The analysis of domestic and foreign studies confirming the significant physiological role of beta-carotene in humans has been carried out. It is shown that beta-carotene has radioprotective, immunomodulating, antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic and antimutagenic properties. It is established that current level of knowledge about the physiological role of в-carotene in humans and animals promotes the development and introduction into production of containing в-carotene additives: food – for the enrichment of food and fodder, which allow to receive livestock, including meat, dairy and egg products of high quality and nutritional value.Keywords: physiological role of beta-carotene, vitamin A, food additives, fodder additives, product enrichment, improving the quality and nutritional value of livestock and poultry products.
Table of contents for # 5-6 (365-366), 2018
Modern technologies of receiving dietary fibers from secondary products of processing of vegetable raw materials
The prospects of obtaining dietary fibers (DF) from secondary products of agriculture are considered. Results of the analysis of sources on the prospects of receiving the DF showing detoxification and adsorption activity for the purpose of enrichment of food by them are given. Modern technology solutions of receiving DF from products of processing of sugar beet and apples are given. Further carrying out scientific and experimental developments of new technologies of receiving DF from vegetable raw materials with application of the electromagnetic field of extremely low and ultrahigh frequencies is perspective.Keywords: dietary fibers, pectin, hydrolysis, extraction, secondary products.
Physical and chemical bases of process of extraction of pectinaceous substances of apple raw materials
Article is devoted to a relevant task – development of physical and chemical bases of process of extraction of pectin substances of apple raw materials. On the basis of the analysis of results of theoretical and pilot studies the major technology factors influencing efficiency of process of extraction of pectin of one of main types of vegetable raw materials – an apple pomace are studied. It is offered to consider pectin extraction as the process consisting of three main stages: preparation of raw materials for hydrolysis of protopectin, hydrolysis and extraction of a gidratopektin. Technological requirements and factors for each technological stage of the process are established. The main kinetic coefficient of process – coefficient of diffusion of pectin substances D is has been defined. As a result of improvement of mass exchanged conditions when carrying out process of extraction of pectinaceous substances of vegetable raw materials an exit of target substance from unit of the processed industrial raw materials is increased.Keywords: pectin, protopectin, hydrolysis, extraction, kinetics, preparation of raw materials.
Chemistry of Food Products & Materials
Technochemical properties of Japanese mackerel (Scomber japonicas) and Atka mackerel (Pleurogrammus monopterygius) were investigated. It is established that Japanese mackerel and Atka mackerel (terpug) are valuable food raw materials rich in biologically valuable protein, which contains all the essential amino acids. Amino acid compositions of the muscle tissue of mackerel Japanese and the terpug not differ significantly, however, mackerel higher content of histidine and isoleucine. The total amount of mono-and polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) in mackerel was 63,99%, and in terpug their content is higher – 75,56%. Among monounsaturated FA of lipids mackerel and terpug dominated by oleic, which in terpug is almost two times more than in mackerel. Terpug is more rich in polyunsaturated FA, the content of which is 35,45%. In mackerel their content below – 25,60%. Lipids mackerel and Atka mackerel have relatively high coefficients of metabolization and 1,57 and 1,50 respectively. The ratio of omega-6 : omega-3 FA from mackerel is 1 : 5, the Atka mackerel 1 : 3, i. e., the content of omega-3 FA in relation to omega-6 are too high, it is necessary to consider in the production of food products from this raw material, combining it with others to balance the fatty acid composition. The results of the study show the prospects of using mackerel and terpug in the production of a wide range of fish products, including semi-finished products.Keywords: mackerel, terpug, food value of, the coefficient of food saturation, fatty acid composition, an indicator of the balance of lipids, technochemical properties.
Research of influence of modern auxiliary materials on physical and chemical composition of apple must and cider wine materials
The effect of enzyme preparations and active dry wine race yeast on physical and chemical composition of apple must and cider wine materials obtained from apples from the Simirenko variety has been researched. For hydrolysis of pectin compounds pectolytic enzyme preparations have been chosen: Filtrozym (Laffort, France), Viazym Flux (Martin Vialatte, France), Lallzyme S-max and Lallzyme EX-V (Lallemand Inc., Denmark, Canada). It was found that the enzyme preparations Filtrozym and Lallzyme C-max are effective for clarification of apple juice. Their use reduces the content of pectin substances and suspended particles in the clarified must and reduces the volume of the must sediment. When processing Filtrozym and Lallzyme C-max samples, the amount of pectin substances in apple must decreased by 3,8 and 2,9 times, respectively. Use of Viazym Flux and Lallzyme EX-V did not yield significant results. Fermentation of apple wine materials was carried out with application of yeast of races of Zymaflore X5, Zymaflore X16 and Actiflore BO213 (Laffort, France) and also by Lalvin QA-23 and Lalvin V 1116 (Lallemand Inc., Canada). At application of Zymaflore X16 and Zymaflore X5 process of fermentation proceeded 12 days. When using race of Zymaflore X16 the course of fermentation was uneven. Races yeast Lalvin fermented must evenly and quickly (7 days). Good fermentation ability was also shown by the race Actiflore B213. The highest content of malic acid is installed in the sample race Lalvin QA-23 (8538 mg/dm3). At fermentation on race of Actiflore BO213 concentration of this substance was 40% lower in comparison with control. At application of Zymaflore X16 have defined the minimum value of this indicator (527 mg/dm3). It has been established that the wine yeast of the Lalvin QA-23 and Actiflore BO213 races has an optimal fermentation activity and ensures a smooth flow of the fermentation process of apple must.Keywords: apple must, enzyme preparations, pectin substances, yeast races, fermentation, cider wine material, esters, higher alcohols, organic acids.
The influence of conditions for obtaining on the safety indicators extracts of sweet and fermented pomace from red grape varieties – Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Shiraz, Isabella on safety indicators was studied. Tap water and 1% aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid were used to obtain the extracts. The analysis of extracts was carried out by capillary electrophoresis, atomic spectrometry, and chemical tests. It was found that the use of acidic medium increases in extracts of sweet and fermented grape pomace content manganese by 25–39%, iron – 33–40%, copper – 30–60%, zinc – 60–75%, lead – 2–3 times, cadmium – 2 times. The process of extraction from sweet grape pomace showed a decrease in the extraction of toxic metals into the extract, especially cadmium. The established content of toxic metals and iron in grape pomace extracts did not exceed the maximum permissible concentrations for auxiliary materials of wine products. The presence of ethanol in the amount of 3,0–4.4% vol., methanol 100–130 mg/dm3, the total content of higher alcohols 110–220 mg/dm3, acetic aldehyde, 2-phenylethanol, furfural in the amount of 5–20 mg/dm3, esters 120–240 mg/dm3 in samples of extracts of fermented pomace does not exceed similar indicators for wine production.Keywords: grape pomace, extract, product safety, extraction methods.
Influence of a batonnage on physico-chemical properties and organoleptic indicators of white table wine material was investigated. Must of the Sauvignon grape variety and resulted wine materials were selected as the subjects of study. Must fermentation was conducted using different species of the active dry yeasts, sample 1 – Oenoferm (Erbslоeh Geisenheim AG, Germany); 2 – Proelif (Proenol, Portugal); 3 – Zymaflore X5 (Laffort, France). The batonnage of wine materials was conducted during 6 months with a periodic mixing (monthly re-suspension) of a wine material with a yeast biomass in anaerobic conditions. Control of the mass exchange between the cell and environment was performed using the accumulation of the amine nitrogen (by S. Sorensen) and the amino acids (by high-performance liquid chromatography using chromatograph by Agilent Technologies, USA). The highest nitrogen transfer from a cell to an environment was observed in Oenoferm species. According to the study results amino acids were divided into 3 groups: arginine, histidine, methionine, valine, triphtophan, serine, and glycine have not provided significant change of the concentration with or without batonnage (1), lysine, proline, cystine, cysteine have provided increase of the concentration during the batonnage (2), alpha-aminobutyric and glutamic acids, tyrosine, beta-phenylalanine, leucine, and alpha-alanine have provided decrease in the concentration during the batonnage (3). The change of organoleptic parameters of the wine materials during batonnage was discovered: wine material has obtained a bright variety aroma and a shade of the body and straw after 2 months of the contact. Aroma of the wine material was changed during the further contact and the color got a light straw and gold shade with the stronger gold shade after 4 months due to the activation of the oxidation reactions. The usefulness of a monthly batonnage was confirmed with the total duration of the contact between yeasts and wine material of 3–3,5 months in order to prepare a high-grade dry white wine.Keywords: batonnage, dry table wines, wine materials, wine yeast, amine nitrogen, amino acids, organoleptic estimation.
The purpose of this study is to increase the biological value of pasta by using protein-containing enriching additives of plant and animal origin. Enriching additives: meat products-chicken meat (breast part of the carcass) and veal category I chilled; bean flour – soy deodorized semi-skimmed, pea and lentil; isolates of soy, pea and corn proteins – added to pasta dough prepared according to traditional technology from wheat flour bakery of the highest grade (GOST R 52189–2003). It has been established that the enrichment of pasta products of the rational will of a dosage of the additives: meat 15% by weight of flour; pea and lentil flour and vegetable isolates 10% by weight of the mixture; soya flour is 7,5% by weight of the mixture. The positive effect of the enriching additives introduced into the macaroni dough on the increase in the protein content in the products by 1,59–8,19%, the increase in the balance of the amino acid composition of proteins, their biological value by 6–16%, the values of the utilitarian coefficients of the amino acid composition by 0,2–0,26 units, the digestibility of proteins under the action of the proteolytic enzyme pepsin by 11–24%, the degree of satisfaction of the daily protein demand by 1,5–13,4% compared to the control sample without additives was revealed. Technical documentation – technical specifications, technological instructions and recipes has been developed and approved for pasta with protein-containing additives.Keywords: pasta, product enrichment, diet correction, meat and vegetable additives, balance of amino acid composition.
Research of consumer properties of functional bakery products enriched with fruit polysaccharide-vitamin dietary supplement
Formulations of bakery products enriched with fruit polysaccharide-vitamin food supplement Apple Powder have been developed. The developed products have higher rates: porosity of bread crumb and rolls 79 and 80%, specific volume 390 and 410 cm3/100 g, respectively, compared to control samples (70 and 73%, 310 and 330 cm3/100 g, respectively). The form stability of the hearth product of enriched bread (0,55 H/D) and bun (0,60 H/D) is also higher than the control samples – 0,40 and 0,42 H/D, respectively. In the bread composition and bun contain 0,22 and 0,25 g/100 g pectin, P-active substances 53,64 and 54,85 mg/100 g, respectively. The introduction of a food additive at the fermentation stage of the sponge reduced the duration of the technological process of production of bread and bun by 70 and 80 minutes, respectively. It is established that the developed bakery products in terms of safety meet the requirements of TR CU 021/2011. The developed bakery products are functional, since their consumption in the amount of 250 g per day satisfies more than 15% of the recommended physiological norm in a number of food functional ingredients, such as dietary fibers, pectin, P-active substances, potassium and copper.Keywords: functional bakery products, polysaccharide-vitamin additive, quality, safety, storability, food functional ingredients, the level of satisfaction of the consumer.
The effect of heating on the separability of soybean seed shell during their treatment in a microwave oven with microwave currents was investigated. Seeds of soybean varieties Vilana harvest in 2017 were the object of study. Processing time varied from 30 to 50 seconds. In samples of seeds the heating temperature was determined, after which they were kept for a day and then subjected to crushing. The resulting crusher was disassembled into 3 parts: the core, whole seeds and the shell, and then determined the mass fractions of the separated shell and the shell remaining in the crusher. It was found that short-term heating of soybean seeds by microwave radiation has a significant effect on the separability of the shell. In seeds without treatment with microwave radiation the content of the shell in the processed core is 3,0%, in treated at 70°C – 1,6%, at 80°C –1,3%, i. e., with an increase in the heating temperature, the efficiency of the shell separation increases. At the same time the content of the shell in the crusher supplied to the oil extraction is reduced. Reducing the content of the shell in the processed core leads to a significant increase in the protein content in the resulting meal. Heating of soybean seeds should be limited to 70°C to prevent denaturation of protein substances. Increasing the efficiency of separation of the shell at its content in the crusher is not more than 1,6%, even with a low protein content in the seeds (32–33%) can provide a standard for the content of protein meal.Keywords: soybean seeds, microwave heating, protein content, soybean meal, soybean seed processing efficiency.
The technological scheme of flax seed hulling in a centrifugal hulling machine is developed. Seeds of oil flax of the variety Severnyy (Barnaul, Agrolen LLC) of various degree of processing: native, non – slime and dehydrated-were the object of research. Flax seeds were crushed in a centrifugal hulling machine and sieved on a laboratory sieve separator using sieves with round and oblong holes. Air separation was carried out at the laboratory facility of Petkus with controlled air flow rate in the pneumatic channel. During processing, the original flax seeds were sieved through a 2,5 mm diameter sieve. The gathering of this sieve was subjected to heat treatment when the seeds reached a moisture content of 4–6%. Chilled flax seeds five times were subjected to crushing in a centrifugal hulling machine. After each pass, the crusher was sieved through a wire sieve with a mesh size of 1,2 mm and the gathering was subjected to air separation at an air velocity in the pneumatic channel of 4–5 m/s. The thus obtained under-hulling were sent for re-crushing. Pass sieve with a hole diameter of 1,2 mm was sieved for laboratory sieves and the fractions obtained were air separation, resulting in the bulk of the shell went into waste, and the residue was crushed kernel with impurities of the shell. Dehydration of seeds (up to 3–4% moisture) was carried out by high-temperature micronization. Dehydrated flax seeds were ground in a centrifugal hulling machine at a speed of 41 m/s on the periphery of the disc. Crumbles were served on the screening. The descent from each sieve was subjected to air separation. The precipitate from the sieve 1,0 mm was returned for grinding. It was found that the use of centrifugal hulling machine in the hulling of flax seeds provides a kernel yield of up to 21% and high quality protein component.Keywords: flax seeds, centrifugal hulling machine, crushing, product hulling, hulling efficiency.
The influence of thermal treatment on the organoleptic characteristics of skim milk powder was studied. The test samples were kept at temperatures of 120, 150, 180 and 210°C with interval of 10 min for 2 h in a drying cabinet. Photographing of the samples was carried out with a Canon EOS 750D camera; the Canon EF-S 17–55 mm f/2.8 IS USM lens; shooting mode: ISO 400, f 5.6, shutter speed 1/60. The content of volatile aroma-forming compounds was investigated by gas chromatography with mass-selective detection using Agilent Technologies 7010 B, the components were separated on a capillary column. Chromatographic analysis conditions: initial column temperature 40°C (2 min); heating the column at a rate of 10°C/min to a temperature of 240°C; 8 min exposure; injector temperature 250°C; temperature of the detector 280°C; the flow velocity of the carrier gas (helium) is 0,5 ml/min. Mass-spectres were registered in the range 40–500 m/z, ionization energy 70 eV, temperature of the ion source 200°C, interface temperature 250°C. It was found that with an increase in the heating temperature of the powder skim milk, a significant darkening of the samples is observed. At a temperature of 120°C there was a slight color change during prolonged heating, with a rise in temperature to 180–210°C, a significant change in the color characteristics was observed, up to complete charring. In studies using gas chromatography with mass-selective detection in skim milk powder, after heat treatment, more than 100 volatile substances were detected, of which 88 were identified. It was found that the aroma of skim milk powder is mainly formed by the following volatile aroma-forming compounds: propen-2-amine-1, butyl-1, toluene, bicyclo[3.2.0]heptadiene-2,6, 1,3,5-cycloheptatriene, 2-furanmethanol, alpha-pinene, beta-ocimene, ethylhexanoate, limonene, 2-propenyl-propanoate, nonanal, maltol, decanal and cis-verbenone.Keywords: melanoidin formation reaction, skim milk powder, heat treatment, organoleptic characteristics, aroma-forming compounds, color characteristics, flavor of the product.
The formulation of the protein module for the production of a biologically active additive that helps to restore the function of the cardiovascular system in the post-ambulatory period is developed. The protein obtained from oat and almond flour and skimmed milk powder was the object of research. The ratio of the ingredients of the protein module, balanced by the main essential amino acids, – almond and oat flour and skimmed milk powder was 1 : 1,6: 2,6 respectively. Solubility index of protein module is 98,5%. It is established that the indicator of proteolysis protein module below 1,6 times compared to the same indicator of the protein of skimmed milk, but in 1,2 and 1,5 times exceeds that of the protein of oat and almond flour, respectively. The highest indicator of proteolysis of protein systems was observed during the first hour, then it decreased, what demonstrates almost full proteolysis in the first hour of enzymatic influence. The results of the research indicate the possibility of using the protein module as part of a biologically active additive.Keywords: functional products, protein module, preventive nutrition.
Influence of various species of technological processing of trepang on the content of triterpene glycosides and selenium in waste of its processing
The purpose of the study: assessment of the possibility of using non-food waste from cutting trepang as a raw material for the production of biologically active food additives based on the determination of the content and ratio of selenium and glycosides. As objects of the study, the Far Eastern trepang (Apostichopus japonicus), waste from its processing: prianal areas and corollas with tentacles and cooking water were used. The content of selenium and glycosides in trepang and waste from its cutting, as well as the content and distribution of selenium and glycosides during hydrothermal and enzymatic treatment of trepang and waste from its cutting, are studied. It was found that the content of selenium in trepang and wastes is 9,0 and 11,5 мg/g, respectively. An increase in the cooking rate to three leads to the accumulation of selenium in cooking water from trepang to 30,5 мg/g, and from waste to 107,5 мg/g. It is shown that glycosides are more actively released when trepang cooking, in comparison with waste. The content of glycosides in triple cooking water from trepang is 162 mg, and from the waste – 112 mg per one gram of dry weight. The daily dosage for dietary supplements developed based on the proposed technological methods is substantiated. The possibility of using non-food wastes obtained during trepang processing as a raw material for the production of biologically active food additives as a source of minor biologically active components – selenium and glycosides is shown.Keywords: trepang, hydrothermal treatment, enzymatic treatment, triterpene glycosides, selenium.
Influence of calcium ions in the conditions of the preliminary and basic defecation on the quality of the treated juice
Based on the analysis of the mechanism of dissociation of calcium hydroxide in lime-sugar solutions and reactions of lime-sugar compounds at the stages of preliminary progressive and basic defecation, the effect of the return of calcium carbonate in the form of a suspension of carbonation sediment during preliminary defection on the quality of purified juice is justified. The established theoretical positions are confirmed by a series of experiments. The effect of returns on reducing the degree of destruction of the sediment of pre-defected juice with a purity of 88,7% with an increase in alkalinity was studied. For three samples of diffusion juice, progressive preliminary defection, defecation with the same lime consumption and under the same technological conditions (temperature and duration) were carried out. For the 1st sample preliminary defecation conducted only with milk of lime, no refunds suspensions carbonation sediments. For the 2nd sample, along with lime milk, a 20% suspension of sediment of the first saturation juice was added in an amount of 50% to the juice mass. For the 3rd sample, preliminary defection was carried out with lime milk with the return of a 20% suspension of sediment the juice of the second saturation containing 7% of the solid fraction. It is established that in all samples by the addition of lime after preliminary defecation in sugar solutions the content of soluble calcium salts increases. To confirm the effect of high alkalinity during defecation on the destruction of part of the sediment formed on the preliminary defection studies in the factory laboratory on production juices were carried out. The preliminary defected juice was divided into two samples. For the 1st sample the sediment was separated by settling to the basic defecation, in the 2nd sample the juice was subjected to defecation without sediment separation. Both samples were treated with lime in an amount of 2,0% CaO to the juice mass for 20 min at a temperature of 50–52°C. It was found that in the absence of sediment of the preliminary defected juice, the increase of calcium salts in the defected juice is much less than in its presence. It is proved that in lime-carbon dioxide purification to increase the positive effect of a double-charged calcium ion and reduce the negative impact of a single-charge hydroxycalcium ion, it is advisable to carry out preliminary defecation with a smooth increase in alkalinity and at a final pH value in the range from 10,8 to 11,2 to exclude the accumulation of soluble calcium salts; to return the suspension of the saturation sediment of juice the second to reduce the content of soluble salts in sugar solutions due to a stronger bond of non-sugars in the sediment particles and prevent their destruction at high alkalinity.Keywords: raw juice, the lime-carbon dioxide purification, non-sugars, calcium hydroxide, dissociation, suspension carbonation sediment, the quality of white sugar.
Influence of gamma- and UV-radiation on decrease of microbial contamination of black currant berries and cherry fruits
The efficiency of using gamma- and UV-radiation to suppress microorganisms that cause microbiological spoilage of food products has been studied. The cherry fruits and black currant berries were chosen as objects of research. The preservation of cherry fruits and black currant berries is determined by the initial degree of contamination by microorganisms that contribute to the fruit deterioration during the storage. UV-radiation with a wavelength maximum of 254 nm and a dose of 50 kJ/m2 and gamma-radiation at a 10 MeV facility with radiation intensity in the 1–3 kGy range were used as physical methods. Storage of processed products was carried out in a refrigerating chamber at a temperature 4–5°C. The efficiency of the treatment was determined by counting the amount of mesophilic aerobic and facultative anaerobic microorganisms in the experimental samples exposed to gamma- and UV-radiation treatment, counting the amount of microorganisms was carried out after treatment and during the storage of samples. A comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of reducing the initial contamination of fruit by two treatment methods (UV- and gamma-radiation) was carried out. The results of the research showed that gamma-radiation with intensity of 2 and 3 kGy turned out to be the most effective handling for cherry fruits and black currant berries, and processing with intensity of 1 kGy is less effective. Treatment with UV-radiation at the initial stage insignificantly reduced their initial contamination by microorganisms, however, this kind of treatment delayed the further growth of microorganisms during the storage. The conclusion is drawn on efficiency of application gamma- and UV-radiation for inhibition of microorganisms for the purpose of increase in expiration dates of cherry fruits and black currant berries at storage.Keywords: radiation treatment, gamma-radiation, UV-radiation, black currant berries, cherry fruits, microbial contamination.
Comprehensive approach to the selection of compound components for the creation of fruit-chocolate glaze with the increased nutrition value
The raw materials investigated with the aim of developing a chocolate glaze recipe with increased nutritional value. Main parameters of crystallization of the samples of cocoa butter: melting point, Tmax, (20,6–21,5)°C; duration of crystallization, фmax, 64–69 min; and equivalents of cocoa butter (CBE): melting point, Tmax, (19,6–20,0)°C; the duration of crystallization, фmax, 70–75 min. The coefficient of crystallization according to BCI (Buhler Crystallization Index) for cocoa butter BCI 3,5–4,7; for the CBE BCI 2,3–3,0. It is established that cocoa butter and CBE have different characteristics of crystallization, which predicts the difference in the process of structuring in the production of chocolate glaze. The characteristics of the crystallization of cocoa mass were studied: melting point, Tmax, (20,4–20,8)°C, crystallization time, фmax, 35,2–45,3 min. Physical and chemical properties of plant powders are studied: the mass fraction of moisture is (3,6–6,2)%; pH 3,5–6,8; granulometric composition: the fractions with particle size less than 200 microns is 97,8 – 99,6%. Based on the results of the research, the recipe of fruit-chocolate glaze developed using CBE with the optimum crystallization properties and raspberry powder. Replacing part of the powdered sugar (21,5%) with raspberry powder in the glaze recipe resulted in a decrease in its sugar content by reducing the carbohydrate content by 4,3 g per 100 g of product. In the developed semi-finished product, the content of dietary fibers increased 3,7 times, which amounted to 3,38 g per 100 g of the product, or 11,3% of the average daily consumption rate, as well as minerals, % of the average daily rate: potassium 19,6; phosphorus 25,4; iron 25,0.Keywords: chocolate glaze, plant components, fruit powder, characteristics of crystallization, triglyceride composition, granulometric composition (particle size distribution), nutritional value.
Food Engineering, Proesses, Equipment & Automation of Food Production
Numerical simulation of the Couette–Poisson problem with the relax function of the Mathcad program in calculating screw press
Features of numerical modeling of layered flows for calculation of worm superchargers and determination of speed of shift of material in the section of the channel of an extruder are considered.Keywords: channel overall sizes, discrete Laplace operator, the Couette–Poisson problem, shear rate, elliptic equations.
Comparison of experimental and calculated data of phase equilibrium vapor–liquid mixture izoamyl alcohol–isobutyl alcohol at low pressure
The simulation of phase isothermal equilibrium in the vapor–liquid system of a binary mixture of isobutyl alcohol–isoamyl alcohol at temperatures of 50, 60, 70, 80°C at low pressures and considering the vapor phase as a mixture of ideal gases was carried out. The NRTL method was used to calculate the component activity coefficients. The algorithm of calculation is stated. As the initial data, the composition of the liquid phase and the boiling point of the mixture are taken. As a result of the iterative calculation, the pressure and composition of the vapor phase are determined. As a subprogram, the standard method of calculating the boiling point of the mixture was used. A good qualitative and quantitative agreement was obtained between the experimental and calculated data on pressure and composition in the vapor phase under isothermal conditions. It is concluded that the prediction of phase equilibrium, both in the isothermal and isobaric conditions of the mixture of isobutyl alcohol–isoamyl alcohol is possible using the NRTL method at low pressures, including atmospheric, within which the processes of separation of alcohol mixtures by distillation method are carried out.Keywords: phase equilibrium vapor–liquid, NRTL method, mixture isoamyl alcohol–isobutyl alcohol.
Accelerating the production of bread at low temperatures, without compromising quality indicators is a priority in the military baking. To implement this task, an electric baking oven using pulsed ultrasound has been developed. The principle of operation of the device is based on the use of periodic exposure to the test billet ultrasound inside the baking chamber. Processing of test pieces with pulsating ultrasound allows to intensify heat and mass transfer inside them, as well as to redistribute the heat flow inside the baking chamber. The design of the proposed furnace provides for the inclusion in her set of ultrasonic device for gaseous media UZAGS-0,6/22-O to ensure the generation of ultrasound. The pulse ultrasonic generator operates in the mode of short pulses, which allows to increase the intensity of ultrasonic action on the test billet by 2–3 times at lower temperatures of the gas medium inside the baking chamber, without deformation (damage) of nutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, etc.) by overheating. This reduces the formation of carcinogens in finished products. The novelty of the design solution lies in the fact that the field of pulsed ultrasound and thermal energy of the heating elements of the baking chamber provide intensification of the baking process and improve the quality of the finished product in standalone mode. As a result of the experimental study, the following results were obtained: the specific heat consumption per unit of finished product was reduced by 18–24%; heat treatment time has been reduced 20–25% with preservation of aromatic substances and vitamins in the finished product; the technical solution provides baking bread with a decrease in the temperature of the gaseous medium by 10–30°C; the efficiency is increased by 25–30%.Keywords: bakery oven, baking chamber, gaseous medium, pulsed ultrasound field, thermal energy of heating elements.
Methods of Investigation, Quality & Safety of Food Products
Optimization of information models of technological blocks for form formation of food concentrates granules
The concept of forming an information model for building a technological block by automating the selection of initial data and the logical search for the necessary combinations and their subsequent optimization for specific production conditions is outlines. The information model provides the ability to control the formation of a selected system of parameters of granules (tablets) during their manufacture. This possibility is realized by choosing rational methods and process regimes. Based on the developed mathematical model, an algorithm for optimizing the method for the formation of granules of food concentrates was constructed. The developed technique allows choosing the optimum way of their manufacture proceeding from concrete industrial conditions and hardware registration of subsystems.Keywords: technological block, information model, process optimization, granules of food concentrates.
Analysis of energy parameters of binary interactions of UNIQUAC and NRTL models on the second derivative energy of Gibbs of mixture for binary mixtures
The energy parameters of the binary interaction of the UNIQUAC and NRTL models for the second derivative of the Gibbs energy mixing are estimated using the example of mixtures 1-propanol-water and water-butyric acid. The experimental and calculated data are consistent with high accuracy. It is established that the known energy parameters for the 1-propanol–water mixture predict the delamination of the mixture, since some of the terms of the second derivative of the Gibbs energy mixing in the vapor-liquid phase equilibrium calculation are negative. The delamination was confirmed by the presence of two points with a common tangent to the curve of the dependence of the Gibbs energy on the concentration x1. There is no data in the literature on the delamination of this mixture. 1-propanol and water are mixed in any ratio, and the azeotrope is homogeneous. The analysis of the energy parameters of the binary interaction of the water–butyric acid mixture also showed the presence of negative members of the second derivative of the Gibbs energy mixing, which does not contradict the literature data, according to which the azeotrope is heterogeneous. Thus, when searching for the parameters of the binary interaction of the UNIQUAC and NRTL models during the processing of the experimental data, it is necessary to analyze them using the second derivative of the Gibbs energy mixing.Keywords: Gibbs energy mixing, second derivative, UNIQUAC model, NRTL model, energy parameters of binary interaction.
The need for the introduction of an integrated system of quality and safety of products in the food industry is justified. Three management systems, corresponding to ISO 9000, HACCP and ISO 22000, are considered. A comparative analysis of the existing standards-GOST ISO 9001, GOST R ISO 22000, GOST R 51705.1–2001, aimed at establishing the General requirements of these management systems and combining them into the requirements of an integrated system of quality management and food safety, was conducted. It is shown that the combination of several systems and their integration will ensure the efficiency of the food enterprise. The model and the principle of formation of an integrated management system in the food industry are considered. The model was tested at JSC Leninsk-Kuznetsk bakery. The developed integrated system is an effective tool to improve the efficiency of the business as a whole.Keywords: product quality and safety, HACCP, integrated management system.
The methodological approach to the creation of fortified functional foods, which includes six main stages and provides for the implementation of several specific sub-stages at each stage, is proposed. This methodological approach to the creation of enriched functional foods allows reasoned and reasonable choice of the main object-the basic food product, biologically active or food additives for enrichment, as well as ensures the production of the finished product that meets the complex requirements for enriched functional foods.Keywords: methodological approach, functional food product, functional food ingredient, enriched functional food product, biologically active and food additives.
Development of haccp system for production flour mixes based on quinoa for gluten-free food products
The urgency of expanding the assortment of domestic gluten-free products for people suffering from celiac disease is substantiated. The quinoa culture, which is distinguished by the absence of gluten and a high content of basic nutrients, is proposed as the main raw material. A HACCP system was developed, including system control of all critical points and safety management on the entire production line for the production, storage and transportation of gluten-free mixtures. A characteristic of gluten-free mixtures, a list of basic technological equipment and a scheme for their production are presented. The control parameters at each stage of production of gluten-free mixtures are determined and the potential hazards that control and prevent actions on the components and processes of their production are grounded. The main potential danger – the chemical factor – gluten is assigned a dedicated allergen profile. A risk analysis was performed and critical control points for the components of the mixture and production stages were determined. A HACCP work sheet was compiled.Keywords: gluten, gluten-free products, flour mixtures for baking, quinoa, gluten-free flours quinoa flour, HACCP quality system.
The problem of ensuring the safety of innovative technology of galactooligosaccharides concentrates is considered. The system of risk analysis and determination of critical control points HACCP was used.Keywords: safety, innovative technologies, galactooligosaccharides, HACCP.
Biological efficiency of flour from tubers of chufa grown in Russia (Voronezh region) and Spain was investigated in vivo by the method of destructive action of test culture Paramecium caudatum. As a damaging factor, a 10% sodium chloride solution (NaCl) is applied. The protective effect of the components of flour from the tubers of the Spanish chufa was manifested at its lower concentration in the substance compared to the flour from the tubers of the Voronezh chufa. It is established that at introduction of 0,1 cm3 of hypertensive NaCl solution life time a protists incubated in the environment containing flour from tubers of the Spanish and Voronezh chufa in 1,3–1,6 and 1,2–1,5 times it is more respectively, and at introduction of 0,3 cm3 of NaCl solution in 15,5–23,5 and 11,0–17,0 times more respectively in comparison with the intact culture of infusorians. The inverse dependence of the lifetime of infusorians on the content of NaCl in the studied culture was revealed. It was found that the biological effectiveness of flour from the tubers of chufa is due to the presence in its composition of a variety of biologically active substances: polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin E, calcium, zinc, selenium. The results of the model experience confirmed the influence of soy protein isolate, wheat bran, alpha-tocopherol acetate, calcium lactate and refined sunflower oil on the test culture.Keywords: non-traditional vegetable raw materials, chufa, of the chufa tubers flour, test culture, biological efficiency.
Consumer preferences of the residents of Kemerovo regarding dairy products have been studied. The sociological research was conducted by a selective method of collecting information (questionnaires) of the adult population of Kemerovo. The sample size is 550 people. It is established that 80% of respondents use dairy products daily, while 96% prefer domestic products. The most important selection criteria for women are utility (98%), composition (78%), low calorie value (80%). 83% of respondents were informed about the importance of enriched products, mostly women aged 35 and over. 57% of respondents over 36 years old are aware of the need to enrich dairy products with scarce components. 42% are ready to eat dairy products with natural plant components. Pumpkin is present in the diet of 92% of respondents. 51% of respondents are ready to use a curd product with good consumer characteristics based on pumpkin, 23% of respondents found it difficult to answer. As a result of the research, a target portrait of the consumer (women from 25 to 49 years of age) was drawn up, and the criteria for selecting the product were determined. 78% of respondents chose a product based on natural raw materials and 22% of respondents gave preference to the product based on local plant material.Keywords: dairy products, healthy food products, consumer preferences, selection criteria, rationale for formulation development.
A method for assessing the quality of wine products is proposed. The method is based on the established relationships between organoleptic characteristics of wine products with its quality in General. Method a reasonable list of additional quality indicators, calculation criteria and measurement procedure includes. The installation created. It allowed has resulted in the establishment the concentration of acids by coulometric replacement of hydroxonium with base cations in titrant solutions with automatic recording of titration curves. Application of the method involves quickly, objectively with guaranteed accuracy, fully automated to determine a number of indicators that determine the acid composition of products: mass concentration of titratable acids in terms of tartaric acid; total acidity; mass concentration of alkali metals, in terms of potassium (K); buffer capacity (BC), active acidity (AA), the ratio of the content of titratable acids to total acidity and evaluate the quality of products as a whole. The ranges of variation of additional quality indicators and calculated quality criteria for genuine products are established: for red wines c (1,1 ± 0,1) mmol/dm3, К (1,1 ± 0,2) g/dm3, AA (0,15 ± 0,02) mol/mol, BC (0,034 ± 0,006) mol/dm3, the ratio of the content of titratable acids to total acidity (70 ± 20)%; for pink wines c (1,3 ± 0,5) mmol/dm3, K (0,9 ± 0,2) g/dm3, AA (0,25 ± 0,02) mol/mol, BC (0,036 ± 0,006) mol/dm3, the ratio of the content of titratable acids to total acidity (75 ± 20)%; for white wines c (1,5 ± 0,3) mmol/dm3, K (0,85 ± 0,08) g/dm3, AA (0,27 ± 0,02) mol/mol, BC (0,038 ± 0,005) mol/dm3, the ratio of the content of titratable acids to total acidity (80 ± 10)%. The lack of quality of wine products is evidenced by the values of indicators that go beyond the established ranges.Keywords: wine production, quality, authenticity, acid composition, potentiometric titration.
Economics of Food Industry
Estimation of efficiency of implementation of method 5S Organizing at the enterprise of public catering
Assessment of efficiency of application of a method 5S Organizing at the enterprise of a public catering LLC Komsomol of network of restaurants Rice is given. It is established that the main economic losses relate to the loss of working time. The choice of a target zone for application 5S has shown a bottleneck of the organization – work of bar. In a target zone have carried out timing and have compared data with the approved standards of service. The main expenses of time have been connected with search of components and preparation of orders. The control leaf of primary scanning of a workplace of the bartender is made. Assessment of the situation was carried out on a rating five-point scale, the general point of rating – 31, the maximum point at assessment on the accepted scale – 48. The main directions of increasing the efficiency of the enterprise are identified: the rational arrangement of objects in the work area, cleaning, standardization. Application of a method 5S in bar has allowed to reduce expenses of time for implementation of orders for 22%. Economic effect of increase in revenue of the enterprise due to economy of working hours was 6,2%. Application of a method 5S at restaurant has allowed to increase without considerable material inputs labor productivity on production and in a contact zone due to reduction of losses of time, an exception of excess movements and internal displacements, improvement of working space.Keywords: lean production, main losses, organization of working space, control points, target area, working area.