Table of contents for # 2-3 (362-363), 2018
Whey is a by-product in the production of cheese, cottage cheese and casein as a universal raw material of animal origin is considered. The results of studies of Russian and foreign scientists of the chemical composition of whey are summarized. The main directions of its industrial processing are shown. A wide range of products from whey and directions of their use in different industries are presented.Keywords: by-product of dairy production, nutritional value, products from whey.
The review of the ways of biological monitoring of diseases of vegetable raw materials applied now is provided. Despite the fast growth of scientific research in the area of extending the shelf life of plant raw materials, preventing losses from microbial damage is still an urgent task. It is noted that chemical control methods of diseases of plants are toxiferous and pose a threat for health of the consumer; now searching of the alternate, safer and eco-friendly ways of monitoring of diseases of products of crop production is conducted. It is shown that those are methods of biological monitoring of microbial damage. The biological products suitable for fight against phytopathogens of plants and also new perspective strains of bacteria which can be applied to fight against microbial damage are considered. The conclusion is drawn on prospects of developments of technologies of biological monitoring of microbial damage of production of crop production.Keywords: biological control, crop production, antagonist bacteria, bacteriocins, bacteriophages, phytopathogens, microbial damage.
The review of the most optimal technological operations of production of champagne in Krasnodar region is presented. Grapes varieties, which form the best quality of the finished product, and factors affecting on the organoleptic characteristics of champagne, are given. Main technological stages of processing of champagne wines are listed. The effect of temperature processing of wine materials on the quality of the finished product is shown.Keywords: processing of champagne, wine materials, temperature processing, wine blending.
Food Raw Materials & Ingredients
Results of researches of a structure and properties of hypodermic and abdominal fat-raw of the African ostrich are presented. The aim of the work is to study the structure and properties of ostrich fat for scientific substantiation of its processing into food products of new generation. In the course of histological studies, it was determined that the structure of subcutaneous and abdominal fat in an ostrich is quite similar. Their frame is a thin network, consisting of loose fibrous connective tissue. With visual assessment, external differences were revealed between subcutaneous and abdominal fat in terms of color and consistency. The distinctive characteristic of fat of the African ostrich is the low temperature of melting – 30–32°C for internal, 35–37°C for hypodermic which formed the basis for the creation of a cosmetic product. Fat of the African ostrich has a significant amount of saponification, equal to an average of 204,0 mg KOH/g, which is positive from a technological point of view. Low acid and peroxide indicates high hygienic properties and resistance to oxidation. In the subcutaneous and in the internal fat of the ostrich the main fatty acids are palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic and linoleic, the rest are accompanying, and accordingly they will predetermine the properties of the finished product. In conclusion, it should be noted that the fat of the African ostrich has high consumer properties and is not inferior to many types of fats of farm animals and birds, and given the prevalence of unsaturated fatty acids in this type of raw material, we can assume a favorable scenario for the development of its use in recipes for new high-quality food and consumer goods.Keywords: fat of an ostrich, structure of fatty tissue, fat and acid structure, physical and chemical properties, functional products, food industry, food raw materials, consumer goods.
Сomparative evaluation of nutritional and biological value of the chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.) and the clary sage seeds (Salvia sclarea L.) using food combinatorics
Comparative analysis of the physico-chemical compositions of the сhia (С) seeds (Salvia hispanica L.) and the clary sage (CS) seeds (Salvia sclarea L.) was carried out. The food combinatorics methods were used to assess the nutritional and biological value of the studied plant raw materials. The indicators of the biological value of protein and lipid constituents of samples of sage seeds were determined. The degree of human satisfaction in mineral substances and dietary fiber was calculated at the use of 15 g (recommended rate) seed sage. It was established that the indicator of biological value of the protein component of С is slightly higher than the same indicator of CS seeds, but in terms of nutritional value CS seeds exceed С seeds. Сhia seeds contain a significant amount of dietary fiber in demand in the formulations of functional products. The results of the study can be used in the design of multicomponent foods with specified properties.Keywords: seeds of сhia, seeds of clary sage, vegetable raw materials, functional ingredient, nutritional value, biological value, physico-chemical composition.
The activity of the main oxidative enzymes – autodependencies (AD) and peroxidase (PO) in the must and wine produced from classic grape varieties and their clones and new varieties of intra – and interspecific hybrids were investigated. The experiments were carried out without processing of the must and wines by sulfur dioxide and bentonite. It was found that the activity of АD and PO had the highest values in the samples of grape-based hybrid grape varieties Tsitronnyy Magaracha, Viorika and Barkhatnyy. Fermentation of the must led to a decrease in the activity of oxidative enzymes due to their transformation or sorption by yeast shells. A similar pattern is set for must and wine from red grapes: the greatest activity, АD found in samples of the must from grapes of new varieties Alkor, Krasnostop anapskiy and Krasnostop AZOS, characterized by a high accumulation of phenolic compounds. Samples from grapes of Alkor, Vladimir, Mitsar varieties has rather high activity PO. Fermentation must of grapes from all the studied red varieties led to a decrease in the activity of oxidative enzymes AD and PO in wine materials, but this decrease was less significant in comparison with samples of white table wines.Keywords: autodependencies, peroxidase, grape variety, clone grapes protoclones of grapes, a hybrid variety of grapes, raw material for table wines.
Chemistry of Food Products & Materials
Influence of nature of solvent on the process of micelle formation of phospholipids in sunflower lecithins
The influence of the nature of the solvent on the process of micelle formation of phospholipids contained in sunflower lecithins was investigated. To study the process of micelle formation phospholipids were isolated from sunflower lecithin by degreasing it with acetone in accordance with the method given in GOST 32052–2013. Two systems were prepared: phospholipids–model oil – isolated phospholipids in the form of a solution in chloroform were injected, stirring, into the refined deodorized frozen oil when heated to 60°C, then the chloroform residue was removed under vacuum and phospholipids–carbon tetrachloride – phospholipids were dissolved in CCl4. The value of the indicator of the critical concentration of micelle formation based on the measurement of interphase tension of these systems at the border with distilled water was determined. The interphase tension of phospholipid solutions in carbon tetrachloride and model oil at the boundary with distilled water was measured by stalagmometric method at 20, 35 and 45°C. For achievement on a surface of the section of phases of the condition close to equilibrium, time of contact of solutions with water was regulated within 15 min. It has been found that the degree of mycelium formation of phospholipids in carbon tetrachloride is significantly lower than in model oil, which allows to recommend carbon tetrachloride as a solvent that does not contain protons, reducing the degree of mycelium formation of phospholipids in lecithin and thereby increasing the number of reaction-able phospholipids molecules, when determining the acid number of lecithin by nuclear magnetic relaxation.Keywords: phospholipids, sunflower lecithins, model oil, carbon tetrachloride, process of micelle formation, critical concentration of micelle formation.
Studying of activity of inhibitors of proteolytic enzymes in products of processing of grain haricot (Phaseolus vulgaris)
The content of inhibitors of proteolytic enzymes in bean flour, in puree from beans harvested in water and in puree from cereal beans welded in milk whey after soaking in water is determined. The use of whey as a liquid medium for cooking grain beans after soaking is substantiated. The technology of semi-finished product in the form of bean puree, providing for soaking beans in water, cooking in milk whey, coarse grinding of the bean brought to the ready, subsequent fine grinding and cooling is developed. It has been found that the activity of trypsin inhibitors in bean puree is much lower than in bean flour, which makes mashed potatoes a more preferred semi-finished product for the production of a wide range of culinary products.Keywords: grain beans, haricot puree, nutritional value, activity of inhibitors, proteolytic enzymes.
Influence barohydrothermal processing on technological properties and biological value of grain einkorn
Biochemical characterization of grains einkorn Kuban breeding was given. The results of the study of the biological value of these samples with using Tetrahymena pyriformis are given. The qualitative and quantitative compositions of the surface microflora of different parts of the grain are determined. Barohydrothermal processing (BHTP) of grain is carried out, and its influence on technological and, biological of grain einkorn is defined. Regimes of BHTP samples of the grain einkorn moistened to 20, 25 and 30%, with the braving of the grain for 40 min and subsequent autoclaving at an excess pressure of 0,1 MPa within 3, 5 and 10 min are proposed and tested. It is established that BHTP allows to deactivate the surface microflora of the grain einkorn. Positive influence BHTP for increase the biological value of grain einkorn is revealed. A comparative assessment of the culinary properties of native grains einkorn and grains einkorn after BHTP showed a reduction in the time of cooking cereals by 20 min (from 60 to 40 min).Keywords: barohydrothermal processing, relative biological value, microflora of grain, kinetics of moistening and cracking process, vitreousity of grain, einkorn.
The influence of flour composite mixture containing, % by weight of the mixture: 5 cornmeal, 10 chickpea flour, 20 oat bran, 65 wheat flour 1st grade, on baking properties of rye flour is investigated. It is established that with increasing dosages of the components of the composite mixture introduced into rye flour, an increase in the incidence of falling number is observed. The value of the dilution number is calculated. Linear dependence between magnitude of the dilution number and composition of the mixture is graphically shown. It is proved that the introduction into rye flour 5% cornmeal, 10% chickpea flour, 20% oat bran, 65% wheat flour 1st grade reduces the activity of alpha-amylase and provides the necessary quality of baked bread. The expediency of use of flour composite mixture in technology of bread from rye and mixtures of rye and wheat flour for the purpose of improvement of its baking and functional properties is shown.Keywords: bread, rye flour, flour composite mixtures, baking properties, autolytic activity, falling number, dilution number.
Influence of flour composite mixture on the characteristics carbohydrate-amylase complex of wheat flour
Results of investigation of influence of components of flour composite mixtures – lupine, cornmeal and barley flour on autolytic activity and carbohydrate-amylase complex of wheat flour of 1st grade are presented. To determine the autolytic activity by of falling number (FN) flour samples with additives and without them additives were brought in the amount of 5, 15, 25, 35%. It is established that with the introduction of 5% barley flour and cornmeal autolytic activity does not change significantly, with an increase in the number of additives, the index of FN flour increases from 3 to 14% and autolytic activity decreases. Values of indicators of gas-forming and water-absorbing ability of flour composite mixtures increase in comparison with similar indicators of a control sample – wheat flour of 1st grade without additives. It is recommended to use the developed flour composite mixture containing 65% wheat flour, 25% lupine flour, 5% cornmeal, 5% barley flour in the production of wheat breads to improve the rheological properties of the dough and, therefore, the quality of bread.Keywords: carbohydrate-amylase complex, falling number, autolytic activity, gas-forming ability, water-absorbing ability, wheat flour, flour composite mixture.
Development of recipes of bakery products with the use of flour, received from extruded grain of cereal crops
Studies were made of the feasibility and feasibility of using flour obtained from extruded grain of cereals in bakery technology. The possibility and expediency of using flour, obtained from extruded grain of cereals – wheat, barley and oats, in the technologies of bakery products is theoretically substantiated and experimentally confirmed. It is established that the introduction of this additive into the bakery recipe at a dosage of 15 to 20% of the weight of wheat baking flour allows to obtain bakery products with improved consumer properties, good digestibility and increased nutritional value. The received products corresponded to requirements of the standard documentation.Keywords: extruded grain, flour, bakery products, quality, nutritional value.
Influence of enzyme compositions with different composition of hydrolytic and lipolytic enzymes of fungal and bacterial origin on organoleptic, physical and chemical parameters of samples of no-salt breadsticks of increased nutritional value and their microstructure was investigated. Enzyme composition consisted: A – of alpha-amylase and endo-xylanase; B – alpha-amylase, endo-xylanase, maltogenic alpha-amylase; C – alpha-amylase, endo-xylanase, maltogenic alpha-amylase, phospholipase. The dough for the breadsticks was prepared by straight dough method of baking wheat flour 1st grade, flour from flax seeds, yeast pressed, salt cooking food, high-conversion glucose syrup, grape seed oil and drinking water. The rational enzyme composition in formulation for no-salt breadsticks of high nutritional value defined. It is established that the absence of salt cookbook food in formulation breadsticks worsens their indicators of quality. However, the introduction of hydrolytic enzyme composition A in a sample of breadsticks without salt improved organoleptic and physical and chemical parameters of the finished product – contributed to an increase in the swelling coefficient and strength. The package of technical documentation production no-salt breadsticks “Fantaziya” is developed.Keywords: no-salt nutrition, non-traditional raw materials, enzyme composition, breadsticks, organoleptic and physical-chemical parameters.
Innovative technology of pasta of the increased nutrition value with use of ultrasonic magnetostrictive processing of flour
The technology of production of macaroni products increased nutritional value has been proposed. The technology of magnetostrictive cleaning of flour, preparation of a complex flour mixture with increased nutritional value, pressing of pasta and acoustic drying in a fluidized layer is based on the use of modernized technological equipment. The device for ultrasonic magnetostrictive processing of flour provides a reduction in the contamination of wheat flour from pathogenic microorganisms and mold. The use of an ultrasonic concentrator in the macaroni press makes it possible to produce high-quality pressing of semi-finished pasta products from a complex mixture of flour and an enrichment additives. Modernization of the device for drying macaroni products helps to speed up the process of drying pasta with increased content of animal protein without reducing the quality indicators. To achieve this goal, unconventional raw materials (whole oat flour) – 30% and freeze-dried meat (veal) – 15% of the total volume of the test were included in the composition of the pasta. The electrohydraulic grinding chamber allows to drop into the composition of macaroni products of all nutrients the grain of oats and to reduce the amount of technological equipment for the preparation of the ingredient. The influence of ultrasound on the complex pasta in the process of pressing and drying allowed the use of wheat flour of soft varieties with low gluten content. The technology of production of macaroni products increased nutritional value has been proposed. The technology of magnetostrictive cleaning of flour, preparation of a complex flour mixture with increased nutritional value, pressing of pasta and acoustic drying in a fluidized layer is based on the use of modernized technological equipment. The device for ultrasonic magnetostrictive processing of flour provides a reduction in the contamination of wheat flour from pathogenic microorganisms and mold. The use of an ultrasonic concentrator in the macaroni press makes it possible to produce high-quality pressing of semi-finished pasta products from a complex mixture of flour and an enrichment additives. Modernization of the device for drying macaroni products helps to speed up the process of drying pasta with increased content of animal protein without reducing the quality indicators. To achieve this goal, unconventional raw materials (whole oat flour) – 30% and freeze-dried meat (veal) – 15% of the total volume of the test were included in the composition of the pasta. The electrohydraulic grinding chamber allows to drop into the composition of macaroni products of all nutrients the grain of oats and to reduce the amount of technological equipment for the preparation of the ingredient. The influence of ultrasound on the complex pasta in the process of pressing and drying allowed the use of wheat flour of soft varieties with low gluten content. The results of the experimental studys: the drying time, the stabilization and cooling of pasta was shortened; production of high-quality macaroni products of increased nutritional value and humidity of 11%; abbreviated pollution by mesophilic aerobic and facultative-aerobic microorganisms; the density of finished products is increased by 12–15%.Keywords: magnetostrictive processing of flour, freeze-dried meat, complex pasta dough, pressing, drying, packing.
Effectiveness of the technology diffusion-pressing extraction of sucrose out from sugar-beet cossettes
Features of diffusion and diffusion-pressing methods of extraction of sucrose from sugar-beet cossettes are considered when working on diffusion apparatus with inclined, column and rotational types of construction. The use of pulp water as part of the extracting is substantiated. The cost-effectiveness of realization diffusion-pressing extraction of sucrose from sugar-beet cossettes is estimated. It was established that the effective extraction is carried out at a flow rate of the diffusion juice of 105–110% to beet mass, reaching a residual sucrose content in fresh pulp 2,0–2,5% to its mass. Further extraction of sucrose by pressing to a solids content of 24–28% in pressed pulp provides achievement of losses with pressed pulp at 0,35% to beet mass. The expected economic effect of shifting to a diffusion-pressing method of sucrose extraction is 62–72 million rubles for a factory with a capacity of 4000 tons of beet per day, and also the production season is reduced by 10–12 days.Keywords: sugar beet production, diffusion-pressing extraction of sucrose, pulp press water, sugar-beet cossettes.
Influence of dietary fibres of the phytogenesis on the technological properties of the dough of soft wafers
The influence of hydrated wheat fibers Kametsel FW 200 and orange fibers Citri-Fi 200, introduced into the dough instead of the confectionery fat to improve the nutritional and biological value of the product on the properties of soft waffles was investigated. Wafer dough samples: control – dough without additives, dough samples with replacement of 10, 15 and 20% confectionery fat by wheat fibers Kametsel FW 200, dough samples with replacement of 10, 15 and 20% confectionery fat by orange fibers Citri-Fi 200 – prepared and determined their technological properties – humidity, density and the number of flows of the wafer sheet. It is established that the introduction of Citri-Fi 200 dietary fibers in the studied dosages of 10, 15 and 20% by weight of fat in the formulation of wafer dough increases the number of flows the dough above the permissible level, i.e. increases the loss of raw materials. A sample of wafer dough with the addition of 15% hydrated dietary fiber Kametsel FW 200 has optimal quality indicators.Keywords: soft waffles, dietary fiber, technological properties of wafer dough, Kametsel FW 200, Citri-Fi 200, product enrichment.
The recipes of the new dairy desserts enriched with natural food additives have been developed. During the developing of an original management concept, not only an attractive appearance, but also high organoleptic and functional properties, as well as product safety has been followed. As objects of the research, were used pomegranate juice of direct extraction and powder from seeds of pomegranate. In the prototypes part of the white flour, part of granulated sugar, and whole cocoa powder was replaced with the powder from the seeds of the pomegranate, as well as completely excluded potassium sorbate and flavoring. A three-part dairy dessert consisting of biscuit, sour cream and decorative trim was developed. Found that the most harmonious by organoleptic indications and optimal by structural and mechanical properties was a sample of a biscuit containing 10% of pomegranate seed powder by weight of the prescription components. For the most original, and to enhance nutritional value of the new dairy desserts was made a decision to use toppings that were based on pomegranate juice as the decorative trim. The organoleptic and physicochemical parameters of the developed dairy desserts have been studied. Quality indicators were evaluated by using standardized methods. It was found: in indicators of security, designed dairy products meet the requirements of Customs Union Technical Regulations “On Safety of Foodstuffs” (CUTR 021/2011) and Customs Union Technical Regulations “On Safety of Milk and Dairy Products” (CUTR 033/2013). As the result the recipes of the new of dairy desserts with high consumer properties and enhanced nutritional value, as well as technical specifications for the new types of dairy desserts “Pomegranate” and sour cream with biscuit “Pomegranate with ginger” have been developed.Keywords: dairy dessert, topping, pomegranate juice, pomegranate seed powder, biscuit, nutritional value, consumer properties, food safety.
Food Engineering, Processes, Equipment & Automation of Food Production
Sorption characteristics of bread from the einkorn grain are defined in order to optimize the storage conditions of the product. Flour from the einkorn grain of type 2300 was made on chair of technology of grain, fodder, bakery and confectionery of University of food technologies, had the basic parameters – humidity of 12%, ash content of 2,3%, acidity of 1,9°H, the content of damp gluten of 1,6% and represented dry powdery substance of beige and brown color, with the taste and smell typical for the dried product which has no foreign taste and smell. From the obtaining flour have baked bread: weight 398 g, the volume of 560 cm3, formability (H/D) 0,41; color cover dark brown, cork smooth, tough; pulp deep yellow color, with uniform porosity, a sense of mild taste of peanuts. Technological losses amounted to 9,54. Sorption characteristics of baked bread samples were determined using Autosorp apparatus. The method of high-performance liquid chromatography was used for humidity control. The results of the experiment were described by three modified models. It is established that the modified Oswin model is the most adequate for the description of sorption isotherms of the studied product – bread from the einkorn grain. Monomolecular moisture calculated by linearization of the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) equation for the studied samples of bread from the einkorn grain at a temperature of 25°C and a relative humidity of 20–60% for the adsorption and desorption processes was 4,80 and 4,69% of the dry mass, respectively.Keywords: grain einkorn, bread from einkorn, monomolecular moisture content, adsorption, desorption, sorption isotherms.
Obtained the analytical solution of two-dimensional layered pressure flow in the screw channel, allow to simulate the flow-dynamic pressure characteristics of rectangular channels screw presses taking into account the hydraulic resistance of the forming device and calculate the mass flow-dynamic pressure characteristics of the extruders in a wide range of the geometry of the coils, as in its cross section and along the length of the channel.Keywords: Poisson equation, two-dimensional boundary value problem, boundary conditions of mixed type.
Researches of process of heat treatment of seeds of flax for decrease in their humidity are carried out. Experiments were carried out at the laboratory facility by heating the raw material in the flow of infrared (IR) radiation – micronization. The experimental dependences of seed temperature and humidity on the heating time under different modes of infrared heat treatment are obtained. The dependence of the current moisture content on the grain temperature and initial humidity is obtained and its invariance to the heating regimes is established. The proposed mathematical model the change of moisture content from the temperature of the seeds and initial moisture content. To develop the model of moisture loss used dependences describing the change in temperature and humidity from time to time in the heating process, obtained A.V. Lykov and his students. Rational technological regimes of obtaining stabilized flax seeds with minimal activity of oxidative enzymes improved organoleptic properties and increased volume are explain. The developed method consists of cleaning flax seed from impurities, steaming by water vapor, heat treatment by IR irradiation, and cooling to room temperature.Keywords: flax seed, infrared heating, humidity, micronization, lipase, lipoxygenase, steaming.
Kinetic regularities of drying of coriander grinded and deprived of essential oils by steam distillation have been investigated. Existing technologies of drying for plant materials have been considered. It has been proved on reasonable grounds that conductive drying is more expedient for raw materials based on coriander deprived of essential oils. It has been shown that in small scale enterprises conductive drying of coriander deprived of essential oils can be carried out in heaters used for production of vegetable oils. Initial masses of samples of coriander deprived of essential oils were determined including mass fractions of moisture and the content of volatile substances in them. Samples were dried in a cupboard drier at the temperature 100°C and 115°C, weighed every 10 minutes and their mass loss was evaluated. Using the obtained data, curves of drying u = f(?) and curves of drying speed N = f(u) of coriander deprived of essential oils were drawn. It has been found out that for the examined range of temperatures the critical moisture content for coriander deprived of essential oils is the same and equal to 43%. According to the obtained data, the intensity and the speed of water evaporation at the first and the second stages of drying have been determined. The results of the carried out research can be used in the analysis of performance and estimation of equipment to put the process of drying of coriander deprived of essential oils into operation.Keywords: container-type technology, coriander deprived of essential oils, fatty oil, convectional and conductive drying, kinetic regularities, and internal diffusion.
Mathematical modeling of heat transfer in the convective drying of sugar beet pulp is suggested by transferring the thermal energy of superheated steam of reduced pressure through the surface of the product particle and the endothermic phase transition of water molecules from the bound state to gaseous. When stating the simulation problem, the kinetic equation for changing the temperature of a particle is considered, starting from the balance of thermal energy. Taking into account the assumed assumptions, the solution of the model first reduces to determining the temperature dependence of the particle size of the sugar beet pulp in the height of the layer from the temperature of the steam of the reduced pressure. When drying the sugar beet pulp in a fluidized bed, the temperature of the particles is averaged over the residence time in different parts of the drying chamber, and the kinetic equation is used for the steam temperature in each section of the drying chamber that is resolved relative to the temperature of the particle. Identification of model parameters from experimental data was carried out and a graphic interpretation of simulation results was given. The model can be used in the operational control system for technological parameters of the drying process for sugar beet pulp by superheated steam of reduced pressure, taking into account the limitations on the quality indicators of the dried product.Keywords: drying, sugar beet pulp, superheated steam of low pressure, kinetics.
The work purpose – increase in accuracy and reliability of management of process of production of biomass of aerobic microorganisms, decrease in specific energy consumption and increase in an exit of ready culture. Algorithm of process of production of biomass of aerobic microorganisms is developed. Process of cultivation was carried out in a vertical fermenter of Sartorius Stedim Biotech of the Biostat series with the working volume of 100 liters intended for cultivation of microorganisms. For stabilization of temperature conditions of cultivation in an inokulyator, direct cultivation of culture of microorganisms in a fermenter and cooling of ready culture in reception collections carried out preparation of warm and cold water with use of the paroezhektorny refrigerator working in the thermal pump mode. The control algorithm of production of biomass of microorganisms of Aspergillus awamori 2250 has allowed to provide stabilization of parameters in the field of optimum values and to increase an exit of ready culture; to prevent emission of the fulfilled heat carriers in the environment; to provide essential economy of heat power expenses due to recovery and utilization of the fulfilled energy carriers in the closed thermodynamic cycles on material and power streams.Keywords: management, fermenter, cultivation, inulinase, refrigerator, energy efficiency.
Development of construction of two-input generating installations on based of renewable energy sources
The need of the development efficient axial-flow generators to convert the kinetic energy of wind and light energy of the sun into electrical energy of high quality is substantiated. The comparative analysis of the existing generator sets and developed by the authors at the level of inventions is given. The design features and operating procedures of two-input axial generator sets, which allow to transform energy of renewable sources into high quality electric energy, are described.Keywords: renewable energy sources, power supply quality, wind-solar generator, axial magnetic core, summation of energy, ecology, loss of energy.
The design of the filter with a dynamic filter layer based on magnetically controlled particles is presented. As the main approach to the technical implementation of the filter design, the method of controlling the structure of the particle array by an external rotating magnetic field is used. The possibility of creation of a dynamic cellular structure of a close-packed filter element of particles and also process of self-wiping of the installation which is not demanding padding utilities is shown. Experimental and theoretical data of the main filtration equipment characteristics showed a good convergence. The main results of work are the mechanism of formation of a dynamic cellular structure of a filter element and its morphology, the analysis of quality of the filtered environment after passing through a filter element and also the main technical the characteristic of the filter and its opportunity. The received results are a basis for carrying out a number of researches on scaling of the developed installation of the self-cleaning filter with a dynamic cellular structure to the commercial scale with the prospect of application in water treatment processes.Keywords: filter materials, the self-cleaning filter, sedimentation control, microfiltration, the rotating magnetic field, the microsphere particles, filter element.
Methods of Investigation, Quality & Safety of Food Products
The aim of the work – study the effect of temperature and heating time on the degradation of amino acids. In the studies, samples of white wheat bread were heat treated at temperatures of 90, 120, 150 and 180°C with a time interval of 30 min for 2 h. Determination of the number of amino acids was carried out using HPLC from pre-columnar derivatization using o-phthalic aldehyde. It is established that with temperature increase and increase in duration of heating decrease in content of amino acids is observed. Some peculiarities of the reaction of amino acids to the effect of temperature have been established. For example, the decrease in the content of aspartic acid is more affected by the high temperature than the time of heat treatment. A noticeable decrease in tyrosine content is observed during heat treatment for 30–60 min at a temperature of 180°C. For arginine it is characterized by a linear decrease of the content in the range of 120–180°C. Histidine slows down with a slight increase in temperature, and at high temperatures, an increase of the heat treatment time accelerates the reaction. The amount of lysine falls more strongly with increasing temperature, and the heating time affects slightly, and, the higher the temperature, the less time affects. An increase in the content of individual amino acids is also noted, which is probably connected with the process of resynthesis.Keywords: white wheat bread, melanoidin formation, heat treatment, amino acids.
Totality of power impacts, conditions and means of energy supply to prescription components of the dough
The subsystem “The totality of power impacts, conditions and means of energy supply for prescription components of the dough” of primary topological scheme of dough kneading was created and detailized. It is shown that the energy impact on the dough determines its degree of processing. The energy supply conditions for prescription ingredients when mixing the dough can be measured by the intensity, duration and impact efficiency. One of the conditions for increasing the impact of the intensity of kneading is to improve the structures of the working chambers and kneading organs, methods of their impact on the dough taking into account specific processes that occur during kneading. Means of power supply to the components can be separate mixing machines as well as their combination in conjunction with auxiliary devices, to ensure the intensification of the process of dough kneading.Keywords: prescription (recipe) components, energy impact, kneading, dough, intensity, duration, working body, dough mixer.
Presents the results of studies on the basis of which criteria were developed and identification of elements of environmental systems, manufactured food products and technological blocks was carried out; a new concept of technological preparation of the processes of formation of functional physics-chemical and physical-mechanical properties of a polydispersity product was developed. The methodology of realization and optimization of the technological block with identification of elements of the environment of operation and objects of images, technological influence is proved. The interrelation of high-quality indicators of functional elements, operational environment and technological influences is established, an algorithm and working programs of model of information technologies and methodology of her synthesis are shown.Keywords: technological block, quality, environment, system, module, structure, technological operation.
Mathematical model (MM) of technical and chemical accounting and control of sugar production, designed to automatically determine the technical and economic performance of the enterprise, monitoring the progress of regulatory indicators, operational management of production, is developed. The applied package of visual-block modeling allows solve successfully complex problems of programming and modeling of static and dynamic objects of the food industry. The proposed calculation formulas within MM make it possible to develop a computer program for the sugar industry. The introduction of MM technical and chemical accounting at the enterprise will contribute to improving the efficiency of production by improving its technical and economic indicators and, therefore, increasing the output of high quality products. This MM of calculation will allow in the operational mode (in seconds) to determine the main technological indicators characterizing the efficiency of use of raw materials and output of finished products at any time of the production process for a certain period.Keywords: sugar beet production, automation system, computer program, mathematical model, technical and economic indicators, accounting and control of production.
Comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of antioxidant and hepatoprotective action of food additives which obtained from grape pomace white varieties for various technologies, was carried out in experiments on laboratory animals. It is established that the food additive “Grape Powder” (GP), obtained from the pomace of white grape varieties by the developed technology, allows, in comparison with the control sample of the food additive, to reduce the content of lipid peroxidation products in the serum to a greater extent – Malon dialdehyde, diene conjugates and ketodienes, which indicates a higher efficiency of antioxidant action of GP on the organism of animals, due to the high content of micronutrients with antioxidant properties. The additive GP shows a higher efficiency of hepatoprotective action, which consists in a significant reduction in the level of alanine aminotransferase activity in the blood serum, compared to the control sample of the additive.Keywords: food additive, grape pomace, electromagnetic field of ultrahigh frequencies, lipid peroxidation products, antioxidant properties, hepatoprotective properties.