The review of modern directions of development of cryogenic technologies in baking is presented. Three main ways of freezing of bakery products are specified. Special attention is paid to technology of shock freezing of bakery products, its shortcomings and advantages are allocated. The prospects of entering into a compounding of rye-wheat bread from the frozen semi-finished products of high degree of readiness of chia flour are noted. The question of packing of the frozen bakery products is in details considered. An assessment in general is given to the prospects of production and realization of the frozen bread in Russia.Keywords: cryogenic technologies, bakery, rye-wheat bread, frozen semi-finished products of high degree of readiness.
Table of contents for # 1 (367), 2019
Chemistry of Food Products & Materials
Comparative evaluation of baking mixes (BM) of Livenka and Amarantus, including bioactivated grains of wheat and rye and bioactivated cereals and amaranth flour, respectively, and bread on their basis was carried out. Chemical composition, biological and energy value of BM and baked on their basis samples of grain bread Livenskiy and Amarantus were investigated. It is established that the BM Amarantus and bread Amarantus are slightly high content of protein, calcium, lysine, compared with BM Livenka and bread Livenskiy. However, the number of dietary fibers and vitamins BM with amaranth flour and products on it based are concede to samples a little prepared without the addition of amaranth flour. The introduction of amaranth flour in a dosage of 5,5% instead of a portion of rye flour slightly increases the energy and biological value of BM and bread on it based. It was found that the BM Livenka and Amarantus are functional food ingredients due to the content of a significant amount of biologically active substances, and products on their based – to functional foods.Keywords: bioactivated grain cereal crops, amaranth flour, bakery mix, bread, food value.
It was found that sunflower phospholipids contain significant amounts of biologically active macro- and micronutrients. Sunflower phospholipids contain macronutrients such as, g/100 g: phosphatidylcholines 18,0–19,0; phosphatidylethanolamines 14,0–15,0; phosphatidylserines 5,0–5,5; phosphatidylinositols 13,5–14,5; phosphatidic acids 6,0–6,5; phosphatidylglycerols 1,5; as well as micronutrients, mg/100 g: vitamin E 41,8–43,4 and provitamin D 210–224; macroelements – potassium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus; microelements – iron, copper. These macro- and micronutrients are functional food ingredients. This allows us to conclude about the feasibility of using sunflower phospholipids to create functional foods.Keywords: sunflower phospholipids, macro- and micronutrients, phosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylethanolamines, phosphatidylserines, phosphatidylinositols, phosphatidic acids, phosphatidylglycerols, vitamin E, vitamin D.
Features of cationization potato starch N-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride (CHPTMAC) is investigated. Photography (macro photography), NMR- and IR-spectroscopy, x-ray for the study of the phase structure were used as research methods. Phase and gravimetrical analyses carried out and calculations of crystallinity degree (CD) and of amorphousness degree of the samples of native and cationic potato starch are presented. In the study of the chemical structure of the obtaining cationic potato starch with a degree of substitution of 0,042 the presence of residues of alpha-D-glucopyranose and CHPTMAC revealed that indicates a change in the amorphous crystal structure. A significant decrease in the CD of potato starch after its cation at temperatures leading to a strong swelling of starch granules in the reaction mixture was established. These changes are more significant, the higher the reaction temperature. The introduction in the macromolecule of starch cationic groups has a significant impact on the thermal characteristics of starch, especially on the initial temperature and degradation mechanism.Keywords: starch, cationization, modification, crystallinity degree, amorphous degree, phase structure.
Studying of the chemical composition of the powder from broccoli cabbage as raw material for production of functional foods
The comparative analysis of granulometric, organoleptic and physical and chemical indicators of quality of powders of cabbage of the broccoli received convective and liofilny by ways of drying from a domestic grade the Tonus and an import hybrid Maraton F1 is submitted. On indicators of particle size distribution the studied samples of powders of convective and liofilny drying belong to grubodispersny systems. Smaller values of the average size of particles of 0,14–0,15 mm have hybrid broccoli powders Maraton of F1 of two ways of drying. The analysis of morphology of particles of powders of cabbage of broccoli according to characteristics of distribution of elongation, smoothness and brightness is carried out. On particle size distribution and morphology of particles of powders of cabbage of broccoli of a grade the Tonus and a hybrid Maraton F1 of essential distinctions isn’t revealed. Organoleptic indicators – taste, a smell, color of powders of cabbage of broccoli of a grade the Tonus and a hybrid Maraton of F1 corresponded to the used raw source. Content of proteins, fats and carbohydrates in the powders received convective and liofilny by ways of drying were almost close. The safety of vitamin C in powders when processing fresh cabbage is established: grades the Tonus on average 26%, a hybrid Maraton F1 – 53,5%. Safety of polyphenolic connections in grade powders the Tonus and a hybrid Maraton of F1 developed on two ways of drying made 57,8–67,8%. Complex researches have shown that the powders of cabbage of broccoli produced from domestic and import raw materials have the valuable chemical composition that allows to carry them to perspective food staples for use in technologies of functional food.Keywords: powder from broccoli cabbage , convective drying, liofilny drying, particle size distribution, organoleptic indicators, physical and chemical indicators, functional products.
The efficiency of making enzyme compositions of different composition in the formulation of no-salt bread with non-traditional types of raw materials – flour from whole wheat, flour from buckwheat bran, whey drink “Aktual” – proved by determining the quality of products. The compositions consisting of enzyme preparations: alpha-amylase of fungal origin Aspergillus oryzae, endoxylanase of microbial origin Bacillus strain, maltogenic alpha-amylase of microbial origin Bacillus strain, phospholipase of fungal origin Aspergillus strain, were applied. The dough with a moisture content of 47% was prepared in a non-stick way with the use of compressed baking yeast and drinking water. After kneading the dough was directed to fermentation in a thermostat at 30°C, then pieces weighing 0,3 kg were formed and placed for 40 minutes in a proofing cabinet with a temperature (40 ± 1)°C and a relative humidity of 80–85%. The products were baked in a laboratory electric oven at a temperature of (220 ± 1)°C with humidification for 30 min. Organoleptic characteristics of the baked samples of bread – appearance, shape, nature of surface, taste, color, smell, structure of porosity, condition of the crumb, propagandist and physico-chemical – porosity, specific volume, structural and mechanical properties, the amount of bound moisture, the degree of freshness of the crumb hardness, swelling properties were analyzed. It was found that a sample of bread with an enzyme composition consisting of alpha-amylase of fungal origin Aspergillus oryzae, endoxylanase of microbial origin Bacillus strain, maltogenic alpha-amylase of microbial origin Bacillus strain, had the best organoleptic, physico-chemical and structural-mechanical properties. The use of enzyme compositions in the production of no-salt bread improves the quality of the product and extends its freshness by 40–48 h. Technical documentation for no-salt bread “Uspekh” with the use of enzyme composition developed.Keywords: no-salt bread, non-traditional types of raw materials, enzyme compositions, product quality indicators.
Development of bread formulation using of barnyard grass (echinochloa frumentacea) flour to improve the quality of bakery products
The formulation of bread «Palyanitsa ukrainskaya» is optimized by introducing 15% of barnyard grass flour (GF) and 5% of flax flour (FF) instead of wheat flour. The sample with the addition of 15% of GF and 5% of FF had a sufficiently high rate of fermentation activity and the highest rate of lifting force – 28 min in contrast to the sample with the same amount of GF, but without the addition of FF (43,3 min) and the control sample without additives (45,5 min). Additive in bread formulation GF increased its protein content by 14,68%, ash content – more than 2 times. The addition of FF neutralized the specific flavor and taste of the barnyard grass, influenced the form-holding ability of the semi-finished product: during baking the product was not blurred, the baked bread had an elastic baked crumb with uniform porosity, cracks and explosions were absent on the crust. As a result of the addition of GF and FF the prototype acquired a rich color of crust and crumb, a pleasant aroma reminiscent of rye bread. A sample of bread containing 15% GF and 5% FF after 72 h of storage had the lowest crumbiness index – 3,59% by weight of bread crumb and the highest rate of swelling – 154,5%, better than other samples retained consumer qualities: taste and aroma of the product has not changed, the softness of the crumb decreased slightly. Introduction of GF instead of part wheat in the bread formulation helps to increase the duration of the shelf life of the product, which allows us to recommend the use of barnyard grass flour in production of bakery products.Keywords: grain of barnyard grass, barnyard grass flour, flax flour, composite mixture, staling of bread, crumbiness, swelling of crumb, nutritional value.
The secondary raw materials of leguminous crops for the purpose of their use as a source of pectin substances (PS) are investigated. Qualitative indicators of the pods of leguminous cultures of peas and chickpeas were, % of the content: protein 5 and 15; fats 1,5 and 1,8; fibers 46 and 40, respectively. The content of soluble pectin in the pods of both cultures does not reach 0,5%: 0,43 (peas) and 0,47 (chickpeas). The amount of protopectin in the pea and chickpea pods from the total mass was about 95%, which makes it possible to classify these pectins as highly esterified. The necessity of pre temperature treatment of pods of leguminous crops for maximum preservation of PS in raw materials during storage is established. Losses of treated pods of leguminous were 5–10% during storage for 7 months. Untreated pods of legumes during the same period of storage lost 30–35% of PS. The value of the hydraulic module 1 : 10 during the hydrolysis extraction regimes was established. The sizes of particles (3–4 mm) at grinding of pods of leguminous cultures for carrying out hydrolysis extraction are defined. On the basis of the obtained data the conclusion is drawn on the prospect of use of secondary raw materials of leguminous cultures as source of pectin substances.Keywords: pods of leguminous cultures, soluble pectin, protopectin, pectin substances, value of hydraulic module, peas, chickpeas.
Modification of the sorbent, which increases the efficiency of adsorption purification of corn oil, was carried out. Silica gel with a surface 300 m2/g was used to produce a sorbent, as a modifier – gamma-aminopropyltriethoxysilane at the rate of 4 amino groups per 1 nm2 surface. Silica gel (SG) before modification was dried to a constant mass. The sample of SG is dispersed in different organic solvents – n-hexane, chloroform and methylene chloride – and the modifier was introduced. Further, the solvent was separated by decanting, and the precipitate was washed. Residues of solvent are removed under vacuum. The obtaining modified SG was dried at a given temperature. Method of IR-spectroscopy with transform Fourier on the FSM-1201 spectrometer is used to confirm the modification. Software F-Spec is used for primary processing of spectra, IR Pal version 2.0 – for assignment of absorption bands. Corn oil obtained in production conditions, after bleaching, with a high anisidine number (about 8) was used to test the ability of the synthesized sorbent to sorption of carbonyl compounds. It was found that the use of modified SG significantly increases the efficiency of adsorption purification of corn oil: the anisidine number of oil treated with a modified sorbent is reduced to 8 times compared to the same indicator of oil treated with unmodified SG; the dosage of the modified sorbent affects the amount of change in the anisidine number; the properties of the solvent, in which the modification was carried out, do not have a significant effect on the activity of the sorbent.Keywords: corn oil, sorbent, chemical modification, anisidine number, bleaching.
The possibility of using purified pectins to stabilize ascorbic acid (AA) in fresh juices with a concentration of 10–6–10–4 g/ml was investigated. In the work were used: АA, oxalic acid (OA), beetroot, citrus and apple pectins (BP, CP and AP) with high molar mass (61000–87500 g/mol) and the degree of etherification (46,5–76,3%), intended for pharmaceutical use. Fresh juices were obtained by pressing berries, fruits and vegetables (18 kinds). Absence of interfering effect of pectins on the determination of AA by differential spectroscopy in the UV region (characteristic maximum absorption of AA – 264 nm) was established. According to the series of AA solutions (0,25–1,25) × 10–3%, the specific absorption rate of AA 727 was determined, according to which the content of AA in model solutions with auxiliary substances during storage was estimated. The stability of AA in the presence of OA is 5 days, BP – 4 days, CP – 6 days, AP – 10 days. The optimal mass ratio of AA : AP 1 : 16 was established, which was used for blending fresh juice, in which the concentration of AA (0,40–19,99 mg ) was previously determined by the method of titration with 2,6-dichlorphenolindophenol sodium. A comparative assessment of juices before and after blending during storage (20°C, 10 days) showed that AP contributes to the displacement of pH in the optimal for AA area of pH 4,5–8,0; increase in the viscosity of juices by 5–148 and shelf life of 3,3–59 times. The relative error of different definitions (n = 5, P = 95%,_ t_ = 2,57) was ± (0,7–5,6)%. Thus, the possibility of using purified AP as an AA stabilizer in fresh juices with the concentration of AA 10–6–10–4 g/ml is proved, which creates prospects for safe prolonging the life of juices.Keywords: ascorbic acid, apple pectin, stabilization, fruit and vegetable juices.
The possibility of an additional increase in the nutritional value of cupcakes by replacing the standard fruit component – raisins with dried apricots or dried apples after convection drying is considered. Kneading the dough for cupcakes was carried out manually according to traditional technology, flour from amaranth seeds was introduced in the form of a homogeneous mixture with wheat flour in the ratio, %, 15 : 85, respectively. In part of the samples, the raisins were replaced with apples or dried apricots, cut their into pieces of 10 × 10 mm, washed with cold water, dried and mixed with a small amount of flour. Cupcakes were baked in disposable parchment forms at a temperature of 210°C for 25 min. It is shown that with the addition of dried cut apples or dried apricots, the products are obtained with a compacted crumb, the specific volume of the finished product is reduced, but the regulated organoleptic and physical-chemical quality indicators of the cupcakes correspond to GOST 15052–2014. It was found that the replacement of raisins in the cupcakes on cut dried apricots can increase the nutritional value of these confectionery products by changing the ratio of digestible carbohydrates and dietary fibers, increasing the content of potassium, calcium, magnesium, carotenoids, ascorbic acid and vitamin PP. When used as a fruit component of dried cut apples, a more significant increase in the content of dietary fibers and iron in the cupcakes is noted, but no increase in other essential micronutrients is achieved.Keywords: cupcakes, amaranth flour, dried apples, dried apricots, raisins, quality assessment, nutritional value.
Optimization of the formulation composition and quality cream confectionery mass with the use starch syrup
The influence of the ratio of formulation components on the quality and structural and mechanical properties of cream confectionery masses in order to optimize the formulation and improve the quality of products by replacing sugar with starch syrup is investigated. Samples of cream mixtures consisting of powdered sugar and fat (S/F) (control), starch syrup and fat (SS/F), dry starch syrup and fat (SSd/F), with a different ratio of these components were beat at a temperature of 26–27°C and a speed of kneading 5 s–1 during 12 min. The quality of the mixtures was evaluated by changes in the volume mass and structural and mechanical parameters – effective viscosity and plastic strength. It was found that when cooling the mixtures to 10°C, the plastic strength of the sample with a quantitative ratio of 75/25 components of the mixture SS/F is reduced by 2,8 times compared to the same indicator of the sample with the same quantitative ratio of the components of the mixture S/F. In samples with a component ratio of 50/50 mixtures of S/F, SS/F and SSd/F the final values of plastic strength were, kPa: 49; 35; 31, respectively. The optimal ratio between the dry component – skimmed milk powder, starch syrup and fat is determined. It was found that the best quality indicators has a sample containing,%: milk powder 12–14; fat 55–65; starch syrup 20–30. The volume mass of the sample is 0,40–0,44 g/cm3, plastic strength – 37–45 kPa at a temperature of 30°C. The obtained samples of confectionery mass have improved quality, reduced sugar capacity and caloric content.Keywords: starch syrup, cream confectionery mass, the ratio of the components of the mixture, plastic strength, effective viscosity, volume mass of the mixture.
Influence of enzyme preparations Lalzim IEX-VI, Kolor enzyme (both from France) and Trenolin Rouge (Germany) to the fermentation of wine materials from grapes of Cabernet-Sauvignon was investigated. Introduction of enzyme preparations Lalzim IEX-VI and Kolor enzyme in a dosage of 3–4 times smaller than the dosage of the preparation Trenolin Rouge, increases the yield of the wort and saturation components of the phenolic complex, including colorants. When using preparations Lalzim IEX-VI and Kolor enzyme dosage other support materials – bentonite and gelatin and the loss of wine from glutinous rainfall are also decrease. The samples of wine processed by drug Lalzim IEX-VI were the most resistant to colloidal opacities. It was found that the use of enzyme preparations promotes deep hydrolysis of complexes of wine biopolymers, including protein-polyphenol-polysaccharide, to low molecular compounds – amino acids, carbohydrates and phenolic compounds. It is established that the quality of the wine when batonnage is distinctly improved (the appearance of softness on the palate, decreasing the appearance of acidity, the formation of bright varietal aroma), but the concentration of phenolic compounds, including pigments, are evenly reduced, particularly at 3d months of exposure. Therefore, the duration batonnage of in the technology of red table wines should be limited to two months.Keywords: enzyme preparations, phenolic compounds, dry table wines, wine materials, yeast, batonnage.
Method of processing collagen freshwater fish to obtain a material with a high moisture absorbing ability
The interaction of freshwater fish collagen with water to increase its water absorption capacity was studied. The secondary product of processing of fish raw materials – skins of pond fish, mainly silver carp, was the object of study. Methods of thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry were used for the study. Measurements were carried out on the device of synchronous thermal analysis of model STA 449 F3 Jupiter. It was found that the bulk of the moisture is bound by adsorption or osmotic way, and 7% of mass of the water connected by samples fall to the share of capillary moisture. A large amount of adsorption binding energy – 4 J/mol indicates the ability of collagen functional groups to create a hydrated shell containing a significant amount of water. Loosening of collagen fibers is necessary to increase the moisture absorption capacity, which will increase the free access of moisture to the protein fibrils, increasing the absorption of moisture. It is proposed to withstand the skins of silver carp in a solution of organic acids with a concentration of 0,5% for effective loosening. This makes it possible to achieve high moisture capacity, which reaches 35–40 volumes of moisture per 1 unit mass of the test material, which makes it promising to use collagen as a material for moisture-absorbing layers of personal hygiene products, clothing, and shoes.Keywords: collagen, freshwater fish, sorption, water capacity.
Biodegradable film coatings (FC) based on polysaccharides have been developed. Polysaccharides microbial (xanthan), an animal (chitosan) and plant origin (carboxymethylcellulose – CMC) and also dietary supplement a lecithine are investigated. At a research of exemplars of FC with concentration of biopolymers from 0,1 to 3,0% advantage of two FC with structure is established: 1 – chitosan, a xanthan and CMC, 2 – a lecithine, a xanthan and CMC. Depending on the product – potatoes, pears, champignons, bakery and confectionery products are developed three ways of application FC: 1st – by means of a brush, 2nd – spraying, 3rd – a wrapping by a product film. Concentration of composite mix of polysaccharides, , for the method of drawing of FC is defined: the 1st – from 1,0 to 2,0; the 2nd – from 0,1 to 0,9; the 3rd – from 2,1 to 3,0. It is established what in the during storage, FC 2 contributed to preserving the mass of bakery products (“Domashnyaya” bun, croissant) by 2, fungi (champignons) by 6%, fruits (pear) by 14%, vegetables (potatoes) by 37%. A two-fold application of the biofilm 2 positively affected microbiological indicators of a prepared product in sample 4 after the expiration of terms of realization. The content of the total microbial count and fungi (yeast/mold) in this sample was 10 and 20 times less control after 72 and 96 h of storage, respectively.Keywords: film coating, polysaccharides, chitosan, xanthan, carboxymethylcellulose, lecithin, food products.
Food Engineering, Processes, Equipment & Automation of Food Production
The dynamics of the release of vegetable oil from a porous material during its laminar layered flow caused by moving at a given constant speed the walls of the screw channel and the fixed cover is described. An adequate model of the spin kinetics in the zeer chamber of the press, which allows to predict the work of the turns of the oil extraction units by the capacity of the channels formed by the turns of the screw and the exhaust device, is made. It is established that the dynamics of oil extraction from the oil material is determined by a decrease in the flow of the material along the length of the helix. The almost linear nature of the pressure change in the zeer chamber shows the absence of hydraulic losses during the extraction.Keywords: process modeling, Navier–Stokes equation, Bingham structure, forpress, screw, speed gradient, pressure gradient.
Comparative analysis of the efficiency of the use of active materials of radial and axial asynchronous machines of the electric drive of technological installations
A comparative analysis of the efficiency of the use of basic materials in the process of Electromechanical energy conversion in electric motors of radial and axial structures of the same power, based on the energy of magnetic fields concentrated in the air gaps of machines, is presented. The structure of the radial machine from the library of the Ansys Electronics 19.2 software package is chosen as the basic one. The ratios of energy in the air gap of the radial and axial machines taking into account the heterogeneity in the tooth area and the nonlinearity of the magnetization curve of steel of the stator and rotor are calculated – 1,569 and 1,292, respectively. It is established that the energy efficiency of radial asynchronous electric machines is 29,2–56,9% higher than the axial ones. Radial construction also has advantages in terms of weight and dimensions, but the axial construction is preferable for ease of pairing and layout. The results of the study can be used in the technical and economic selection of the electric motor for the drive of technological installations.Keywords: radial induction motor, axial induction motor, magnetic field energy in the air gap.
The balance equation and concentration flows based on the models which make it possible to analyze the eponymous models of flow rheology in the block screw channel in a dough mixing machine has been considered. The analysis of the transportation and batch process based on one-dimensional model proved the necessity to apply sigmoidal coefficient of pressure function. The transition from one-dimensional problems to multidimensional transport problems is associated with the transformation of systems of equations to a symmetric form. The resulting system of equations after using Green’s theorem can be solved by the finite element method.Keywords: continuous dough mixing machine, flow rheology, Green’s theory applying, Bingham rheology model.
The parameters of the drying process of potato cylinders in the circulating fluidized bed at different temperature conditions are investigated. The experiments were performed at the temperatures of the drying agent 30, 35, 40, 45°C and the fictitious speed of the liquefying air 8,0 m/s. The initial moisture content of particles was about 4,15 kg/kg and the final moisture content was in range (0,20 ± 0,05) kg/kg. The proposed statistical model is based on the analogy between the main term of the numerical solution of the diffusion equation by the Crank–Nicolson method and the regression equation for the relative moisture content of the material. Effective moisture diffusivity of the potato particles varied between 7,402 × 10–9 m2/s and 8,626 × 10–9 m2/s. The regression equation for moisture diffusivity coefficient were obtained in form of Arrhenius relationship with the constant diffusivity basis equal 1,91 × 10–7 m2/s and the activation energy equal 8,18 kJ/mol.Keywords: circulating fluidized bed, drying, diffusivity.
Study of external mass transfer during drying of berry raw materials taking into the shrinkage phenomenon
The laws of external mass transfer during drying of berry raw materials for various methods of energy supply are investigated. It is established that the berries during drying are subject to significant volumetric (72–81%) and surface (35–43%) shrinkage, which must be taken into account when calculating the mass transfer coefficients. The objects of the study were various berries: blueberries, red and black currants. Experimental studies have been carried out on the drying of selected berries both in the case of convective and convective methods with IR radiation. Investigations were carried out at a drying agent velocity хса 1,2 m/s and its temperature tca 70°С. The criterion equations of external mass transfer during drying of berries for a period of constant speed, taking into account the volume shrinkage, are obtained. It was determined that during drying with convective energy supply, volume shrinkage with the same value of the Reynolds criterion on 12–20% has a greater effect on the mass transfer rate for red currants. When drying with convective energy supply, IR radiation and preliminary piercing, the volume shrinkage most significantly affects the mass transfer for black currants, which is 1,5–1,8 times more intense than blueberries and red currants. The obtained criterial equations can be used in the calculation and design of berries dryers.Keywords: berry raw materials, drying kinetics, convective energy supply, IR radiation, mass transfer coefficient, volumetric shrinkage.
Development of resource-saving technological line for obtaining high-quality products from pumpkin seeds
On the basis of a systematic approach with elements of functional and structural analysis, traditional schemes of technological lines for processing fruits and pumpkin seeds are considered in order to determine the effectiveness of technological operations. Disadvantages when carrying out hydro treatment of pumpkin seeds from fragments of fruits with their sifting through a rotating sieve drum washing cylinder device and in the preparation of oilseed raw materials to moisture and heat treatment – grinding pumpkin seeds for rolling machines are revealed. Seeds of pumpkin varieties Lazurnaya, Gitara, Shtiriyskaya maslyanaya, Muskatnaya, Kormovaya , grown in Russia and Tajikistan were chosen as the object of study. Qualitative composition of CO2-extracts from pumpkin seeds, chemical and amino acid compositions of CO2-meal were investigated. It was found that the CO2-meal from pumpkin seeds contains,%: protein 22–25, lipids 6–13, carbohydrates 28–37. A set of technological proposals and a highly efficient technological system at the modular level for the implementation of rational stage-by-stage processing of pumpkin seeds in order to obtain oil by pressing method and subsequent production of CO2-extracts from the cake and high-protein CO2-meals for the enrichment of public catering are presented.Keywords: melons, pumpkin seeds, pumpkin processing, technological scheme, CO2-extracts.
Results hulling of seeds of oil flax varieties of the Severnyy (Barnaul, LLC «Agrolen») of various degrees of processing – native, dehydrated, non-syllable in the centrifugal hulling machine are considered. In a series of experiments with dehydrated to 2–3% and non-syllable seeds the percentage of kernel yield was significantly higher than with peeling of native flax seeds with humidity of 5–6%: 30 and 28% against 21%, respectively. The formula for calculating the required performance of the equipment for raw materials when setting the performance of the product and taking into account the return factor of the seeds that have remained undisturbed formed in the process of peeling the coarse fraction for regrinding is presented. The proposed variant of the technological scheme of flaking of flax seeds allows you to allocate effectively to select from them a fraction with a high content of protein and oil and shell with a high content of lignans and dietary fiber.Keywords: flax seeds, grinding, dehydrated seeds, non-syllable seeds, kernel yield.
Analysis of the work efficiency of sanded and carbon filters in the treatment scheme of wastewater of the production of vegetable oils and fats
Results of monitoring of efficiency of work of local treatment facilities of LLC «Pishchevye ingredienty» (Krasnodar region) making specialized fats and performing reception of liquid vegetable oils, molasses, sunflower and rapeseed meal for the period January–April, 2018 are presented. The qualitative and quantitative composition of contaminated wastewater in the emergency capacity of the plant is defined: pH 6,325; ammonium nitrogen 12,358 mg/l; phosphates 10,630 mg/l; content of fat 2418 mg/l; content of soap 0,005%; suspended solids 581,3 mg/l; chlorides 972,7 mg/l; iron total 8,333 mg/l. It is established that in the scheme of local treatment facilities of LLC «Pishchevye ingredienty» the passage of wastewater after its biological treatment through sand and coal filters with subsequent disinfection at the installation of ultraviolet irradiation and supply of purified water to the steam boiler plant for its further use in production is provided. Monitoring of operation of sand and carbon filters for the specified period showed the effectiveness of their work: in purified water suspended solids were absent, the concentration of ammonium nitrogen was less than 0,1 mg/l, COD did not exceed 30 mg O2/l, the pH value was within 7, that below acceptable levels for these indicators.Keywords: local treatment facilities, wastewater treatment plant, vegetable oils and fats, sand filter, carbon filter.
Methods of Investigation, Quality & Safety of Food Products
The method of experimental determination of internal friction in food materials and device based on a torsion pendulum with laser registration of the angle of rotation, providing a minimum relative displacement of the layers of the material under investigation during the measurement process, are proposed. Examples of the use of internal friction measurements as an auxiliary rheological method in the investigation of food systems are given: a comprehensive investigation of hydration of sugars and food alcohols; for the analysis of structure formation in gels formed by apple, citrus and beet pectins, as well as their mixtures; in the study of the deposition of protein deposits on membranes during ultra- and nanofiltration of whey. Unlike viscometer devices for measuring internal friction can be used to determine the rheological parameters of both liquids and solids, which makes the method of internal friction convenient for the study of phase transitions of water in food products, such as freezing and drying.Keywords: internal friction, the effective viscosity, hydrated food-grade materials, the damping rate of the oscillations, the equation of Kedem–Kachalsky.
The express method of determination of iodine number in fats and oils, excluding the use of aggressive and toxic reagents and significantly reducing the duration of measurement, has been developed. The developed method allows define degree of unsaturated of the fats and oils containing fat of products. The technique involves the pretreatment of oils in a techno-chemical activator. Then the sample of the test substance from 0,03 to 0,05 g, taken with an accuracy of ± 0,0002 g, is placed in a dry conical flask with a ground glass stopper. In the flask make 10 cm3 alcohol-ether mixture (1 : 1), mix sample thoroughly. Then add 30 cm3 of an alcoholic solution of iodine with a concentration of 0,1 mol/dm3 to the sample, mix. Then, pour 100 cm3 of the distilled water. The flask is closed with a stopper, shaken and kept in the dark for 20 min. Excess iodine is titrated with a solution of sodium thiosulfate concentration of 0,1 mol/dm3. Before the end of titration, when the solution becomes straw yellow, add 1 cm3 of 1% starch solution and titrate until the blue color disappears. The relative error in the determination of the iodine number by the developed method is small – from 0,141 to 0,149% with a reliability of 0,95; that allows us to recommend the developed method for the rapid determination of iodine numbers of oils and fats in production and laboratory conditions. The efficiency of the method allows you to quickly make changes in technological processes and ensure the stability of production and product quality.Keywords: degree of unsaturated, halogen reagents, saturation, titration, isometric.
Evaluation of drinking milk sold in the Samara region, as raw materials for the production of natural cheese flavoring
Evaluation of drinking milk sold in the Samara region, by rennet sample to determine its suitability for coagulation was carried out. The ability of drinking milk to form a clot depending on the brand, method of packaging, heat treatment and fat mass fraction was investigated. The analysis of 27 samples of pasteurized and UHT milk according to physical and chemical parameters and rennet sample according to GOST methods. It is established that drinking milk with different mass fraction of fat (from 1,5 to 6,0%) is capable to coagulation, and this ability depends on brand of milk and a way of its heat treatment (pasteurization or ultra pasteurization), but does not depend on the method of packaging and the mass fraction of fat in milk. It is seen from 27 samples’ analysis, that only 37% of the milk was coagulated, and ultra pasteurization has a negative impact on the ability to coagulate. It is preferable to choose such brands as Sarafanovo, Pestravka, Tashlinskoe, Domik v derevne. It is also necessary to other points of consider are the normative values of pH, titratable acidity, density and organoleptic characteristics of milk. It was established that drinking milk can be used as a raw material for production of natural cheese flavoring by enzyme modification which has a natural cheese flavor without synthetic smells and makes products flavored.Keywords: drinking milk, cheese flavoring, enzyme-modified cheeses, rennet test, cheese making.
The effect of the probiotic preparation Bacell on the quality and safety of lamb sausage was investigated. The studies were conducted in the conditions the Astrakhan region (Agricultural Production Cooperative Vladimirovsky). It was formed 3 groups of ewes of 15 heads each with lambs of two weeks of age: the 1st control group was kept on the main diet, the 2nd was kept on intensive fattening, the 3rd – intensive fattening + probiotic preparation Bacell. After slaughter from meat of young sheep of the 3rd skilled group Baranya sausage in the educational scientific-industrial complex Pishchevik on the basis of Saratov State Vavilov Agrarian University is produced. Organoleptic evaluation of Baranya sausage showed that the sausage product meets the requirements of the production of semi-smoked sausages according to GOST 31785–2012 (23,74 points). Safety indicators correspond to SanPiN 18.104.22.1688–01 Hygienic Requirements of Safety and Nutrition Value of Foodstuff. E. coli bacteria were not detected what indicates high quality of initial raw materials. Concentration of lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic in the studied sausage made 0,087 – less lower limit of detection on a test procedure 0,020; 0,002. Antibiotics and pesticides did not exceed the established ND of indicators. Cesium-137 content is less than 3,0; benzo(a)pyrene is less than 0,0005 mg/kg, which is lower than the MPC.Keywords: probiotics, probiotic preparation Bacell, food safety, quality of sausages, mutton, mutton sausage.
The results of market research of consumer preferences of flour confectionery products of Krasnodar residents are presented. Analysis of results of poll allowed to justify the need to improve traditional technologies of flour confectionery products by reducing their caloric content, increasing the physiological value, improving the appearance, taking into account modern requirements for the technique of decorating cakes and pastries.Keywords: confectionery, consumer needs, market research, nutriciology.
Study of the influence of the mass fraction of free fatty acids and phospholipids, exhibiting acidic properties, for nuclear magnetic relaxation characteristics of sunflower lecithins
The aim of the research was to study the effect of the mass fraction of components exhibiting acidic properties contained in lecithins on their NMR characteristics in order to identify the possibilities of using these characteristics as an analytical parameter for determining the acid number of lecithins. Sunflower lecithins with different acid numbers were taken as objects of study: 17,8; 24,1 and 30,1 mg KOH/g, the values of which are due to different mass fractions of free fatty acids (3,5; 4,7 and 5,5%, respectively) and different mass fractions of phospholipids, exhibiting acidic properties (10,5; 12,0 and 13,0%, respectively) contained in lecithins. It was established that the values of none of the NMR characteristics – times of spin-spin relaxation and amplitudes of NMR signals of protons of lecithins can not be selected as an analytical parameter for determining the acid number, since they do not depend on the acid number of lecithins. Based on the obtained data, it was concluded that to determine the acid number of lecithins using the pulsed method of nuclear magnetic resonance, special sample preparation of a sample of lecithin is necessary, which allows to ensure, first, differences in the NMR values of the characteristics of free fatty acid protons and triacylglycerol protons contained in oil extracted from lecithin, and, secondly, the differences in the NMR values of the characteristics of protons of phospholipids, exhibiting acidic properties, and protons of other phospho groups lipids contained in lecithin.Keywords: lecithins, quality indicators, acid number, nuclear magnetic relaxation characteristics, free fatty acids, phosphatidylserines, phosphatidic acids.