunflower oil by traditional technology at 60°With sequential introduction of anolyte and catholyte with a common ratio of 1 : 1 in the amount of 1% by weight of oil carried out. It is established that hydration of sunflower oil by activated water, the last clean plant adsorbent, allows a complete removal of phospholipids and a significant decrease of the mass fraction of pigments, reduction of acid and peroxide numbers. Developed technological solutions allow to cook vegetable oils by distillation refining with milder temperatures oil and sharp superheated steam.Keywords: primary treatment of vegetable oils, modified with an organic adsorbent, hydration, activated water.
To stabilize the increased biological effectiveness the possibility of increasing the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) by reducing the amount of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in the fatty acid composition of fat from the liver of the black sea shark-katran in the summer fishing period (May – October) is investigated. With the aim of increasing the content of omega-3 PUFA in the product method of winterization was applied. Crystallization of fat from the liver of sharks-katran dogfish was conducted in a special chiller with temperature from 0 to –5°C. During cooling, the fat is slowly stirred (speed of rotation of the mixer 20–25 rpm) for uniform cooling throughout. Full crystallization of SFA under these conditions was held for 5–6 h. The cooled fat was immediately sent to precipitating in the centrifuge. Quality of fat – transparency at a temperature of 15°C and unsaturation – iodine number of fat was selected as the optimization parameters of the process. It is established that: the temperature of the refrigerated fat, the duration of centrifugation, the number of drum rotations of the centrifuge are factors that significantly affect the iodine number and the organoleptic indicators of fat. Scheme two-level full factorial experiment was applied for modeling the values of iodine number and organoleptic indicator in changing these factors. Natural values of factors corresponding to the best value of indicator of the quality of the fat: temperature of cooling fat –4°C, duration of centrifugation 30 min, and the speed of rotation of the drum centrifuge 6000 rpm were determined in the experiment. The result of this treatment, the total unsaturation of the liquid fraction increased from 122,2–138,0 up to 131,0–145,0% of iodine number. The purified obtained fat was transparent, had a light yellow color, low acid value and peroxide values. In the obtained product the content of PUFA increased by 10–30%. The content of unsaponifiables in it, including biologically active substances alkylglycerols, was not decreased. The biological effectiveness of fat increased from 0,6 to 0,9.Keywords: fat of sharks-katran liver, polyunsaturated fatty acids, the biological effectiveness of the fat, fractionation, optimization of modes, mathematical modeling.
The ways of grinding of seeds lupine and cock’s head on the existing in the confectionery industry equipment, disintegrator, roller crusher and three-roll mill with the purpose of increase of efficiency of the grinding bean cultures seeds and, consequently, their biological value after disintegrating treatment were considered. It is established that with increase in gap between the rolls, the average value of the sizes of crushed particles increase, i.e. the share of large fractions increases, small – decreases, this variance does not change significantly. When using roll crusher, by varying the size of the gap between the rolls and the rotational speed can optimize the crushing mode. It is proved that use for crushing seeds vertical three-roll mill with filled in it along with the seeds of legumes metal carbide balls due to the combinations of impact and abrasive effects on the particles of seed intensifies process reduces grind time and helps to ensure a uniform particle size distribution, providing a high effect grinding of raw materials while maintaining its quality.Keywords: grinding, lupine seeds, cock's head seeds, roll crusher, three-roll mill.
The technology for producing herbal tea based on plant raw materials has been developed. As the object of research as the main component of the developed herbal tea the echinacea purpurea (Echinacea purpurea Moench) raw material was chosen. Existing technologies of echinacea purpurea extraction and shortcomings have been analyzed. A new technology is includes preliminary preparation of raw echinacea purpurea by extraction with carbon dioxide at a temperature of 30°C, pressure of 6,5 MPa during 180 min. It is established that under the given process parameters, pretreatment of raw material is the largest extraction of hydroxy-cinnamic acids (86%) when brewing herbal tea from the odtaining product – the extraction cake of echinacea purpurea. Optimal herbal tea formulas are selected, which include the use of additional components from unconventional plant raw materials – extraction cake of the chamomile and Linden flowers, raspberry leaves, rose hips. It is determined that the ratio of 1 : 1 to 2 : 1 is the optimal ratio of the extraction cake of echinacea purpurea with the extraction cake of unconventional plant raw materials. Studies of organoleptic characteristics of the developed drinks show their high taste qualities.Keywords: functional drinks, plant raw materials, echinacea purpurea, extraction, hydroxy-cinnamic acids, immunomodulating activity.
Expansion of the assortment of products of reduced sugar content, calorie content, cost price, increased nutritional value is a priority and an urgent trend. The main recipe ingredient in the traditional formulations of marmalade is sugar, the use of which in significant amounts leads to the development of various diseases. The starch kernel is a universal sugar-containing product, which, in comparison with sugar, has a number of competitive advantages that increase the efficiency of the production process. Choosing this or that kind of treacle, you can predict the properties and quality of the finished product in advance. The highest sweetness and the lowest energy value are highly sugared molasses, low-sugar content contains the greatest amount of dextrins and has an increased caloric content. When obtaining marmalade mass on molasses of various species, the process of boiling should be carried out longer – for 1–3 min. The final content of reducing substances (glucose and maltose) in the fried marmalade masses on molasses is higher than in the control sample on sugar, which is due to the initially large content in the formula before boiling. The sample has the highest viscosity on low-saccharified molasses, which is explained by the high content of polysaccharides in it, which impart high viscous properties to the mass. Analysis of color samples showed that the highest intensity of color and saturation had a sample of marmalade based on caramel molasses. The experimental samples of the marmalade mass obtained have a strength greater than the allowable value and have a satisfactory gel-forming ability. The developed samples of marmalade because of the greater content of polysaccharides – 1,5–3 times and less easily digestible carbohydrates, can be attributed to products of reduced sugar content and dietary orientation. The new products are competitive both in terms of quality characteristics and economic efficiency.Keywords: starch molasses of various species, jelly, quality, nutritional value.
Processes & Apparatus
The possibility of automatic optimization of the drying process of legumes in a tumble dryer with a steam compression heat pump according to the technical and economic indicator when the quality of the finished product is limited. As an optimization criterion, the total energy costs per unit mass of evaporated moisture. Three components of the numerator of the optimization criterion are determined: the costs of overcoming the aerodynamic resistance of the product layer in the drum dryer, power consumption for the compressor drive of a steam compression heat pump (HPI), drum rotation drive. The energy costs for the compressor drive were calculated through the cooling capacity of the HPI. The dependence the difference in the moisture content of the drying agent before and after drying on the degree of filling the drying drum with a granular product is established for different values its initial humidity. An unambiguous functional relationship between the total energy costs per unit mass of evaporated moisture, the degree filling the drum. On the example wheat grain drying in a drum drier with a profile channel nozzle equipped with a steam compression heat pump, it is shown that it is possible to control the degree of filling of the drum by the minimum value of the specific energy costs. A combination experimental and analytical research methods developed a system for extreme control of the drying process grain in a drum dryer with a heat pump, allowing using the microprocessor to perform an operative search for the optimal degree of filling of the drum, which will significantly reduce the specific energy consumption for the drying process. At the same time, according to the current information received from the sensors, the microprocessor continuously generates a signal of deviation of the current value the filling degree from the optimal one and by means of the actuator it affects the consumption wet grain, and consequently, the degree of filling of the drum with the product, so that the total specific power of the power equipment for the selected drying regime would be minimal. For a multi-zone drum dryer, the proposed control algorithm must be repeated for each zone in which the degree of filling is controlled by sectoral dampers.Keywords: drum drier, profile nozzle, vapor compression heat pump, optimization, control.
Researches on optimization of technological process of peeling wheats grain on the developed skilled and experimental innovative installation – the special device for grain peeling are conducted. As the plan of the experiment was selected two-factor experiment of the second order; the independent variables was taken technological and constructive parameters: x1 – is the duration of the humidification wheats grain, min, x2 – gap between the blade and the body of the device, mm. The quality of peeling was determined by the mass of individual fractions, the moisture load of wheats grain and the duration of the process. The regression equations were obtained, the optimum process parameters were recommended for designed device for peeling of wheats grain.Keywords: grain of the wheat, grain peeling, technology of process of peeling, modernization of equipment.
The parameters of the flow of plastic liquid during the extrusive processing of oilseed material are defined. The pulp coming from the brazier and into an extruder was used as experimental material. The viscosity was measured with rotational viscometer under excessive hydrostatic pressure of 981 PA. The height of the layer of material in the measuring cell was 38 mm. Shear rate during the measurement ranged from 1 to 10 rad/s. The experiments to determine the dependence of viscosity on oil content material, pressure, and velocity shear, and hydraulic pressure on the oilseed material were carrying out. Analysis of the results of the experiment indicates the presence of structure formation of the material coming into the extruder.Keywords: rheology, extrusion, viscous plastic material, structure formation of the material.
The kinetics of drying of the distillery dregs at 60°C is considered. The model mixture containing water, proteins, oils and soluble carbohydrates was the object of research. The results of experimental studies of the kinetics of evaporation of water and mixtures of water-oil, water-protein, water-sugar, water-oil-protein-sugar, placed in a Petri dish, are presented. Evaporation under isothermal conditions was carried out in a Memmert drying cabinet. It is established that the addition of the substance into the water reduces the evaporation rate of water in the period of constant drying speed, the duration of evaporation in the period of falling drying speed increases. According to the results of the kinetics of drying model mixtures, it is possible to determine the activity coefficients of the components and conduct a study of the drying process of real mixtures in the design of dryers.Keywords: distillery dregs, distillery dregs drying, kinetics of evaporation, the curve of drying.
Effectiveness of the membrane use technologies for purification and concentration of pectin extracts
For evaluate the efficiency of membrane technologies for purification and concentration of pectin extracts, the process of micro-, ultra- and nanofiltration of pectin extracts of various nature has been studied. The research were carried out on a stand instrument for single filter elements with use of ceramic membrane elements PS-100M for microfiltration, polysulfonamide membrane UPM-20 for ultrafiltration and polyamide membrane OPMN-P for nanofiltration. The objects of research were pectin extracts obtained from apple and sugar beet raw materials by hydrolysis-extraction in an acid medium. It has been found that one-step concentration on ceramic tubular or hollow fiber membranes does not allow to achieve of the desired degree of concentration. Due to the fact that pectin substances are the high molecular acidic polysaccharides with a molecular mass of more than 20 kDa, and when concentrating, the kinematic viscosity of their solutions increases sharply, screening the membrane pores, the possibility of two-stage purification and concentration of pectin extracts by the micro and ultrafiltration method is studied. The high productivity of the microfiltration process for apple and sugar beet pectin extracts was established in the first 30 min. It was noted that the productivity of ceramic membranes in the process of microfiltration of apple extract is 2,5 times higher than that of sugar beet, and with ultrafiltration concentrating mass molecular weight cutoff of 50 kDa – by 2,9 times. It has been found that for apple pectin extracts the use of the UPM-20 polysulfonamide membrane in the ultrafiltration stage is not effective due to higher molecular mass of apple pectin compared to beet pectin. An additional third stage – nanofiltration is required, which provides the concentration of the pectin extract from the apple material to a solids content of 4%.Keywords: pectin extracts, food thickener, cold concentration, ultrafiltration, microfiltration, nanofiltration, degree of eterification.
Methods of Investigation, Quality & Safety of Food Products
Estimation of food products by the method of organoleptic profile with an atypical number of descriptors
In most studies of food products, the method of organoleptic profile uses about 6–9 descriptors, but the evaluation of objects with an extremely high or low number of sensory characteristics needs to be refined. Consideration of methodological features of constructing an organoleptic profile for atypical cases is the task of this article. The subjects of the study were melanoidins, know in food technology, and smoking environments, with a large number of descriptors, and chitosan with a single, as well as food products containing them from aquatic biological resources. For each object, the level of their distribution and participation in the formation of organoleptic properties of food products is individually illustrated. The peculiarities of the composition of descriptors are noted, and ways of their reduction (identical understanding of terms by experts, exclusion of synonyms, rejection of little significant descriptors) or a transition to the use of main descriptors. The results of the studies showed that the organoleptic properties of products with variations in the quantity, intensity and qualitative orientation of the descriptors can be studied by the organoleptic profile method.Keywords: profile organoleptic, descriptors, atypical number, methods of reduction.
In circulation can is vegetables, appropriate regulatory requirements on chemical, radiation and microbiological safety. Vegetables differ in ability to accumulate foreign, potentially harmful compounds of anthropogenic and natural origin due to the wide use of pesticides, fertilizers, etc. the purpose of the study is to determine the safety of fresh vegetables (zucchini, pumpkins, rutabagas, beets and rhubarb), grown in the Novosibirsk district of the Novosibirsk region. When performing the research, the commonly used test methods were used. As a result it was ascertained, that in vegetables the maintenance of toxic elements does not exceed regulation TR TS 021/2011 «On food safety» standards: cadmium in zucchini, pumpkin, beets, turnips and rhubarb (petioles), respectively 0,0039, 0,013, 0,011, less than 0,005 mg/kg; lead – 0,021, 0,016, 0,015, 0,0044, 0,021 mg/kg; arsenic – less than 0,02 mg/kg (in the petioles of rhubarb – less than 0,04 mg/kg), mercury – less than 0,002 mg/kg In the studied vegetables pesticides (hexachlorocyclohexane (?
, ?, ?-isomers) and DDT and its metabolites) not detected at detection limit 0,007 mg/kg. Nitrates in the stalks of rhubarb are not detected in the roots, their number is 863 mg/kg, not to exceed regulated (not more than 1400 mg/kg). The content of cesium-137 in the roots, pumpkin and sweet vegetables does not exceed the regulated standard documentation values, and is less of 6,7 Bq/kg in the studied vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms, including Salmonella not detected in 25 g. Beets, turnips, zucchini, pumpkin and rhubarb local growth may be in circulation without any restrictions at observance of storage conditions and recommendations for use (consumption) established by the manufacturer.
Calculation of phase equilibrium of system vapor–liquid in ternary mixtures isoamylol–ethanol–water and isobutanol-ethanol-water at high concentrations of higher alcohols
The experimental and calculated data are compared in the description of phase equilibrium by the methods of the group contribution of UNIQUAC and NRTL for three-component isoamylol-ethanol-water and isobutanol-ethanol-water mixtures of the vapor-liquid system at atmospheric pressure and high concentrations of higher alcohols (10-20% by weight). The Antoine equation was used for calculation of the elasticity of vapors of pure components. The Antoine constants and the pairwise energy parameters of the binary interaction of the investigated components of the UNIQUAC and NRTL methods are given. Both methods well describe balance in these systems.Keywords: highest alcohols, equilibrium vapor-liquid, distillation, rectification, group contribution methods UNIQUAC, NRTL.