Food technologyIssues → № 4 (364), 2018

Table of contents for # 4 (364), 2018

Scientific Review

6

Substantiation of necessity of application of phospholipids in the production of functional foodstuffs

N.N. Cornen, S.A. Kalmanovich, T.A. Shakhrai, E.P. Viktorova
Annotation

The analysis of modern scientific ideas about the role of phospholipids (FL) in ensuring the functioning of biomembranes and their regulatory function in the most important cellular processes is carried out. So, 50% of a liver, 1/3 brain isolating and protective fabrics surrounding a brain and spinal cord consist of FL. According to the recommendations of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, the physiological need of an adult in FL is 5–7 g/day. According to the conducted studies, in the nutritional status of the Russian population, the deficit of FL is from 50 to 80%. It is shown that the current level of knowledge about the physiological role of FL contributes to the creation and introduction of phospholipid products based on FL and phospholipid supplements on the basis of vegetable lecithins, the use of which can normalize the nutritional status. The description of phospholipid products and dietary supplements developed by scientists of the Kuban State Technological University of the Tonus series (Super Tonus, Phyto Tonus, Tonus Plus) and the Vitol series (Vitol, Vitol Kholin and Vitol FEI) is given. The possibilities of using vegetable lecithins, phospholipid products and dietary supplements on their basis are shown as multifunctional prescription components in the production of functional and specialized food products.

Keywords: phospholipids, physiological role of phospholipids, vegetable lecithins, nutrition, phospholipid supplements, phospholipid products, functional foodstuffs.

Chemistry of Food Products & Materials

11

Changes of physico-chemical indexes and chemical elements of grain of rice regul by its processing into the groats

T.G. Korotkova, A.P. Donenko, YU.N. Sedoy
Annotation

Physical and chemical indicators and content chemical elements for four samples of rice variety Regul selected after the main stages of the processing of raw rice grain into cereals at the LLC “South Rice Company” (SRC) (village Kholmskaya, Krasnodar region) to determine the purity of the products: purified raw rice, rice after peeling, grinding and polishing. It is established that as a result of processing grain of rice in croup, the content of fat, phosphorus, total ash and crude fiber decreases, the energy value of rice cereal increases. Content of chemical elements in the rice crop meets the maximum permissible levels of toxic elements in accordance with TR CU 015/2011 “An grain safety”. Basic metals are contained in the outer layers of the grains, mg/kg: copper 1,6 ± 0,4; plumbum 1,4 ± 0,4; zinc 1,9 ± 0,5; iron 95,0; manganese 5,2 ± 1,3; silicon dioxide 6,5%. In rice samples after polishing they are not found. The content of lead in rice grains is less than 0,5 mg/kg. The technology of rice grain production at LLC “SRC” provides removal of toxic micro-impurities and purity of the products.

Keywords: rice grain, rice groats, rice processing, toxic metals, product safety.
15

Study of parsley essential oil

T.V. Pelipenko, O.N. Spoda, S.K. Mustafaev, V.E. Krepak, E.E. Kochieva
Annotation

The study of quantitative and qualitative changes of parsley essential oil Petroselinum sativum based on herbal raw materials in a phase of the technical ripeness of a plant – in the period from milk-ripe stage to milky-waxy stage of fruit ripeness of central parsley umbels allowed us to find out that at this stage the output of essential oils grows by 50%. There has been a steady increase in the total content of essential oils which leads to the increase in the output of most of its components. The biggest growth is observed for parsley camphor (300%), which mass fraction is 7,8%. It is necessary to take this fact into consideration during the harvest season and in the processing of parsley herbal raw materials P. sativum. It should be mentioned that hydrocarbons constitute 70% from the total amount of essential oil components, among them are 1,3,8-p-menthatriene, as well as б- and в-pinenes, limonene. On the base of carried out research it is recommended to harvest parsley herbal raw materials at the milky-waxy stage of fruit ripeness of central parsley umbels. It is expedient to study changes in essential oils of various plants’ organs at various stages of technical ripeness for more complete characteristics of qualitative and quantitative changes and the development of complex technology of processing of parsley herbal raw materials.

Keywords: parsley, herbal raw materials, component composition of essential oils, properties of essential oils, parsley camphor, 1,3,8-p-menthatriene.
18

Influence of the type of yeast on quality of grape wine material

P.A. Chaldaev, A.G. Kashaev, A.E. Leuchev, S.S. Malyshkin
Annotation

Possibility of improvement of quality of wine materials by means of selection of a necessary strain of wine yeast is considered. 12 yeast strains of different producers and price categories were investigated. The grape mash was received from white grapes of a technical grade Tsitronnyy Magaracha who is grown up in the Samara region. The quality of grapes conformed to requirements of GOST 31782–2012. Processing of grapes was conducted in semi-industrial conditions on a white way. The dosage of yeast was 0,2 g/l. Fermentation of a mash and storage of the received wine materials carried out at a temperature of 14–15°C. Indicators of quality of the received dry table wine materials met requirements of GOST 32030–2013 for all key indicators of quality. From wine materials by direct distillation wine distillates was obtained and subjected to gas chromatographic analysis. According to the content of volatile components-methanol, fusel oils, esters, acetaldehyde, benzaldehyde, ketones, all samples met the requirements of GOST 31493–2012. It was found that the rate of fermentation, flocculating ability and production of volatile components is best for the selected grape variety strain Vitilevure DV10 (Danstar Ferment AG, Denmark).

Keywords: .

Technology

22

Improvement of technologies and development compoundings of the bakery products of the functional purpose enriched with calcium, protein and beta-carotene

I.V. Matseychik, S.M. Korpacheva, E.A. Suvorova, A.N. Tkach
Annotation

Bakery products on the basis of the dry demineralized whey powder Wimm-Bill-Dann with addition of fine powder of an egg shell of mechanochemical processing and vegetable powders of infrared processing from beet, a cranberry and carrots are developed. With the help of mathematical modeling by solving problems of linear programming the optimal ratio of the ingredients of the formulations presented in the form of an information matrix for the design are selected. The technology of preparation of new bakery products is improved: the sifted serum is diluted with water in a ratio of 1 : 10, the crushed oat flakes are added and soaked for 15 min; the ingredients are introduced into the resulting mixture: prepared activated yeast, IR drying powder from plant ingredients and eggshell powder, softened butter, sifted flour with ascorbic acid; kneading the dough for 7–8 min at an increased speed to a homogeneous consistency; the dough is left to ferment for 35 min, cut into balls weighing 50 g and put on proofing for 20 min and bake at 180–200°C for 20 min. It was found that accelerated machining intensifies the dough preparation processes, reducing their duration, min: fermentation from 75 to 35, proofing from 55 to 20, baking from 5 to 2 compared to the control sample. The consumption of the developed bakery products meets from 10 to 15% of the daily needs of the body in в-carotene, calcium and protein. The developed bakery products conform to requirements of TR CU 021/2011 and are recommended as functional products of baby, dietary and gerontological food.

Keywords: healthy food, functional food products, bakery products, demineralized whey powder, egg shell powder, infrared drying, vegetable powder.
27

Study of the effect of food additives on quality and safety of bakery products during refrigerated storage

A.S. Khamitsaeva, Z.A. Khortiev, A.S. Tsarueva, V.KH. Sebetov
Annotation

Changes of structural and mechanical, physical and chemical, microbiological characteristics and also indicators of safety of bakery products with the nutritional supplements (NS) from the modified haricot and inulin from wild-growing plants have been investigated for the purpose of justification of expiration dates at refrigerating storage. Special attention was paid to the maximum preservation of food value of products in particular, the content of vitamins and flavonoids. It is established that during storage of bakery products with NS for 48 h at a temperature of (23 ± 2)°C the content of the studied parameters is almost invariable. Further storage marked a slight decrease, with the exception of vitamin C. Content of vitamins and flavonoids in bakery products with NS in the course of storage during 72 h at a temperature (3 ± 1)°C changes is insignificant. It is revealed that nutritional supplements cause higher bacteriostatic and bactericidal properties of products. It is defined that on the content of radionuclides, toxic elements, mycotoxins the studied products with NS conform to requirements the SanPiN 2.3.2.1078-01 and are safe.

Keywords: structurally-mechanical properties, microbiological indicators, flour products, nutritional supplements, vitamins, flavonoids, mycotoxins, cold storage.
30

Innovative technologies of new generation food products of optimized on biological value on the basis of whey

A.G. Khramtsov
Annotation

The problem of preservation and directed regulation of whey quality by conditioning is considered. Three directions of processing of whey on the basis of conditioning are offered: full use in native and/or modified form, extraction of components, synthesis of derivatives. Within each of the directions nanobiomembrane technologies are developed, on which dairy products of new generation are obtained: prebiotic concentrate of Lactobel for feed and food purposes on the basis of isomerized condensed milk whey and skimmed milk with optimized composition in the ratio of 60 : 40, respectively, by the mass fraction of dry matter components, LipKa – lipid casein-albumin concentrate and a line of products of the brand MiLa with a reduced content of lactose: from curd serum – MiLa-S; from skimmed milk – MiLa-O; from a mixture of curd whey and skim milk – MiLa-OS. It was found that the combination of enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose with lactic acid bacteria fermentation allows to obtain dairy products with a low content of milk sugar, which is advisable to recommend for inclusion in the diet of lactose-dependent people.

Keywords: milk whey, conditioning, processing, low-lactose products, optimized composition.
33

Sugar decolorants – new functional group of technological supporting means

L.I. Belyaeva, A.V. Ostapenko, V.N. Labuzova, T.I. Sysoeva
Annotation

The directions of technology perfection for obtaining high quality sugar has been considered, one of which is the use of technological supporting means. The information on the application of sulfite-containing preparations – sodium hydrosulfite and sodium sulfite to improve the white color of sugar has been systematized. Their optimal doses for the modern composition of semi-finished products of sugar beet production have been established. The samples of beet-root white crystalline sugar obtained using sulfite-containing preparations and without them (control sample) were evaluated by their color by the developed 4-point scale and by chromaticity in the solution. It has been proved that the use of sulfite-containing preparations allows obtaining sugar with perfectly and clearly expressed white color and chromaticity in solution on 16–24% lower than in the control sample. The grounds for the selection of a new functional group of technological supporting aids – sugar decolorants, assigned for color intensification of white sugar and reduction of its chromaticity in the solution are formulated. Their safety of application is shown. Sugar decolorants will complement the functional line of means used in the sugar production to improve its quality and competitiveness.

Keywords: sugar beet production, beet-root white crystalline sugar, chromaticity, technological scheme, first fillmass, sulfite-containing preparations, competitiveness of products.
36

Design recipes of puree for canned food of functional purpose for baby food

A.V. Sverdlichenko, M.K. Altunyan, D.V. Kabalina
Annotation

Have been designed formulations of puree canned food of functional use for baby food. Development of compoundings of multicomponent purees was carried out on the basis of the principles of food combination theory taking into account the daily need of a children’s organism for functional ingredients: inulin, food fibers, vitamins C and P, в-carotene, iron and potassium. Vegetable raw materials are chosen – Jerusalem artichoke tubers containing inulin, which has hypoglycemic properties, carrots and pumpkin, containing antioxidants and antitoxic ingredients, as well as fruit raw materials – apples, containing a complex of antioxidants. The product containing functional ingredients in number of 10–50% of standard daily rate that meets requirements of GOST P 52349–2005 served as a standard. The highest tasting estimates have received the samples containing, : Jerusalem artichoke puree 20–50, puree apples 20–65, puree pumpkin (mix 1) or puree carrots (mix 2) 10–35. The ratio of the components in the mixture 3 was determined as follows: the amount of Jerusalem artichoke puree in a product was accepted to constant and equal 45, and other components – within the limits 0–55% of the mass of mix. The chemical composition of the vegetable and fruit raw materials as a source of biologically active agents for products of baby food is investigated. After optimization of prescription components the method of computer modeling has made prototypes and organoleptic assessment of the developed compoundings is carried out. It is established that the developed compounds provide the products balanced on the content of physiologically functional ingredients and having high organoleptic properties.

Keywords: baby food, puree canned food, Jerusalem artichoke, functional products, organoleptic characteristics, nutritional value, vegetable and fruit raw materials.
39

Technology of inactivation of microorganisms in food products

S.A. Romanchikov
Annotation

A technology for the production of canned food products on a water basis has been proposed. The technology of inactivation microorganisms and the cessation of aerobic processes in food products is based on the use of modernized technological equipment and chemicals. The device for processing by an electric current (ohmic heating) allows to stop the reproduction of microorganisms (mesophilic, thermophilic bacteria and mold fungi) during short term storage of raw materials. The device for magnetic treatment of water provides an increase in the permeability of biological membranes of cells; change of hydrogen bonds; increases the electrical conductivity of water; accelerates the process and increases 1,6–2 times the solubility of the detergent in water when washing the packaging. The device for slowing down microbiological processes increases the shelf life of food products in liquid media, at an ambient temperature of 20–22°C for up to 8 days without the use of refrigeration equipment. Modernization of the device to slow down microbiological processes contributes to a 2-fold reduction in the amount of electricity consumed to stop the development of microorganisms. To achieve this goal, a chemical was included in the ingredients. Use in the technology of the drug (aspirin) increases the effectiveness of stopping aerobic processes. The effect of a constant electric current makes it possible to stop microbiological processes at specified parameters (frequency f 50 Hz, voltage U 36 V, current I 0,9–1 A). The activity of microorganism development was reduced is established. The possibility of spreading microbiological damage from one batch to another is excluded. The permeability of membranes of cells of fabrics is increased. The period of storage of products without deterioration of quality indicators is increased to 3 years. A device that allows storing food products on a water basis without the use of refrigeration equipment is proposed.

Keywords: conservation, storage of raw materials a short time, inactivation, electric current, ohmic treatment, increase in periods of storage of food, decrease of the activity of microorganisms, new ways of production of food.
44

Influence of biopreparates on microbiological deprivation and consumer properties of the beetroot

G.A. Kupin, T.V. Pershakova, P.I. Kudinov, L.V. Mikhaylyuta, M.V. Babakina
Annotation

Some investigation were done to define effectiveness of biological preparation Extrasol, Bactofit and Alirin action on phytopathogens Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Bothrytis cinerea, which cause diseases (white and gray rot) of beetroot during storage. It was stated that biological preparation Bactofit is most active and effective against phytopathogenic microorganisms. Potential of the biopreparation to control beethroot diseases was estimated in in vitro experiments. Antogonistic activity of biological preparations Bactofit against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Bothrytis cinerea was investigated in beetroot cut under 25°C during 7 and 14 days and 7, 14, 28 and 35 days under 2°C. It was found that after storage of samples of beet roots at 25°C for 7 and 14 days the mean diameter of the affected area of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in the control samples without making Bactofit was 4,5 and 7,5 mm, respectively; in the experimental samples infected with pathogenic, but are processed by the biological product, and 2,2 and 4,5 mm, respectively. At a storage temperature of 2°C beet root samples for 7 days, the average diameter of the Botrytis cinerea lesion zone in the control samples was 1,8 mm, in the samples with the introduction of a biopreparation no signs of the disease were observed. After storage of samples of beet root crops at a temperature of 2°C through 14, 28 and 35 days, the average diameter of the lesion zone Botrytis cinerea in samples not treated with Bactophyt was 3,0; 5,1 and 7,4 mm, respectively; in samples treated with a biological product – 0,8; 2,0 and 2,5 mm, respectively.. The feasibility of application of biological Bactofit to control the development of microbial deprivation of the beets during storage proved. Processing beet biologic Bactofit in combination with appropriate storage technologies can reduce quantitative and qualitative losses of crop production by preventing microbial deprivation.

Keywords: root crops, beetroot, biopreparations, phytopathogens, storage, microbial deprivation.
47

Obtaining fruit and berry extracts with high antioxidant activity when using ultrasonic radiation

N.B. Eremeeva, N.V. Makarova
Annotation

The optimal parameters for extraction of fruits and berries of fruits and berries of black currant, raspberry, cherry, chokeberry with ultrasonic radiation of 35 kHz in order to obtain fruit and berry extracts with high antioxidant activity are selected. Based on the experimental data, the technological modes of the process are selected: extraction of raw materials with 75% ethyl alcohol at a ratio of raw materials: solvent 1: 10, temperature (40 ± 5)°C for 90 min. The extracts are concentrated under vacuum to a dry matter content of 65%. Technological scheme of fruit and berry extracts is given. The obtained extracts have a high antioxidant activity, contain a large amount of phenolic substances, flavonoids and anthocyanins; organoleptic, physical and chemical and microbiological parameters correspond to the normative documentation.

Keywords: ultrasonic extraction, fruit and berry raw material, antioxidant activity.
51

Development of the compounding of soft drink on the basis of vegetable raw materials and amber acid

L.L. Ganizheva, N.N. Belina, A.N. Matvienko, R.D. Ganizhev, S.V. Negina, O.V. Tokarev
Annotation

The theoretical basis for creating a soft drink Amber Fairy is presented. A soft drink Amber Fairy includes amber and citric acids, silver and dry water-soluble extracts of seeds of milk thistle and lemon balm leaves. The recipe of soft drink Amber Fairy is developed. The data characterizing organoleptic and physicochemical parameters of the drink are presented.

Keywords: composition, soft drink, amber acid, citric acid, silver, extract of seeds milk thistle, extract of balm leaves.
53

Development of the system public catering for it-workers as the action to improve labour condition

A.V. Barbashov, V.V. Novikov, S.A. Solod, O.A. Korneva, A.I. Romanenko
Annotation

Based on the analysis of the impact of harmful production factors on the health and performance of IT-workers a five-day two-time menu is made. The developed menu includes a list of dishes for lunch and afternoon tea of the employee at eight-hour working day in accordance with the recommended daily consumption of energy, protein, fat and carbohydrates. It is proposed to enrich the diet with essential amino acids using the protein of oil seeds with improved functional properties in the recipes of bakery and confectionery products. The scope of the developed menu – catering facilities located on the territory of the employer, food plants, which will deliver ready meals and snacks to the workplace.

Keywords: IT-workers, food, diet, products stimulating mental activity.
57

Optimization of the sweeteners dosages in the manufacture of chocolate with prebiotic properties

P.S. Krasin, I.A. Chernykh, S.A. Kalmanovich, I.B. Krasina
Annotation

The possibility of replacing sucrose in chocolate combination inulin (IN), polydextrose (PD), maltodextrin (MD) and stevioside (0.04% wt./wt.) for obtaining of chocolate with prebiotic properties was considered. Physico-chemical, mechanical and sensory properties of 16 samples of chocolate mass with a different ratio of sweeteners and without them was investigated. It was found that samples of chocolate masses with a high content of PD and MD were wetter and softer than the control sample without the introduction of sweeteners. A sample of chocolate with a large amount of MD received a low organoleptic evaluation, whereas additives PD and in, included in the samples of chocolate, significantly improved the overall impression of the consumption of the product. The optimal chocolate formulation was determined using simplex grating planning. The optimal dosages range for IN, PD and MD was, %: 14–32 and 71–84, 7–26 and 67–77 and 0–20 respectively. The resulting product has prebiotic properties, a fairly low energy value and good consumer properties.

Keywords: chocolate, prebiotics, sweeteners, sensory characteristics, structural and mechanical properties.
61

Use of protein-containing gelling agent for the production of jelly products of a functional orientation

E.N. Krylova, N.B. Kondratev, I.M. Svyatoslavova, E.N. Mavrina
Annotation

The technology of jelly products (JP) using a protein-containing gelling agent – gelatin to increase their nutritional value and reduce sugar content is developed. P-11 grade gelatin with jelly strength of 1100 H has been used. The optimal ratio of the formulation components-molasses and gelatin, which was introduced into the jelly mass in an amount of 4, 6 and 8% by weight of the jelly mass yield, and the parameters of the technological process of producing JP on gelatin are determined. It is established that the addition of 20–25% molasses is optimal. The content of reducing substances in this case is 12%. It is determined that the plastic strength of cases of confectionery, necessary for their further processing, is 16 kPa. It is achieved by adding 8% gelatin by weight of the jelly mass in the mass of moisture (23 ± 1)% and molding temperature 65–70°C for 45–50 min of standing at a temperature of 8–10°C. Indicators of food, g per 100 g of product: proteins 6,6; fats 8,7; carbohydrates 52,2 and energy value of 100 g of product – 1391,9/333 kJ / kcal of the developed products are defined. The nutritional value of jelly products on gelatin obtained by the developed technology increased five times due to an increase in the amount of protein to 6,6%, and their sugar content was reduced by more than 16,0% compared to similar indicators of JP on agar. The technology is developed taking into account the use of operating flow-mechanized lines.

Keywords: jelly products, gelatin, gelling agents, enrichment of confectionery products, nutritional value, reducing the sugar content of confectionery products.

Food Engineering, Proesses, Equipment & Automation of Food Production

64

Kinetics of evaporation of distilled water by drying from water–protein mixture in isothermal conditions

A.S. Danilchenko, T.G. Korotkova, S.YU. Ksandopulo
Annotation

The results of studies of the kinetics of evaporation of water during drying of the water–protein mixture at 60°C in isothermal conditions are given. The mixture was prepared from distilled water, pre-boiled at atmospheric pressure, which was poured into two Petri dishes of 20 ml each, and egg white added in an amount of 0,2 and 0,6 ml, respectively. Petri dishes were placed in a Memmert drying Cabinet equipped with forced convection and a temperature control equipment. The overhang with a Petri dish was weighed every 5 min on the analytical scales of Discovery. It was found that an increase in the amount of egg protein reduces the rate of evaporation of water in a period of constant drying rate and the rate of evaporation depends on the nature of the dissolved substance. At the end of the evaporation process, a translucent dried protein film is found at the bottom of the Petri dish, which indicates the conformational rearrangements of the protein in the process of moisture loss and partial dissolution of the protein in the water during evaporation.

Keywords: protein, water, evaporation kinetics, isothermal conditions, drying curves.
67

Development of construction of three-input generating installations on based of renewable energy sources

YA.M. Kashin, L.E. Kopelevich, A.V. Samorodov, Cheng Peng
Annotation

The design features of the three-input axial generating installation (TAGI), which converts the kinetic energy of wind and light energy of the sun and sums the mechanical, light and thermal energy with the simultaneous conversion of the total energy into electrical energy, are described. The benefits of TAGI in front of the two-input generating installation shown. The additional introduction of a voltage regulator into the TAGI scheme allowed to expand the scope of the stabilized three-input axial generating installation by stabilizing its output voltage.

Keywords: axial magnetic core, rotor, electrical energy, summation of energy, ecology.

Methods of Investigation, Quality & Safety of Food Products

73

Analysis of the problems of standardization and updating of technical regulations in the field of creation, production and use of food additives

V.V. Poskonin, M.V. Maryanova
Annotation

The analysis of problems of standardization in the field of creation, production and application of food additives is given. Inconsistencies in regulatory documents that create conditions for reducing food safety have been established. The recommendations for the solution of identified inconsistencies are given. Among them the priority is to improve the regulatory framework for safety and quality of food products.

Keywords: food additives, standards, technical regulations, problems of standardization, safety and quality of food products.
76

Production competitive confectionery products on the basis of integrated implementation of schemes quality management and safety of finished products

N.V. Ageeva, V.K. Kochetov
Annotation

Means and ways of increasing the competitiveness of the enterprise’s products – Confectionery factory Kuban (Timashevsk) analyzed. These include: implementation of the requirements of ISO 9000 standards; definition of management processes implemented at the level of top management; the main processes that take into account all stages of production and sale of finished products, and supporting processes, without which the operation of the first two categories is impossible; formation of the structure of the document management of the plant within the framework of the implementation of the requirements of the quality management system. Introduction of food safety management system based on HACCP principles helps to prevent food safety risks or helps to reduce them to a minimum. The system includes: quality control and safety of raw materials, finished products; supplier evaluation; GMP (good manufacturing practices); sanitary programs; infrastructure and equipment maintenance; traceability of the “life cycle” of the product from raw materials to the consumer; internal audits; corrective and preventive actions. In order to expand the geography of sales and access to foreign markets, the food safety management system under the certification scheme FSSC 22000 is certified at the plant. Complex implementation of requirements of the international standards on quality and food safety of confectionery production provided to combine release of products with high consumer qualities.

Keywords: quality and competitiveness of products, organization of personnel, quality management system, sales geography.
80

Microscopic analysis of features of structure during drying of mixtures containing water, protein, oil and sugar

T.G. Korotkova, A.S. Danilchenko, D.YU. Samofal
Annotation

Dry forms of model solutions water–oil, water–sugar, water–oil–protein and water–oil–protein–sugar under the microscope MBS-10 at various magnifications with the purpose of revealing the features of structure formation, degree surface heterogeneity and evaluation of the effects observed when drying real mixtures are investigated. Model solutions were placed in a Petri dish and separately kept at a temperature of 60°C in a Memmert drying cabinet (Germany) to a constant weight of a Petri dish with a sample. It was found that the films contain structures typical for certain components of solutions: particles (nuclei) of almost circular shape, convex tubercles of round shape, sprockets, and particles with smooth surfaces of different sizes. This indicates a large variety of structure of the dried film. Films of solutions including protein stuck to the bottom of the Petri dish, which led to certain difficulties in their removal. This feature connected with complexity of flaking of the dried-up material from the surface of the inert carrier, which is shown when drying distillers’ spent grains and leading to a frequent stop of the equipment for his cleaning needs to be considered at design of the dryers intended for distillery dregs drying.

Keywords: model solutions, water evaporation under isothermal conditions, drying, distillery dregs.
83

Influence of thermal treatment on colour properties of dry potato puree

I.M. Pochitskaya, YU.F. Roslyakov, V.V. Litvyak, N.V. Komarova
Annotation

A method for estimating the color change based on the processing of digital photo images before and after the temperature-time effects are proposed. Based on the received characteristics of the red–green–blue (RGB) color space, the color difference ДE was calculated. It is established that with increasing heat treatment temperature of the samples, the value of the color difference is sharply increased (by 50–80%). At a temperature of 120°C, the value of the color difference varies insignificantly and does not exceed 15 units even after a 2-hour exposure to temperature. However, with an increase in temperature 180–210°C, the color difference for the first 10 min increases substantially and after 60 minutes of heating changes insignificantly. The evaluation of the color change of dry mashed potatoes showed that the proposed method allows quantitative assessment of changes in color characteristics, is sensitive and more accurate, gives an opportunity to assess the color changes not perceived by a person. The received results demonstrate that controlling the temperature and duration of the heating process, it is possible to obtain the desired color of dry mashed potatoes, which is important, since color directly affects the organoleptic characteristics and consumer properties.

Keywords: melanoidin formation, color characteristics, color space red–green–blue (RGB), color difference, dry potato puree.
85

Assessment of the quality and safety of sauces industrial production

S.YU. Makarova, G.E. Rysmukhambetova, N.V. Konik, YU.V. Ushakova
Annotation

Organoleptic quality assessment and examination of physicochemical parameters of samples of industrial sauces selected according to GOST (State Standard) 31755–2012 were conducted: Heinz Garlic (sample 1) and Mr. Ricco Cheese (sample 2). It is established that the best is the Garlick Heinz brands sauce (sample 1; 23,74 points). The physicochemical parameters of the sauces were investigated by the following criteria: determination of the mass fraction of fat by centrifugation; determination of the mass fraction of moisture by the accelerated method; determination of acidity in terms of acetic acid; determination of emulsion stability. The calculation of the moisture index was carried out in accordance with clause 4.3 of GOST 31762–2012. The humidity of sauces was, : (40,99 ± 0,01) sample 1 and (60,2 ± 0,01) sample 2. According to the moisture content of 40,99, the samples meet the requirements of GOST. It has been established that samples 1 and 2 have the optimum acidity (0,934 ± 0,01) and (0,326 ± 0,01)%, respectively, which has a positive effect on taste. It has also been established that samples 1 and 2 have a fat mass fraction of (58,67 ± 0,03) and (19,48 ± 0,03)%, respectively, which meets the requirements of GOST 31755–2012, as well as labeling. As a result of the study it has been established that the samples do not exceed permissible limits of the requirements specified in the regulatory documents and meet the requirements of GOST 31755–2012 and Technical Regulations of the Customs Union 024/2011.

Keywords: quality, safety, sauces, competitiveness, quality assessment, organoleptic indicators, physicochemical parameters.
88

Study of the preservation of grapes table varieties grown in dagestan, for short-term storage in various conditions

G.G. Magomedov, E.S. Magomedova, D.А. Abdullabekova
Annotation

The preservation of grapes 13 table varieties of different different maturation periods, grown in Dagestan, is investigated. The conditions chosen for the experiment – temperature 22–24°C, relative humidity 67–81%, storage time 10 days and temperature ± 1°C, relative humidity 90–93%, storage time 30 days – correspond to the conditions of transportation of these products by conventional road transport or refrigerated trucks. The samples of grape were stored under these conditions without additional chemical treatment. It was found that during storage in natural conditions the highest preservation after 10 days in grape samples of late varieties maturation. Cooling allows to increase the shelf life of grapes of early and medium maturation varieties to 10 days, and some varieties, such as varieties Salam early ripening and varieties Ag izyum, Samur medium maturation period – up to 20 and 30 days, respectively. Grapes of late ripening varieties – Agadai, Dolchatyy, Muskat derbentskiy, Muskat transportabelny, Muskat yuzhnodagestanskiy can be stored under cooling without chemical treatment up to 30 days. Taking into account the characteristics of the preservation of grapes of different varieties in the short-term storage will help to reduce losses of the manufacturer and improve the quality of products sold in the trading network.

Keywords: grape varieties of different maturation periods, preservation of grapes, shelf life, storage mode.
92

Improvement of quality control system for brandy products

I.V. Oseledtseva, YU.F. Yakuba
Annotation

The quality control system of cognac products by expanding the list of control indicators has been improved. The research materials were brandy and distillates young and mature, aged from 1 year to 40 years, developed under different geographical zones of the CIS countries and the EU; the test samples of the distillate on the basis of grape, Apple and grain raw materials, samples of cognac distillates aged on oak rivets from oak wood Caucasian and French. Taking into account the results of many years of research, the choice of additional indicators of quality control of brandy and distillates is justified. Three groups of quality control criteria: single volatile impurity components of the composition, single extractable components of the composition and a block of design criteria based on the ratio of the concentrations of the components of the composition – are formed. Statistical processing of the research results was performed using a computer program Statistica 6.0. 22 criteria components of the composition, which can be used as single indicators of control, and 8 calculated indicators of quality control, allowing to confirm the authenticity of brandy products and to identify signs of falsification, to assess the compliance of the used raw materials to the declared name and the required quality standards, to detect the use of prohibited methods at the stage of processing grapes and during the aging of distillates in contact with oak wood, as well as violations in the distillation process and the facts of introduction of prohibited additives, have been established.

Keywords: brandy, brandy distillate, quality control system, criteria, indicators, composition.
96

Problems of quality and safety of bottled drinking water

L.I. Ambartsumyan, E.N. Guba, M.V. Guseva, S.N. Diyanova, V.V. Illarionova
Annotation

The quality of 12 samples of bottled drinking water was studied in an accredited testing laboratory. The study of informative labeling of water samples revealed that not all manufacturers fulfill the requirements of TR TS 022/2011. The evaluation of organoleptic, physicochemical and microbiological indicators of drinking water is given. Criteria of harmlessness of the chemical composition of samples are defined. It is investigated macro- and microelement composition of drinking water. The necessity to increase the degree of responsibility of producers in the formation of quality is revealed.

Keywords: water, quality, safety, physiological usefulness, microbiological indices..

Economics of Food Industry

100

Modern trends in the development of the vine and wine industry in Russia

E.A. Egorov, ZH.A. Shadrina, G.A. Kochyan
Annotation

The priority development of the vine and wine industry as an economic basis of territories is substantiated. Attention is focused on the aspects of the level increasing of product self-sufficiency and import substitution, resulted of it. A retrospective analysis of the current state of the vine and wine subcomplex of Russia was carried out, and the main trends of its development were revealed. The indicators for the viticulture development in accordance with the State Program Agricultural Development and markets Regulation of Agricultural Products, Raw material and Foodstuffs for 2013–2020 are presented and estimation of probability of their fulfilment is given. The factors influencing the level of economic efficiency of wine production are analyzed. The problem of reducing the actual production efficiency due to a decrease in the index of money purchasing power is noted. The estimation of wine production from own and imported wine materials is given. The necessity of wine production from grape varieties of domestic breeding is substantiated. The priority directions for efficiency increase of wine production are determined.

Keywords: vine and wine industry, trends, factors, regulation, ways, efficiency..
105

Assessment of efficiency of commodity strategy of the food enterprise

A.N. Drozdov, V.V. Illarionova, M.YU. Gvozdenko, E.N. Guba, M.V. Guseva, L.I. Ambartsumyan
Annotation

The complex analysis of efficiency of commodity strategy of the food enterprise for production and realization of tinned agricultural production in 7 months – from June to December, 2017 is carried out. An assessment is given to the range of products, efficiency of interaction with suppliers of raw materials and buyers of finished goods, competitive advantages. Shortcomings of the scheme of merchandising are revealed. Recommendations about improvement of commodity strategy are offered.

Keywords: personnel and marketing policy, short and long term commodity strategy, efficiency of commodity turnover, leader of demand, consumer preferences..
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