Food technologyIssues → № 2-3 (368-369), 2019

Table of contents for # 2-3 (368-369), 2019

The 150th anniversary of the birth of Boris L. Rosing


Founder of electronic television (the 150th anniversary of the birth of B.L. Rosing)

I.I. Buryak

The main stages of the biography, scientific and social activities of Boris L. Rosing – of Russian physicist, inventor of the world’s first electronic image transmission system at a distance are shown on the basis of the analysis of historical sources and popular literature. A significant contribution of the founder of the first higher education institution in the Kuban – of Kuban Polytechnic Institute in the development of higher education of Russia marked.

Keywords: history of science and technology, history of higher education, electric telescoping, electron beam tube, television, Kuban Polytechnic Institute.

Scientific Review


Use of non-traditional plant raw materials and biological active additives for the formation of technological and consumer properties of functional and enriched foods

L.N. Shubina, Е.Е. Ivanova, O.V. Kosеnko, S.P. Zaporozhskaya, S.V. Bеlousova

Based on the analysis of publications containing the results of theoretical and practical studies, it was found that the main factors affecting the formation of quality and consumer properties of functional and enriched foods are the technology, methods and modes of production, selection and justification of ingredients for the enrichment of products by biologically active substances and functional ingredients. On the example of bakery products, it was found that grain and leguminous crops in the form of bran, multi-grain mixtures, cut and whole grain; processing products (as a whole, cut, powdered, etc.) nuts, fruits, vegetables, berries; separate functional ingredients, in particular dietary fibers, vitamins, minerals, phospholipids, obtained mainly from non-traditional plant raw materials – table beets, apples, carrot, green pea flaps, etc., are used as enriching additives. The introduction of such additives affects the organoleptic properties of the product, its functionality, product period of storage and safety. Biologically active additives made of different types of plant – squash, alfalfa, Jerusalem artichoke, Rhodiola rosea, seaweed, etc., and animal, such as blood and fat of mammals, fish oil, raw materials, also used for enrichment of food.

Keywords: product enrichment, food additive, non-traditional plant and animal raw materials.

Modern approaches to quality control of brandy and spirits produced from table wine

I.V. Oseledtseva, R.V. Avanesyants

The analysis of perspective directions of quality control of brandy and cognac distillates is carried out. The requirements of regulatory documents in force on the territory of the EU and the EAEU for alcoholic beverages are considered. It is shown that the effectiveness of quality control of brandy can be achieved by using a combined scheme of product research, including the assessment of normalized additional indicators characterizing the properties of distillates and brandy produced from them. The main modern methods for studying the composition and properties of brandy distillates and brandy are considered. It is shown that one of the most valuable sources of information on the quality of brandy distillates and brandy are the profiles of higher alcohols, organic acids, volatile esters, furan and phenolic components. Data on modern approaches to the selection of additional criteria for quality control of brandy and brandy distillates are given. Data on calculated brandy quality control criteria are presented.

Keywords: brandy, brandy distillate, quality control, evaluation criteria, methods of analysis.

Prospects of honey production and its use in food technology

M.V. Semchenko, L.S. Zhuneva, I.S. Milenteva

Innovative technologies of products on base of honey were considered. It is established that honey as a raw material is in demand in the food industry, and the development of new technologies with using this valuable product requires an increase of it production. Dynamics of honey production in the Russian Federation in 2007–2017, volumes of export and import of honey in our country for the period 2014–2018 are analyzed, and also the main problems of beekeeping as one of the most important branch of agriculture supplying valuable raw materials for the food industry are specified.

Keywords: honey, world honey market, innovative products.

Chemistry of Food Products & Materials


Influence of the method of alcoholization on the concentration of aromatic substances in liqueur wines of Cahors type in the process of short-term aging in bottles

M.A. Nazarenko, V.T. Khristyuk, V.E. Strukova

The dynamics of changes in the content of aromatic substances in liqueur wines such as Cahors in the process of short term exposure to different methods of fortification has been studied. The studied samples were obtained by applying an alcohol component in the fermentable wort (control) in full and fractional – in the fermenting pomace. Excerpt of drink samples in bottles was carried out for 1, 3 and 12 months. It was found that in liqueur wines such as Cahors obtained by the method of fortification of fermenting pomace, the esterification reactions occur more intensively: the maximum concentration of esters complex was 108,2 mg/dm3, which is 14% more control. When fortification of fermentable wort liqueur wines such as Cahors have a more high aldehydes content: 2,9 times higher than when fortification of fermenting pomace, and 4 times higher than in fortification pomace fractional that may adversely affect their organoleptic properties.

Keywords: liqueur wines, short term exposure in the bottle, methods of fortification, aromatic substances.

Influence of volatile components contained in cork on the quality and safety of wines

L.E. Chemisova, N.M. Ageeva, M.G. Markovskiy, T.I. Guguchkina

The aromatic composition of water-alcohol washings of cork stoppers was investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Substances that easily interact with the components of the drink due to the close contact of the cork with the wine during aging and are able to have a negative impact on the quality and safety of wines are identified. The presence of volatile substances of synthetic origin – guaiacol, decalin and its derivatives, naphthalene and its derivatives, acetophenone and its derivatives, 1,3-benzothiazole, triacetin, 2-phenoxyethanol, propylene glycol, ochracine, dimethylglutarate, which are potentially dangerous to human health, established.

Keywords: cork, quality and safety of wine, volatile substances, aromatic composition.

Nutrition value of grapes grades of perspective for cultivation in Dagestan

F.A. Ashurbekova, B.M. Guseynova, M.M. Salmanov

Biochemical composition of berries of grape grades Asyl kara, Alyy terskiy, Platovskiy, Rubin Golodrigi, Saperavi is investigated with the aim of identifying contain significant pool of physiologically functional components and the most perspective for cultivation in the environmental conditions of Dagestan. This is important for the production of new competitive products from grapes with high nutritional values. The qualitative composition and quantitative content of mineral substances in the experimental samples of grapes were studied by the methods of flame and atomic absorption photometry. The content of pectin and vitamin C determined titrimetrically, phenolic compounds and vitamin P – colorimetric. It was found that the consumption of 100 g of grapes of the studied varieties provides, depending on the grade, the daily need of the human body, : in pectin substances – by 20,8–29,2; phenolic compounds – 16,3–28,1; vitamin P – 35,8–63,6; potassium – 7,7–10,7; iodine – 18,0–38,7; copper – 11,7–28,1. Grape grades Alyy terskiy and Saperavi were characterized by the highest level of accumulation of macro- and microelements, the total amount of which was 3039,39 and 3223,64 mg/kg, respectively, for each grade. Grades Platovskiy and Alyy terskiy has allocated a high content of pectin substances – 1,46 and 1,42, respectively. The greatest number of phenolic substances (561,8 mg/dm3), vitamins C (6,2 mg %) and P (31,8 mg %) was found in the variety Asyl kara. Varieties Alyy terskiy and Asyl Kara had the largest total supply of nutritionally valuable components, which allows us to consider these grape varieties the most perspective for the production of high-quality products of functional orientation.

Keywords: grapes berries, high-quality features, nutrition value, vitamins, mineral substances, pectin’s, phenolic substances.



Influence of the broccoli cabbage powder on baking properties of wheat flour and rheological characteristics of dough

T.I. Kryachko, V.D. Malkina, E.V. Zhirkova, V.V. Martirosyan, S.A. Smirnova, A.A. Slavyanskiy

A comparative assessment of the effect of the addition of broccoli powders (PB) on the quality of wheat flour of the highest grade was carried out. The powders obtained with convective and freeze-drying methods of broccoli varieties Tonus (Russia) and hybrid Maraton F1 (France), had as object of study. It was found that PB varieties Tonus and PB hybrid Maraton F1, introduced into the flour, the same effect on the quality of wheat flour and the properties of the test: do not significantly change the quality of gluten, lead to an increase in water absorption capacity of flour, which causes a more uniform consistency of the dough, an increase in the volume and yield of finished products in production conditions. An increase in the gas-forming ability of wheat flour was revealed when using the PB hybrid Maraton F1 due to the smallest particle size additives (0,14–0,15 mm), which allows us to recommend this powder in the production of bakery products from wheat flour with reduced gas-forming ability. Powders of broccoli cabbage varieties Tonus and hybrid Maraton F1 contribute to increasing the viscosity of water-flour suspension in the process of gelatinization of starch, which justifies their use in the technology of bakery products from flour of reduced quality – with increased activity of amylolytic enzymes. Thus, the possibility of using vegetable powders from domestic raw materials – broccoli cabbage of Tonus variety in the production of bakery products, in particular for correction baking properties of wheat flour, is proved.

Keywords: quality of gluten, water-absorbing ability, gas-forming ability, gas-retaining ability, correction of baking properties of wheat flour, bakery products.

Formation of the quality indicators and nutritional value of wheat bread with application of flour quinoa

L.G. Еliseeva, Е.V. Zhirkova, D.S. Kokorina

The influence of flour quinoa brands «Yarmarka» (Russia), «Mistral» (Russia) and «Bohlsener & Muehle» (Germany), presented on the Russian market, on chemical composition, the quality indicators and biological value of bread from wheat flour studied. The quinoa flour of these brands was introduced when mixing the dough at 10 and 20% instead of wheat flour. With the introduction of quinoa flour, a slight decrease in the volume of bread occurred: from 485 cm3 in the control sample to 420 cm3 in the experimental. Samples of bread with the introduction of 20% flour quinoa different brands had a pleasant light nutty flavor. It is established that the introduction of 10–20% quinoa flour did not have a negative impact on the quality of bakery products. However, the sample of bread with the addition of quinoa flour contained of proteins on 2,1, of dietary fiber on 1,4 and fat on 0,3 g/100 g more than the control sample – bread from wheat flour without additives. The sample of bread with the addition of 20% of quinoa flour of the brand «Yarmarka» was superior to the sample of bread from wheat flour with no additives in the total number of amino acids on 55%, including the content of essential amino acids – on 71,5%, essential – almost by 20% and the fat content of bread increased from 0,9 to 3,2%. It is proved that bread with the addition of quinoa flour in the amount of 20% instead of baking wheat flour in its organoleptic quality indicators is not inferior to bread prepared according to the traditional recipe, and in food and biological value exceeds it.

Keywords: quinoa, brand, bread made from wheat flour, chemical composition, amino acid and fatty acid compositions.

Features technology of gluten-free bakery products

O.L. Vershinina, V.V. Gonchar, YU.F. Roslyakov, A.E. Eremina, E.A. Simonyan

The possibility of using semi-fat-free linen flour (SFF LF) to improve the quality and nutritional value of gluten-free bakery products has been studied. During the study, bread was baked from rice flour with the addition of 4, 6, 9 and 11% SFF LF. The control served the bread without adding linen flour. After baking, the physicochemical parameters of the quality of rice bread samples with SFF LF were determined. It is established that with increase in the content of SFF LF moisture content in samples of bread was down 0,4 to 5,7%; the acidity of the crumb increased by 57–185,7%. The specific volume and porosity of bread samples with the addition of SFF LF in quantities of 4 and 6% increased compared to the control by 9,1–13,6% and 3,21–8,1%, respectively, but with an increase in the dosage of linen flour over 6%, these indicators decreased by 4,5–14,1% and 1,6–6,5%, respectively. The amount of fibre with the addition of 6% of SFF LF increased to 1,8%; protein – to 2,9%. The energy value of bread from a mixture of rice flour and SFF LF remained at the level of energy value of bread from rice flour. The use of SFF LF in the production of gluten-free bread from rice flour is recommended. The dosage of SFF LF – 6% in a mixture with rice flour was determined.

Keywords: the flour linen semi-fat-free, gluten-free flour, rice bread, gluten-free bread, production technologies of gluten-free bakery products.

Use of polysaccharides xanthan and tragacanth in technology of bakery products

A.A. Shishkanov, S.YU. Kozhushko, G.E. Rysmukhambetova, M.K. Sadygova, L.V. Karpunina

The opportunity of using polysaccharides (PS) in the recipes and production technology of bakery products from a composite mixture of high-grade wheat flour and buckwheat flour (1) and wholemeal flour from fifth-grade wheat (2) with concentrations of xanthan 0,5% and tragacanth 0,6% was studied. Polysaccharides of various origins were introduced into the experimental samples, namely: tragacanth (Sugarflair Colors, England), xanthan (Deosen, China), guar (Guarsar, India), and gum arabic (Sugarcraft Essentials, England) in concentrations from 0,5 to 1,5%. The positive influence of xanthan and tragacanth on the quality of bread was established. Humidity of bread from the composite mixture (1) increased by 0,54 and 1,64%; porosity – 6,0 and 1,4%, respectively. Humidity bread (2) increased by 0,6 and 5,1%, respectively, porosity – an average of 1,7 times. Designed bread samples with the addition of PS are recommended for the diet as a source of essential nutrients. According to microbiological parameters, the prototypes satisfy the requirements of TR CU 021/2011. The caloric value of the samples from flour (2) and composite mixture (1) was of 198,00 and 178,84 kcal, respectively, what needs to be considered to consider dietary and functional nutrition. The data obtained allow us to recommend our developed technological solutions to bakery enterprises.

Keywords: wholemeal flour made from the grain of the 5th class, polysaccharides, tragacanth, xanthan, guar, guar gum, gum arabic, composite mixture.

Application of the pumpkin pomace powder in enriched cracker technology

N.M. Derkanosova, I.I. Zaytseva, A.A. Emelyanov, T.V. Ponomareva, A.A. Stakhurlova, S.M. Vukich

The aspects of the use of the secondary product of juice production – pumpkin pomace obtained by convection vacuum drying at a temperature not exceeding 50°C, as an enriching raw ingredient of the cracker formulation with food fibers are considered. The characteristics of dried pumpkin pomace of Muscatnaya variety are given. The results of the study of the influence of pumpkin pomace powder dispersion from 63 to 125 microns on the baking properties of flour – the quantity and quality of gluten, autolytic activity are adduced. The substantiation of the cracker formulation with high content of dietary fibers and beta-carotene was carried out by the method of mathematical planning – a complete factorial experiment 22 with subsequent optimization method by ridge analysis. The production formulation is developed. Approbation of the developed formulation showed that the cracker with pumpkin extracts – 11,34 g/100 g of flour has distinctive organoleptic characteristics due to the taste and aroma of pumpkin, on physical and chemical indicators meets the requirements of the interstate standard, by composition, g/100 g, dietary fiber (3,4) and beta-carotene (2,9) can be attributed to the product – a source of dietary fiber with a high content of beta-carotene.

Keywords: pumpkin pomace powder, food fibers, baking properties of flour, cracker.

Study of quality of goat’s milk as raw material for functional foods

YU.V. Ushakova, S.YU. Makarova, M.V. Zabelina, M.M. Saukenova, G.E. Rysmukhambetova

The indicators of quality of the milk received from goats of the Russian breed of the Volga region for the purpose of creation on its basis of culinary production for the people suffering from intolerance of cow’s milk are investigated. The content of the mass fraction of fat in goat milk for different lactation months ranged from 3,77 to 4,07%. The maximum values on this indicator are noted the first two and last two months of lactation that it is connected with fodder factors. Content in whole goat’s milk: 4,45–4,63% of lactose; SOMO within norm; density of 29°A; titratable acidity 16–20°T; somatic cell count less than 500 thousand/cm3; unsaturated fatty acids from 27,918 to 28,590%; the ratio of unsaturated and saturated fatty acids ranged from 0,414 up to 0,437. The studied goat milk was used to develop culinary products – the pancakes and fritters for dietary nutrition. In pancakes and fritters on goat milk with corn flour there was a decrease in proteins by 22 and 24,6%, an increase of 3,25 times the amount of fat and 2,0 and 2,3% of carbohydrates, respectively. The developed recipes of dietary culinary products will allow expand the range of food products for therapeutic and preventive purposes and mass consumption in general.

Keywords: cow’s milk intolerance, goat’s milk, lactose, SOMO (dry fat-free milk residue), fatty acids, goat milk-based culinary products.

Use of secondary raw materials of brewing in the technology of semi-smoked sausage

D.V. Murzagaliеva, L.F. Grigoryan, V.N. Khramova, V.V. Vasilеva, S.V. Shinkarеva, O.A. Knyazhеchеnko

To study the prospects of use protein sludge – secondary raw materials of brewing production in the technology of sausages, samples of semi-smoked sausages – experimental, containing protein sludge in an amount of 10% instead of a part of meat raw materials and a food additive “Glimalask”, and a control, which does not contain these ingredients, were developed according to the developed formulation. In the study of physical and chemical parameters of the obtained products found that the experimental sample protein content was 1,93% higher and fat – 1,2% lower than in the control. Comparison of amino acid profiles of sausage samples showed that the introduction of protein sludge compensates for the lack of some amino acids, increasing the biological value of the finished product. Essential amino acids leucine + isoleucine, lysine, valine had the highest content – 1318, 778 and 479 mg, respectively. Organoleptic study revealed that the introduction of protein sludge into the sausage product together with the food additive “Glimalask”, which allowed to reduce the bitter taste and more than 2 times in comparison with the control increase in the experimental sample glycine content, contributed to improved color formation, as well as increased stability during storage. This confirms the effectiveness of the use of protein sludge in the production of smoked sausages.

Keywords: secondary raw materials, sausages, biological value, economy of raw materials.

Comparative evaluation of efficiency of methods of sulfitation and acidification with sulfuric acid in the processing of the extracting beet sugar production

S.O. Semenikhin, V.O. Gorodetskiy, N.M. Daisheva, N.I. Kotlyarevskaya

Comparison of technical advantages and disadvantages of sulfitation and acidification methods by sulfuric acid in the treatment of extracting of sugar beet production was carried out. The cost of the main equipment and materials for each treatment scheme of the extracting is calculated in order to identify the most cost-effective way. The calculation was carried out for a sugar factory with a production capacity of 5000 tons of beets per day. It is established that the method of acidification with sulfuric acid has one technical advantage-the simplicity of dosing sulfuric acid, but is inferior to the method of sulfitation for the total cost of equipment and pipelines, amounting to about 10 million rubles. The sulfitation method also has technical disadvantages-the dependence of the absorption of sulfur dioxide by the extracting on the design characteristics of the sulfitation plants used and the uniformity of the process flow, the negative effect of which can be reduced by the use of modern liquid-jet sulfitators, providing 100% utilization of sulfur dioxide in the range from 50 to 120% of their design capacity. The total cost of equipment and pipelines in the scheme of sulfitation treatment of the extracting will be about 7,7 million rubles. Thus, the implementation of the sulfitation scheme is 1,25 times cheaper than the scheme of acidification of the extracting with sulfuric acid. Sulfitation treatment at the cost of the reagent is about 13 times more profitable compared to the scheme of acidification with sulfuric acid.

Keywords: beet sugar manufacturing, total costs, pH, sulfitation, sulfuric acid, sulfurous acid, extraction of sucrose.

Influence of vegetable raw materials and CO2 extracts of spices on commodity research characteristics of the sauces on whey based

L.N. Shubina, G.I. Kasyanov, O.V. Kosenko, A.A. Zaporozhskiy, S.V. Belousova, O.N. Kaminir, A.V. Strizhenko

The formulation of sauces based on curd whey for meat and fish dishes was designed. The formulation of spicy sauces using curd whey, vegetable raw materials and СО2-extracts of spices was developed. The balance of the formulation composition of new foods is achieved by simplex method. The optimization problem is solved on organoleptic characteristics, chemical composition and energy value of the product. Three-factor simplex-centroid plans were used to model formulations. According to the planning matrix prepared samples of mixtures containing as a permanent part of the whey (43%); the remaining variable part was, %: wheat flakes 13,0; tomato paste 34,4; vegetable oil 2,3; salt 3,0; sugar 3,0; vinegar table 1,0; chitosan 0,2; СО2-extracts 0,004. Samples with different ratios of components received high organoleptic evaluation by five-points tasting scale of assessments. The nutritional value of the developed sauce 116,6 kcal – above the classic tomato sauce (95 kcal), below mayonnaise (510 kcal/100 g), which allows us to recommend a new product for dietary nutrition.

Keywords: sauces, whey, vegetable raw materials, nutritional value, modeling of recipes.

Influence of lingonberry fruits on storage stability of flour composite based on oat flour

L.V. Anisimova, O.I.A. Soltan

A comparative evaluation of the storage stability of the flour composite was prepared based on the whole oat flour and containing dried lingonberry fruits powder, and whole oat flour. The flour composite, in addition to whole oat flour, included: High-grade wheat Flour (16,5%), dry wheat gluten (3,5%), and dried lingonberry fruits powder (13,3%). Oat flour and flour composite were stored in cloth bags and polyethylene bags at a temperature of (20 ± 0,5)°C and (40 ± 1)°C. Moisture, acidity, and the acid number of fat were determined. It was revealed that the moisture content of oat flour and flour composite stored in polyethylene bags at a temperature of (40 ± 1)°C and relative humidity (65 ± 0,1)% was almost the same: 11,2 and 11,4%, respectively. When stored samples in polyethylene bags at a temperature of (40 ± 1)°C after 150 days, the acidity and acid number of fat of the flour composite increased about 1,7 and 4,2 times, respectively, the acidity and acid number of fat of whole oat flour about 2,9 and 6,3 times respectively. Also, the changes in the studied quality indicators were affected by the storage temperature and the method of product packaging. It was established that the addition of dried lingonberry fruit powder containing natural antioxidants into the flour composite, led to a decrease in the acidity growth rate of the flour composite about 1,5 times and the acid number of fat about 1,3 times during storage compared to the whole oat flour. It is recommended to use hermetically sealable bags made of food-grade polyethylene or other edible polymeric materials as a container for storing the flour composite.

Keywords: whole oat flour, rancidity, flour composite, lingonberry fruits, moisture, acidity, acid number of fat, storage stability.

Biotechnological methods of obtaining protein and protein-mineral supplements from secondary fish raw materials of smoke productions

O.YA. Mezenova

The technology of complex biotechnological processing of smoked secondary fish raw materials has been developed. Secondary fish raw materials-hot smoked sprat heads, obtained in the manufacture of canned «Shproty v masle» at LLC «RosKon» and fish factory «Za Rodinu», located in the Kaliningrad region, was the object of research. The basis of biotechnology is hydrolysis of raw materials. Hydrolysis is carried out in two ways: fermentolysis – treatment with enzymes Protamex and Flavourzyme in a ratio of 1 : 1 at 60°C in an amount of 0,05; 0,1; 0,25% of each enzyme to the weight of the hydrolysis system (crushed raw material-water in a ratio of 1 : 1) and a combined method – fermentolysis + thermolysis in a hydrothermal autoclave at a temperature of 100°C. The duration of the enzymatic hydrolysis was 4 h, thermolysis – 1 h. After hydrolysis, the resulting mass was separated by decanting into fractions-protein hydrolysate and protein-mineral precipitate, analyzed, dried. It was found that the protein content in the freeze-dried protein fraction of the combined hydrolysis method is 60–70%, in the protein-mineral sedimentary fraction – 45–53%. The sedimentary part is also rich in minerals –13,7–17,1% in fermentolysis and 14,7–16,3% in combined hydrolysis, which makes it possible to recommend it as a source of high-molecular protein, calcium and phosphorus. The obtained protein products are characterized by a high depth of hydrolysis and sufficiently effective cleavage of protein substances. Indicator amine nitrogen of the hydrolysate from the secondary fish raw materials varies from 423,4 to 196,0 mg/100 g with the enzymatic hydrolysis and from 215,9 to 363,8 mg/100 g in the combined hydrolysis. Quality indicators, features of organoleptic and physical and chemical properties of food additives from secondary smoked fish raw materials are justified. The obtained additives are recommended for use in various food products as protein, fat and mineral dressers.

Keywords: head smoked sardines, recycling fish production, hydrolysis, thermolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis, protein Supplement, food fortification.

Study on the process of rapeseed hulling by the impact

A.O. Renzyaev, O.P. Renzyaev, S.N. Kravchenko, R.V. Kryuk

The strength and physico-mechanical properties of the shell of rapeseed in terms of its destruction and removal are investigated. It is established that the most rational is a two-stage method of seed hulling: the 1st stage – on roller mills, the 2nd – on a centrifugal hulling machine. The parameters of the centrifugal hulling machine to provide the minimum required linear speed of 10,81 m/s are defined: the angle of inclination of the turnback plate (90 ± 2)°, the rotational speed of drum (2400 ± 150) RPM. It is established that the correctly selected conditions and the angle at which the impact occurs, can significantly reduce the amount is not completely hulling seed and the substance of the split nucleus. At the same time, with a free impact on the turnback plate at an angle different from 88–91°, or the supply of an insufficiently uniform flow of seeds, the content is not completely hulling seed increases significantly. On hulling of 1 kg of seeds it is necessary to spend 58,45 J. Thus, according to the calculated data, for rape seeds with a diameter of 1,5 mm, the rotational speed of drum should be in the range from 2221 to 2565 RPM when the seed is struck at an angle of 90°. The diameter of rapeseed grown in the Siberian region ranges from 0,8 to 1,8 mm. It was found that drying of rapeseed for 30–40 s at a temperature of 100°C, can increase the efficiency of destruction of the shell to its complete separation from the core of rapeseed. The presented results make it possible to improve the quality of cleaning of rape seeds from the shell and improve the quality characteristics of the obtained oil, facilitate the subsequent technological processes of obtaining edible oil, reduce the cost of refining and deodorization by 2%.

Keywords: rapeseed, caving, shell removal, rapeseed oil, rapeseed processing.

Influence of treatment by biological preparations and electromagnetic field on the biochemical composition of root vegetables during storage

E.YU. Panasenko, T.V. Pershakova, P.I. Kudinov, G.A. Kupin

The influence of treatment of root vegetables of Abako variety carrot (С) and Ronda variety beet (B) by biological preparations of domestic production of Vitaplan and Baktofit and electromagnetic field of extremely low frequency (EMF ELF) separately and in combination on the content of sugars, pectin substances and vitamin C under different conditions of storage of root vegetables has been studied. Unprocessed root vegetables were used as control. The samples C and B were stored for 21 days at a temperature (25 ± 1)°C and 56 days at a temperature (2 ± 1)°C. It is established that the greatest effect of the stability of the biochemical composition is achieved by using complex treatment of biological preparations and EMF ELF. When stored of samples C at a temperature (2 ± 1)°C loss reduction found: sugars by 6,2%, pectin substances by 0,7%, vitamin C by 8,4 mg/100 g; at a temperature of (25 ± 1)°C loss of sugars, pectin substances, vitamin C reduced by 2,6; 0,9% and 6,9 mg/100 g, respectively, compared with the control sample. When stored of samples B at a temperature (2 ± 1)°C loss reduction found: sugars by 6,6%, pectin substances by 1,4%, vitamin C by 5,4 mg/100 g; losses during storage of samples B at a temperature (25 ± 1)°C reduced: sugars by 4,0%, pectin substances by 2,2%, vitamin C by 4,6 mg/100 g compared with the control sample.

Keywords: root vegetables, preservation of vegetables, nutritional value, pectin substances, vitamin C, sugars, pretreatment of root vegetables.

Food Engineering, Processes, Equipment & Automation of Food Production


Assessment of pulse electric discharge on the process of transfer of substance in plant material

I.A. Shorstkiy, D.A. Khudyakov

An assessment of the release of intracellular fluid from a plant material modified by a pulsed electrical discharge at the initial moment of time was made. The relationship between the geometric parameters of the channels formed by the electric discharge and the intracellular pressure, which play an important role from the point of view of experimental determination of the amount of intracellular fluid leaving, is traced. It is established that the amount of liquid on the material surface in the range of the number of channels 0 < n < 1500 has a linear relationship.

Keywords: pulsed electrical discharge, mass transfer, plant material, channel, intracellular pressure.

Structural and mechanical properties of confectionery glazes on the basis of cocoa butter substitutes

Z.A. Baranova, I.B. Krasina, N.A. Tarasеnko, Е.N. Vasilеva

A comparative analysis of the structural and mechanical properties of three samples of cocoa butter substitutes used in the enrobing of confectionery products with high humidity was carried out. Samples ZMK-PO-2015-1, ZMK-PO-2015-2, ZMK-LZh-2015-38 were the object of study. Crystallization prototypes cocoa butter substitutes investigated on the instrument MultiThermТМ. Solidification curves are constructed. It was found that the sample ZMK-LZh-2015-38 has the highest rate of crystal formation and solidifies faster than all the studied samples of cocoa butter substitutes, since the crystallization index of Buhler in the sample ZMK-LZh-2015-38 is higher than in ZMK-PO-2015-1 and ZMK-PO-2015-2. After developing glazes enrobing of biscuits were produced and the organoleptic evaluation was performed. A sample of cookies with confectionery glaze based on ZMK-LZh-2015-38 had the highest tasting quality assessment.

Keywords: fats, glazes, cooling temperature, glaze crystallization.

Improving the design of the film deodorizer

O.I. Nikonov, N.N. Belina, A.V. Gukasyan

The characteristics of the odorizing substances contained in the oil are given. An analysis of the design of already existing deodorizers is given. The parameters affecting the deodorization process in a thin layer are calculated. The dependence of the saturated vapor pressure on the deodorization temperature was obtained. On the basis of the calculations performed, methods for intensifying the deodorization process have been proposed. The proposed improved design of the deodorizer, which allows intensify the deodorization process: to reduce the time and reduce the consumption of live steam.

Keywords: deodorizer, odorizing substances, parameters of deodorization, deodorization in a thin layer.

Development in stages-summarize scheme for purification of wastewater treatment of the dairy industry enterprises at their discharge in water

T.G. Korotkova, A.M. Zakolyukina, A.A. Glytyan

On the basis of a sample from the literature data on indicators of quality of wastewater of domestic dairy enterprises before treatment are presented. The range of changes of the main indicators were: pH from 4,7 to 11,5; COD from 1300 to 3000 mg O2/l; content of suspended solids from 350 to 950 mg/l, fat 900 mg/l; the maximum value of BOD is 2400 mg O2/l. On the basis of the analysis of technological schemes of wastewater treatment used in the dairy industry, summarize step-by-step scheme of wastewater treatment is proposed and a list of equipment used at each stage of treated wastewater at their discharge in water is given. The need for each stage of treatment and the proposed equipment used depending on the quality of the original wastewater is justified. The use of the ion-exchange unit or installation of reverse osmosis at the final stage contributes to the tertiary treatment of wastewater to the quality indicators of purified water that meets the requirements for recovered water obtained from wastewater. Selection of equipment is individual for each enterprise due to the various properties of the raw materials and the range of products manufactured.

Keywords: local sewage treatment plants, dairy industry, step-by-step scheme of wastewater treatment stages, local sewage treatment equipment.

Methods of Investigation, Quality & Safety of Food Products


Research of the effect of carbon tetrachloride on nuclear magnetic relaxation characteristics of liquid rapeseed lecithins

E.P. Viktorova, O.S. Agafonov, S.M. Prudnikov, E.V. Lisovaya, O.S. Vorontsova, E.V. Velikanova

The effect of carbon tetrachloride on the nuclear magnetic relaxation characteristics of protons contained in rapeseed lecithins (RL) has been studied. It is revealed that the addition of CCl4 in a multicomponent system, which is a liquid RL, leads to the weakening and rupture of intermolecular bonds, and when a certain mass ratio of RL and CCl4 is reached, the maximum rupture of intermolecular bonds occurs and the equilibrium is established in the system. It was found that the redistribution of the four components contained in the RL occurs by increasing the mass fraction of CCl4 in the system RL–CCl4 from 1 to 4: the share of the 1st component increases by 33%; the share of the 2nd component decreases by 14,5%; the share of the 3rd component increases by 1,3%; the share of the 4th component decreases by 17,1% compared with the control sample of liquid RL without CCl4 additive. Thus, the preliminary dissolution of RL in carbon tetrachloride at a mass ratio of 1: 4, respectively, allows the maximum release from the micelles contained in lecithin phospholipids molecules exhibiting acidic properties, and molecules of free fatty acids, which greatly reduce the time of their interaction with the alkaline reagent solution in determining the acid number of liquid RL.

Keywords: rapeseed lecithins, nuclear magnetic relaxation characteristics, carbon tetrachloride, amplitude of proton NMR signals, spin-spin relaxation time of protons, acid number.

Development of a model for calculating the optimal quantitative and qualitative indicators of grain of the basic cereal crops, taking into account regional conditions

M.A. Yanovа, YU.F. Roslyakov

The multidimensional statistical model of calculation of optimum quantitative and qualitative indicators of grain of the main cereal crops grown in climatic zones of Krasnoyarsk region for the purpose of justification of rational placement of the new production enterprises of grain processing branch is developed. The ranking of the degree of correspondence between the quantity and quality of grain, productivity and utilization of production capacities of grain processing enterprises using the method of paired comparisons is the basis of the calculated multidimensional statistical model. The mechanism of complex assessment of quantitative and qualitative indicators of grain raw materials for food production is developed. The proposed method ofmathematical processing of the data proves the feasibility of grouping of specializations to major factories in the zones in accordance with the quantitative and qualitative indices of the grain.

Keywords: grain of cereals, modeling, quantitative and qualitative indicators of grain, grain processing enterprises, rational placement.

Effect of storage terms on safety and functional properties of food additive corrective and compensatory action

N.N. Kornen, S.A. Kalmanovich, T.A. Shakhray, O.V. Fedoseeva, E.P. Viktorova

The article presents the results of the study of the effect of shelf life on microbiological safety indicators and the degree of manifestation of the functional properties of the herbal food supplement Apple Powder (FS AP). For carrying out researches on storage the FS AP packaged and packed in bags from polypropylene with polyethylene inserts, net weight of 10 kg was put. Storage was carried out for 24 months at a temperature (20 ± 2)°С and relative humidity of air no more than 70%. It has been established that the FS AP stored for 18 months complies with the requirements of TR CU 021/2011 for microbiological safety indicators. It was found that during storage of the FS AP for 18 months, the loss of biologically active substances that determine its antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties are insignificant,, not more than: vitamin C 5,0; P-active substances 4,5. In experiments on laboratory animals, the high efficiency of the manifestation of the FS AP stored for 18 months, antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties characterized by the degree of reduction in the serum of animal products of lipid peroxidation: malon dialdehyde by 35,6 per cent, diene conjugates by 32,2 per cent. A decrease in the activity of liver enzymes aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase by 26,0 and 33,4, respectively, was also found.

Keywords: food supplement, microbiological safety indicators, biologically active substances, functional properties, efficiency of antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties, shelf life.

Influence of packaging on the physico-chemical parameters and organoleptic evaluation of table wine

T.A. Drozdova, A.P. Biryukov, N.YU. Kachayeva, R.A. Drozdov

Physico-chemical parameters of 12 samples of dry and semi-sweet white and red table wines produced by one enterprise and poured into a glass bottle (GB), a bottle of polyethylene terephthalate and a bag-in-box in February 2018 by cold and hot methods were determined in order to establish the influence of packaging on the change in the organoleptic composition and physico-chemical characteristics of table wines. Physical and chemical analysis and tasting of the presented samples of table wines were carried out in March 2018 using generally accepted methods. It was found that a month after filling in the package, all prototypes met the requirements of the current regulatory documentation for this type of product and had optimal physico-chemical parameters, except for the sample of semi-sweet red wine in the GB, which at the time of analysis was exposed to microbiological effects. In all the studied samples of table wines 1,2-propylene glycol was found, but its content did not exceed the permissible norms. Following the results of the tasting, bottling in the GB is recommended for dry table wines, since the cold bottling used in this type of packaging practically does not affect the change in the organoleptic characteristics of the product. For sweet wines it is recommended that hot-filling because it prevents fermenting and suffocating wine and bottling in bag-in-box allows to preserve the quality of the wine.

Keywords: table white wine, table red wine, quality indicators, packaging of wines, hot and cold methods of bottling, organic acid, aromatic compound, testing rating.

Assessment of the advisability development and implementation of the new functional dairy products on the consumer market

V.V. Illarionova, E.A. Verbitskaya, E.E. Zubakova, E.N. Guba, M.V. Guseva, L.I. Ambartsumyan

The analysis of the need to produce a new type of dairy product – cottage cheese, enriched with functional products derived from sea buckthorn. To establish the attractiveness of the new product, an integral (qualitative) assessment and its quantitative interpretation were used. The assessment was performed by interviewing 300 people using a questionnaire. Studies have allowed us to estimate the attractiveness of the new product at 61 points on a 100-point scale. It is established that the consumer market is adapted to the emergence of a new type of dairy product (90% of respondents): the product corresponds to the capabilities of dairy enterprises, its production does not require significant re-equipment, has no significant number of competitors in the consumer dairy market. Evaluation of the success of efforts to create a new type of dairy functional product and its promotion showed that the project is in the Win Zone. The SWOT analysis allowed us to establish that the planned product is characterized by high competitive advantages, which will form the direction of the strategy to promote a new type of dairy product and market introduction through traditional channels.

Keywords: production of functional products, a new type of dairy product, food additive, powder and oil from sea buckthorn fruits, competitive advantages.

Effect of the integrated management system to improve product quality and competitiveness of enterprises of the confectionery industry

E.N. Vyskubova, E.I. Baranova, T.P. Bazhina

The experience of implementing an integrated management system at the enterprise for the production of flour confectionery products is considered. ISO 9001 is chosen to improve the efficiency of management processes and the quality of the company’s products. The requirements of the standard allow on the basis of the implemented quality management system to create and implement an integrated management system (ISM) of the enterprise, adapted to the requirements of international standards ISO 9001:2015, HACCP, ISO 22000:2005, ISO 14001:2015, ISO 45001:2018. Additive model is chosen for integration of enterprise management systems. The PDCA cycle was applied to all processes as a basis for integration. According to the results of the diagnostic audit, the risks of the enterprise are determined: product safety, accidents and injuries, the danger of excessive emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere, the formation of solid waste. A plan of activities to eliminate possible risks has been drawn up. Based on the risk analysis, critical control points (CCP) for semi-finished and finished products are determined. Management of CCP is carried out by means of control over deliveries of raw materials and laboratory tests of its quality, tracking of parameters of production process at the stage of preparation of glaze, guarantee conditions of storage of finished goods (temperature, terms of realization) and supervision of sanitary processing of warehouse, carrying out scheduled preventive repair of the production equipment. Introduction of ISM will provide to the confectionery enterprise a guarantee of quality of products and stability of development of production.

Keywords: product quality, critical control points, enterprise risks, food safety, environmental management.

Economics of Food Industry


Comparative evaluation of economic efficiency determination of acid number of lecithins pulse method of nuclear magnetic resonance and arbitration method

T.A. Shakhray, O.S. Agafonov, E.P.Viktorova, E.V. Lisovaya, E.V. Velikanova, O.V. Fedoseeva

The cost of determining the acid number (AN) of liquid sunflower lecithins developed by the authors of the pulsed method of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and arbitration method in accordance with GOST 32052–2013 are calculated. It was found that, depending on the equipment of the enterprise, the determination of AN lecithins by the pulsed NMR method is 1,17–4,64 times more effective compared to the arbitration method. The economic effect of the introduction of the NMR method in determining the AN for 1000 samples of lecithin in the presence of the enterprise NMR analyzer AMV-1006 M, taking into account its modernization will be 1815750 rubles, and in the case of the acquisition of the enterprise NMR analyzer – 330250 rubles. The economic effect of the introduction of an instrumental method for determining the AN lecithins using the pulsed NMR method is achieved by reducing the cost of chemical utensils, reagents and labor of laboratory staff.

Keywords: liquid sunflower lecithins, quality control, NMR analyzer, cost reduction of the enterprise.
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