Food technologyIssues → № 4 (370), 2019

Table of contents for # 4 (370), 2019

To 95-anniversary of birthday of Professor G.G. Valuyko

6

Elder of domestic winemaking (to the 95th anniversary of the birth of Professor G. G. Valuyko)

Scientific Review

8

Effective technologies for processing seeds of oil crops

B.YU. Orlov, E.G. Stepanova
Annotation

The description of the technological scheme of processing of oil seeds with the use of newly developed equipment of the site of preparatory operations of the oil plant is proposed based on the analysis of machines and mechanisms used for the processing of oilseeds. The main types of oil raw materials, composition and preservation of seed mass in the process of post-harvest storage were considered. The main rheological properties of the processed product and the operations necessary for the technological process of extracting vegetable oil are indicated.

Keywords: oil seeds, cleaning, storage, oil seed hulling, product of hulling, kernel, husk, oilseed dust, moisture-thermal treatment, pressing.
11

Use of electrophysical methods when processing oil raw materials

I.A. Shorstkii
Annotation

The review shows that a wide range of new technologies appears in the field of oilseed materials processing, which are able to combine traditional approaches with new methods based on electric fields, forming a more perfect and safer process. It is indicated that methods based on electric fields, which include the processing of a pulsed electric field, microwave processing, cold plasma processing are beginning to be actively used for the preparation of oil-bearing materials or for carrying out the process of processing with the imposition of methods based on electric fields. It is noted that some of the methods based on electric fields in particular, microwave heating and pulsed electric field processing have already been industrially tested. The paper also shows the features of their application. On the basis of a critical analysis of literary sources, it is noted that for the food industry it is extremely important to develop modern, combined technologies for processing plant materials together with methods based on electric fields that can preserve and in some cases improve the nutritional value of the processed products and at the same time increase the efficiency of the processing process.

Keywords: emerging methods, pulsed electric field, microwave heating, cold plasma, oil crops.
17

Main directions of creation of functional food products

A.V. Petrenko, V.V. Illarionova
Annotation

The nutritional factor is considered as an influencing component on the health, performance, and resistance of the human body to the effects of environmentally harmful industries and habitats. The problem of growing diseases associated with unbalanced nutrition and food allergies, especially among people under the age of 30, has been noted. The prospects of giving functional properties to food products through modification of natural components, enrichment with the biologically active substances, remove of undesirable ingredients are shown.

Keywords: nutritional status, functional product, changes in diet, balanced nutrition, unbalanced nutrition.

Chemistry of Food Products & Materials

20

Cytoactivity physically modified starches

V.V. Litvyak
Annotation

Cytoactivity physically modified extrusion starch – potato, corn and their mixture in a ratio of 1 : 1 was investigated. The extrusion temperature of starch samples and their mixture was 140 and 170; 140 and 160; 140°C, respectively. MTT-test on the culture of lung fibroblast cancer (A549) was used for the study. The cells are grown in a CO2-incubator at a temperature of 37°C, a content of 5% CO2, a relative humidity of 80%. Direct inhibition of cell growth has been recorded. Colorimetric studies have been conducted. On the second day after sowing, the studied substances – extrusion starch in an amount of 1 g/l, and after 24 hours the reagent isoproterenol in an amount of 50 mg/l were introduced. The samples were incubated in a thermostat for 20 min. The results of the research were statistically processed in Excel. It is established that the individual samples of the extruded starches, for example potato, slightly, by 0,4 and 3,0%, stimulated cytoactivity; others – such as corn, at the temperature of extrusion 140 and 160°C has contributed to the growth of cytoactivity to 110, and its decrease to 91,1%. In general correlation between the temperature of starch extrusion and the optical density of the samples is not identified (r = + 0,007). The effect of synergism in the interaction of extrusion starches and isoproterenol, increasing the activity of isoproterenol by 3,7–6,4%, was revealed. The greatest synergistic effect was found in the interaction of isoproterenol and corn starch produced at an extrusion temperature of 140°C.

Keywords: corn starch, potato starch, synergism, isoproterenol, extrusion.
23

Influence of heat treatment on the antioxidant activity of the composite mixture ingredients for melted cheeses

N.S. Evdokimov, S.A. Kalmanovich, T.N. Ivanova
Annotation

The antioxidant activity (AOA) of the ingredients of the composite mixture for melteded cheeses was studied in order to increase their oxidative stability and give the product functional properties. Vegetable raw materials – pumpkin seeds, thistle spotty meal, root of calamus swamp, spirulina, buckwheat did was the object of study. Water and methyl alcohol are used as extractants. At the extraction of water AOA ingredients of the composite mixture of 16,3–27,2% lower than at the extraction of alcohol. Thistle spotty meal and root of calamus have the largest AOA regardless of the extractant. Heat treatment of raw materials at a temperature of 85–90°C reduces its antioxidant activity by 6,9–23,7%. The greatest decrease in methanol extraction is observed in heat-treated pumpkin seeds – 75,3% of the native sample. The smallest decrease of AOA established in root of calamus swamp – 93,7% of the native sample by extraction with methanol and 93,1% of the water. The obtained results will be used as a recipe-component basis for the solution of the composite mixture for melteded cheeses.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, vegetable raw materials, pumpkin seed, thistle spotty meal, calamus swamp root, spirulina, buckwheat, storageability of fat-containing products.
27

Study of physical and chemical composition and sensory properties of thistle spotty oil as an ingredient of cosmetic products

T.V. Pelipenko, S.K. Mustafaev, YU.A. Polyakova
Annotation

Physical and chemical composition and sensory properties of thistle spotty oil, obtained by cold pressing on the laboratory press Farmet DUO PF-3, investigated. It was found that thistle spotty oil contains 2,0% of unsaponifiable substances, including tocopherols 110 mg . Physiologically active unsaturated fatty acids – linoleic and oleic – 69,70 and 15,60%, respectively, prevail in the fatty acid composition of the oil. The high content of mono- and diacylglycerols, free fatty acids, which increase the hydrophily of the oil, was noted in the composition of the oil. Therefore, when administered in lipid compositions, they create a feeling of less fat and occlusion. In this case, mono- and diacylglycerols of fatty acids have emulsifying properties. The oil is characterized by low values of surface tension and viscosity, average spreadability, good sensory characteristics. Thistle spotty oil can be recommended for use in cosmetic receptions as a base component with the properties of emollient and biologically active component due to the high content of unsaturated fatty acids and other active substances.

Keywords: thistle spotty oil, fatty acid composition, oil quality indicators, sensory evaluation.

Technology

32

Influence of technological methods on the quality of wheat flour

M.A. Khashagulgova, U.A. Khashagulgov, O.O. Getokov
Annotation

The influence of technological methods on the quality of flour has been studied. The quality of winter wheat Krasnodarskaya 57 was determined according to GOST 9353–2016. At a certain technological scheme – with a seventy-eight percent two-grade flour yield was obtained 70% flour 1st grade and 8% flour 2nd grade. The quality of flour corresponds to GOST R 52189–2003. Flour of the first and second grades has a fresh taste, the smell characteristic of wheat flour, the mass fraction of moisture 14,7% (1st grade) and 13,5% (2nd grade). The presence of mineral impurities, pest contamination has not been established. The content of metallomagnetic impurities was found to be 0,041 mg (1st grade) and 0,048 mg (2nd grade), which corresponds to the standard. Mass fraction of ash in terms of dry matter was no more than 0,69% for first grade flour and 0,70% for flour of the second grade, whiteness – conditional units of the device RZ–BPL 52,4 (1st grade) and 30,0 (2nd grade). The quality of wet gluten for flour of 1st and 2nd grades is 70,0 and 78,0 units of the device IDK–1 (I group) respectively. Were also defined the particle size of grinding – the residue on the sieve № 2,0 – 1,9 and 2,2%, the falling number 200 and 182 seconds, the mass fraction of wet gluten 30,3 and 26,6%, protein content 13,2 and 12,5% for flour 1st and 2nd grade, respectively. The color is white for the flour 1st grade and the white with a yellowish tinge for the flour of the 2nd grade. By organoleptic and physico-chemical indicators, wheat bran complied with GOST 7169–66. As a result of hydrothermal grain treatment with the use of cold conditioning and softening for 4 hours, the yield of raw gluten due to an increase in the water-absorbing ability of proteins increased from 25 to 26,6%. At the same time, a weakening of the gluten was observed, an increase in its extensibility. When softening grain for 6 and 8 hours there is some increase in the yield of wet gluten, : of 27,9 and 30,3 respectively. The quality of gluten was 70 units of the device IDK–1, which corresponds to the quality group I. The yield of flour with four-hour softening was 64, with six-hour increased to 66%. High total yield of flour of 78% was set when the eight-hour softening. Cold conditioning contributed to the improvement of the milling and baking properties of grain, increasing the yield of high-grade flour with less power consumption.

Keywords: technology, flour production, wheat, yield, quality, conditioning.
36

Development of technology of bread with enhanced nutritional value with the addition of whole-ground safflower seeds

V.S. Kutsenkova, N.V. Nepovinnykh, V.S. Grinev, E.V. Lyubun, A.A. Shirokov, Mark (Qingbin) Guo
Annotation

Indicators of quality and nutritional value of bread with the addition of whole-ground safflower seeds were investigated. Bread is produced according to GOST 27842–88 on the basis of wheat flour, yeast, water, sugar, salt, but with the addition of whole-ground safflower seeds in dry form instead of 10% wheat flour. It was found that the consumption of 100 g of enriched bakery products will ensure the satisfaction of daily needs, : in protein for 11; fat containing an increased amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids, for 4,5; carbohydrates for 13; dietary fiber for 19; minerals for 1,5–9,5; vitamins of group B for 6,8–10,9; essential amino acids for 2–18. It is shown that the use of crushed safflower seeds in the formulation of bakery products increases their nutritional value by introducing essential polyunsaturated fatty acids – omega-3 (1), omega-6 (28%), omega-9 (4,8%). The energy value of the finished product is 246,8 kcal (1031,6 kJ). The formulation of high nutritional value bread with the addition of whole-ground safflower seeds is developed. Parameters of the production process worked out. It is shown that the use of additives of non-traditional raw materials – whole-ground safflower seeds can improve the organoleptic and physical-chemical characteristics of bread, increase its nutritional value.

Keywords: bread formulation, enrichment of bakery products, non-traditional vegetable raw materials, quality indicators.
40

Influence of extragent preparation methods on chromaticity of diffusion facility semiproducts in the beet sugar manufacture

V.O. Gorodetskiy, S.O. Semenikhin, N.M. Daisheva, I.N. Lyusy, N.I. Kotlyarevskaya, M.M. Usmanov
Annotation

In the laboratory the influence of the three most common methods of preparation of the extractant in the sugar beet industry – treatment with sulfur dioxide, sulfuric acid and sulfuric acid with addition of gypsum suspension on the chromaticity of the chromaticity of intermediate products of diffusion facility – diffusion juice and beet pulp was studied. For research, sugar beet root crops were ground into chips, which were sorted to obtain the value of the «swedish» factor above 10 units. Then the samples of the multicomponent extractant with a pH value of 5,2–5,5 and a temperature of 70–72°C by the three above methods were prepared. Further diffusion desugarization of beet chips at a temperature of 72–74°C for 30 minutes was carried out, after which the intermediate juice was drained and further desugarization for 30 min continued. Hydromodule during 1 h of diffusion was 1 (unit). After that, the obtained diffusion juices and chips were selected for research. It was found that the treatment of the extractant with sulfur dioxide provided the lowest color of the diffusion juice – 350 conventional units, which is more than 30% lower than the color of the diffusion juice obtained after the treatment of the extractant with sulfuric acid with the addition of gypsum suspension, and 6 times lower than after the treatment of the extractant only with sulfuric acid. Treatment of the extractant with sulfur dioxide provides the pulp with preservation of the color of beet chips and its further use for the production of dietary fibers eliminates the need for clarification by various reagents, which improves the quality of the finished product and reduces its cost.

Keywords: sugar beet production, diffusion juice, beet pulp, sulfur dioxide, sulfuric acid, gypsum, beet fiber.
43

Study of the effectiveness of the effect of vegetable food additives on the process of activation of bakery pressed yeast

N.N. Kornen, S.A. Kalmanovich, M.V. Lukyanenko, O.L. Vershinina, O.V. Fedoseeva, E.P. Viktorova
Annotation

The effect of vegetable food additives Tomato and Pumpkin, obtained from secondary resources produced during the processing of tomatoes and pumpkins, on the lifting force of bakery pressed yeast and the duration of their activation was studied. It was revealed that when food additives Tomato and Pumpkin is introduced in an amount of from 0,5 to 1,5% of the flour weight, the lifting force of the yeast rises. It was also found, that the lower the lifting force of the yeast, the higher the effectiveness of the effect of additives on the activation process. It was determined that when adding an additive in the amount of 1,5% by weight of flour to a yeast suspension with a lifting power of 70 min, the effectiveness of the influence of the food additive Tomato increased by 2,2 times, the food additive Pumpkin – by 1,9 times compared with the control sample. When adding Tomato and Pumpkin food additives to a yeast suspension with a lifting force of 45 min, the effectiveness of the effect of additives in experimental samples increased 1,8 and 1,5 times, respectively. It was established that the addition of 1,5% to the mass of flour of the Tomato additive or Pumpkin additive at the yeast activation stage reduces the activation time by 30 min compared to the control sample without the additive; thus, the introduction of vegetable food additives intensifies the activation process.

Keywords: vegetable food additives, bakery compressed yeast, the activation process, the lifting force, the duration of activation.
46

Justification of rational parameters of hydrolysis of collagen-containing highly mineralized smoked fish raw

O.YA. Mezenova, L.S. Baydalinova, V.V. Volkov, S.V. Agafonova, N.YU. Mezenova, E.A. Kazimirova
Annotation

Hydrolytic high-temperature processing of secondary smoked fish raw materials, which allows to deeply destruct the fish mass, is justified. Indicators of the main parameters of hydrolysis – the temperature of the raw material, the temperature in the shirt of the autoclave, the duration of thermal hydrolysis, the mixing rate of raw materials were varied with the aim of establishing rational values. Processes with pre-fermentation with proteolytic enzyme alcalise (0,25% to the weight of the system) and without him, with preliminary removal of fat from the fish mass and without degreasing were investigated. For research, secondary raw materials of sprat production – smoked sprat heads with a fat content of 13,8; 14,5; 18,8 and 24,5% after grinding were mixed with water in a ratio of 1 : 1 and autoclaved under a pressure of 0,15–0,2 kgf/cm2. In experiments with the preliminary separation of fat smoked raw material is mixed with water at a temperature of 80°C, kept at this temperature, after which the mixture is centrifuged and the fat is extracted from it by decanting. It is established that the rational method of hydrolysis of smoked collagen-containing highly mineralized fish raw materials in the preparation of food additives is a combined method, providing for the preliminary separation of fat and preliminary fermentation with alcalase, followed by thermohydrolysis in an autoclave at a temperature of 130°C for 60 min at a speed of rotation of the stirrer 50 rpm. The yield of freeze-dried protein hydrolysate is 8,7% with the content therein, : protein 82,7; fat 2,0; minerals 0,6. The degree of protein extraction in the hydrolysate is 48,0 of its initial content in the raw material. The yield of the sedimentary fraction of the protein-mineral-fat product is 35,7% with the content in it, : protein 54,5; fat 18,1; minerals 23,6. The degree of protein extraction (high-molecular insoluble collagen fibers) in the sedimentary fraction is 45,3. The obtained fractions in the dry (protein) and liquid (fat) state were tested as food additives in the formulations of encapsulated biologically active food additives, sauces, snacks, fish preserves and canned food, sprat paste.

Keywords: processing of secondary raw materials, smoked sprat heads, thermohydrolysis, fermentation, protein additives, protein-mineral-fat additives.
51

Effectiveness of beet dietary fibers use in the technology of melted products

E.V. Topnikova, A.V. Dunaev, M.V. Lukyanenko, E.P. Viktorova, A.N. Anashin
Annotation

The effectiveness of beet dietary fibers (BDF) (LLC «Rodniki») in the production of sweet fused product with milk fat substitute produced according to the technology of melted cheeses was investigated. To determine the effectiveness dosage of BDF in the composition of the fused product, laboratory samples with a content of BDF in an amount of 2, 4 and 6% to the mass of the product and a control sample without BDF were developed. It is established that the introduction of BDF in an amount of 2% to the mass of the product led to the formation of the product in addition to the fermented milk taste of a specific flavor of the filler with a vanilla tinge. A further increase in the dosage of BDF in the formulation of the fused product to 4 and 6% by weight of the product led to a deterioration of its organoleptic characteristics. The introduction of BDF significantly increased the modulus of elasticity of the product – (2095,9 ± 11,0)–(2208,9 ± 11,0) PA compared with the control – (244,3 ± 1,5) PA. It was found that the effective dosage of BDF is from 1 to 3% by weight of the product. Recipes sweet fused product (mass fraction of moisture 55% and 30% fat in dry matter) with chicory in the amount of 2–3% and BDF developed. It is established that the introduction of chicory harmonizes the taste of the fused product and reduces the taste of dietary fibers.

Keywords: food ingredient, organoleptic indicators, rheological indicators, formulation of fused product, milk fat substitute, chicory.
54

Use of functional raw materials in the production of jelly marmalade

E.N. Krylova, T.V. Savenkova, N.B. Kondratev, N.V. Linovskaya, E.N. Mavrina
Annotation

The technology of obtaining jelly marmalade of increased biological value using dietary fibers has been developed. As an object of research, jelly marmalade was chosen as having a low nutritional value and a large amount of carbohydrates – up to 70%. For the enrichment of the product, soluble dietary fibers oligosaccharides in the form of the preparation of inulin were used, in the amount of 6% by weight of the yield, which corresponds to the characteristics of the product with a high content of dietary fibers according to TR CU 022/2011. Gelatin in the amount of 7% of the jelly mass was used as a gelling agent. The optimal ratio of sugar and molasses 2 : 1, respectively, determined. It was found that the addition of insulin in an amount of 6% increases the viscosity of the jelly mass by 0,7 Pa • s, which does not complicate the molding process. Also, the number of reducing substances increases by 0,4%, which does not worsen the quality of products. The possibility of using the preparation of inulin for the enrichment of jelly marmalade by dietary fibers and the production of functional products has been substantiated.

Keywords: jelly marmalade, gelling agent, dietary fibers, inulin, functional ingredients.
57

Effect of a biodegradable polymer packing on the quality of meat products

K.E. Beloglazova, A.A. Ulyanin, A.D. Gornevskaya, A.A. Rogozhin
Annotation

A biodegradable film coating consisting of xanthan, carboxymethyl cellulose, lecithin and water for food use has been developed. It was found that during storage of pork, packaged in this biodegradable film, the weight loss of experimental samples decreased from 2,16 down to 0,21% (norm – up to 0,30%). The shelf life of samples of chilled pork, packaged in a biodegradable film, increased from 2 to 5 days. Sensory analysis showed that all packaged pork samples were fresh throughout the entire storage period 5 days. Reduction in 2 times of the numbers of mesophilic aerobic and optional anaerobic microorganisms in the test samples was observed during the storage of pork on the 3rd day. During 10 days of storage, the number of these bacteria was also 2 times less in the test sample packed in biodegradable film than in the control sample without film. In the control sample on day 3 revealed bacteria of the genus Proteus, indicating the beginning of putrefactive processes in meat (spoilage). The presence of bacteria of the genus Proteus was found in the test samples on day 5 only. The storage modes of pork packaged in a biodegradable film coating were determined: air temperature 0–2°С, relative humidity 85–90%, air velocity 0,2–0,3 m/s. These parameters allow prolong the shelf life of meat up to 5 days.

Keywords: film coating, polysaccharides, xanthan, carboxymethyl cellulose, lecithin, food products.

Food Engineering, Processes, Equipment & Automation of Food Production

61

Development of management algorithm of processing processes oilseeds in protein-containing products

A.A. Shevtsov, T.N. Tertychnaya, V.V. Tkach, N.A. Serdyukova
Annotation

The technology of complex processing of oilseeds into protein-containing products with the use of a steam-compression heat pump in the production scheme and a software-logic algorithm for controlling technological parameters, which provides an increase in the accuracy and reliability of control under random disturbances, have been developed. The technological cycle of complex processing of oilseeds to obtain vegetable oil, soluble and insoluble fractions from a mixture of crushed pomace with heated water; protein from a soluble fraction, dried insoluble fraction is outlined. According to the information received from sensors, the microprocessor on the program-logical algorithm put in it carries out operational control of technological parameters taking into account the bilateral restrictions imposed on them caused by the obtaining of high quality finished products and economic expediency. Control of the heat pump allows to provide the set parameters of heat carriers in the condenser and evaporator of the heat pump by means of recuperative heat exchange with the refrigerant. The temperature of condensation of refrigerant vapor in the condenser is regulated by compression, and its boiling point – by changing the refrigerant pressure, throttling through a temperature control valve in a closed circuit of the heat pump. The proposed algorithm of management of the processes of processing of oilseeds into protein-containing products reduces the tolerance field for the quality indicators of the obtained target and intermediate products, reducing the spread of values by 0,1–0,5%; allows to increase the productivity of seed processing by 5–7% and reduces the specific energy consumption by 5–10% due to the rational use of energy carriers in closed thermodynamic cycles.

Keywords: software-logic algorithm, closed thermodynamic cycle, economic feasibility, specific energy consumption, improvement of product quality.
66

Influence of parameters of preparation of melon seeds on the quality of oil and cake in a single pressing on a screw press

G.KH. Mirzozoda, V.V. Derevenko, P.M. Pugachev
Annotation

The dependence of the oil yield, the mass fraction of crude protein and the residual oil content in the cake on the content of the fruit shell in the processed material was investigated. Sound fraction of melon seeds variety Amiri grown in Tajikistan has been the object of study. Preliminary melon seeds with oil content of 35,3% were treated with IR-irradiation heated to 90°C. Then melon seeds were brought down by a single blow in a modernized centrifugal hulling machine. From the obtained hulling seeds samples of the model mixture of the sound fraction with the content of the fruit shell 8, 14, 20 and 25% were prepared. Before pressing the oil, each sample was heated to a temperature of 68–70°C in an IR-energized installation. Humidity of samples was (6,0 ± 0,2)%. Extraction of oil from melon seeds is carried out in bench conditions on the screw press DUO (Farmet a.s., Czech Republic) at the set optimal parameters of the screw press: shaft speed of 40 rpm; the diameter of the outlet of the removable nozzle 6 mm; the gap between the base of the screw and the pressing head 3 mm. It was found that when the fruit shell is reduced to 8% in the sound fraction, the yield of melon oil increases to 37%, the content of crude protein in the cake increases to 56% and the oil content of the obtained cake decreases to 9%. This improves the quality of melon oil. According to the results of studies of the equation for calculating the yield of melon oil, crude protein content and oil content of oil cake, depending on the content of the fruit shell in the sound fraction of melon seeds obtained. These equations can be used for operational control of technological process and forecasting of indicators of quality of the received production.

Keywords: melon seeds, single oil extraction, screw press, oil yield, quality of melon oil and cake.
71

Study of the rate of sublimation of dry ice in the cooling process of the pulp

A.V. Gukasyan, E.P. Koshevoy, V.S. Kosachev, S.A. Romankov
Annotation

The process of sublimation of dry ice and the temperature distribution inside the carbon dioxide granules at a non-stationary heat transfer mode in a porous material, which was used as a sunflower mint at a temperature of 19°C and a mass of 30 g, are considered. Experiments allowing to form dependences of changes in the mass of CO2 granules in time taking into account the influence of specified external factors on the sublimation process were the basis of the study. To minimize errors in the estimation of sublimation time, carbon dioxide pellets with a length of 20 mm and a mass of 2 g were selected in the experiment. The experiment was carried out in two versions, changing the effect of the environment on the sublimation process: heat transfer by means of convective heat transfer in a medium of resting air and heat transfer in the filling of the granule with a porous material. Processing of the results of experimental studies carried out by methods of mathematical modeling using a computational package Mathcad. The possibility of forming a reliable model with the replacement of the parabolic equation by the equation of the trial function determined by the Fourier heat equation for a one-dimensional body, the further solution of which is carried out by the semi-analytical Galerkin method, is shown. The correspondence of the obtained regression equations to experimental studies is proved. As a result of the study of the mathematical model, data on the dynamics of the phase boundary movement for cylindrical pellets are obtained. The results of the study can be used to calculate the modes of modern press equipment.

Keywords: production of edible vegetable oils, biphasic mixture, mathematical model, extrusion; mobile phase boundary, carbon dioxide.
75

Equilibrium moisture content of flax seeds

S.V. Zverev, V.A. Zubtsov, O.SH. Sesikashvili, D.P. Efremov
Annotation

The efficiency of a number of mathematical models of sorption isotherms taking into account the influence of temperature was evaluated. It is established that the best results are obtained on the models of Oswin, Dubinin–Astakhov and cluster model. However, the physical interpretation, where possible, of the identifiable coefficients of the model must be treated selectively. It is established that the quality of the model is determined not by its physical substantiation, but by the structure of the mathematical expression and the presence of three identifiable parameters. When choosing a particular model should be guided by the feasibility of its application.

Keywords: flax seeds, sorption isotherms, equilibrium moisture content, models.
79

Mathematical modeling of the process of low temperature drying in the installation with regenerative cycle

YU.S. Bezzabotov, E.O. Ivchenko
Annotation

The application of compressor thermotransformers (heat pumps) in installations of low temperature drying (LTD) plants is considered. Considerable attention is paid to LTD with regenerative cycle. On the basis of the selected model, mathematical modeling of processes in the form of a system of equations, the solution of which allowed obtain analytical calculations of the dependence of heat and mass transfer processes was received. It was found that in the range of parameters of the drying plant LTD with the location of the regenerative heat exchanger to the condenser is more effective.

Keywords: low temperature dryer, thermotransformer, regenerative cycle, regenerative heat exchanger, evaporator dryer, capacitor, heat heater, drying chamber, fan, cooling capacity.
82

Optimization of the process of concentration of the extracts from fruit and berry raw materials

S.N. Kravchenko, D.M. Popov, A.O. Renzyaev, E.S. Miller
Annotation

Currently, in the production of functional products are widely used concentrated extracts from fruit and berry raw materials containing in its composition a significant amount of biologically active substances and having therapeutic and preventive properties. In order to obtain competitive products of high quality, it is necessary to take into account the influence of many factors on the process of concentration of extracts. The objects of this study were a vacuum rotary film evaporator of horizontal type and extracts from dried blueberries. Extractants selected: curd whey ultrafiltrate; water, ethanol and their solutions. The content of dry soluble and biologically active substances in the extracts was determined by standard methods. It was established that the highest yield of 92–93% of vitamin C is achieved when using as an extractant – curd whey ultrafiltrate, bioflavonoids and tannins – 30 and 60% aqueous-alcoholic solution, respectively. The initial content of dry soluble substances in the extract was, % mass.: water 4,5; 30% aqueous-alcoholic solution 5,0; 60% aqueous-alcoholic solution 4,2; ethanol 3,5; curd whey ultrafiltrate 9,6. The influence of the parameters of the rotor-film evaporator: the height of the level of the processed liquid in the apparatus, the angular velocity of the rotor, the consumption of the initial product on the concentration coefficient, the mass fraction of solids, the preservation of vitamin C in the extract. The rational parameters of the extraction process were determined: GH 2,64 kg/h; omega 0,8 s–1; H 0,11 m; the heat transfer coefficient in this case was 962 W/(m2 • K), the yield of dry soluble and the amount of biologically active substances is close to the maximum, in particular, the loss of vitamin C did not exceed 8,0%. The physical and chemical indicators of quality concentrated extracts of the rational process parameters concentration: mass fraction of soluble solids of 56,2–58,7%; carbohydrates and 39,9–42,8%; organic acids (in terms of malic acid) 4,1–5,2%; tannins 2,4–3,1%; beta-carotene of 0,6–2,7 mg/100 g; vitamin C 80,7 totaled 102,1 mg/100 g; of bioflavonoids (for routine) 4056–4729 mg/100 g. The obtained concentrates have a pronounced pleasant, harmonious taste, characteristic of raw materials and boiled tones do not have, this provides them with wide application in the production of food products.

Keywords: fruit and berry raw materials, dry soluble substances, biologically active substances, rational parameters, concentration, extracts.
86

Modernization of working body of the dielectric separator for increase cleaning efficiency of aromatic plant’s seeds

YU.K. Gorodetskiy, YU.F. Roslyakov, V.V. Litvyak
Annotation

The review of existing means of obtaining homogeneous fractions of seeds and the results of studies of the influence of the technological parameters of the dielectric separator on the quality of the separation of seeds of aromatic cultures of the family Umbrella (Apiaceae) for their include in recipe of food products. The thickness measurement of the polyethylene coating was performed by a CHY-CA or CHY-CB tester manufactured by Labthink Instruments, USA, meeting the requirements of ASTM and ISO standards. Tester CHY-CA provided automatically feed samples. For control measurements used the sheet with a micrometer dial for measuring the thickness of the sheets and strips (GOST 6507–90). The special elongated shape of the micrometer bracket is convenient for thickness measurements at some distance from the sheet edge. Pre-established technological parameters of the separator dielectric laboratory for fennel seeds, cumin and coriander: voltage and mains frequency 230/50 V/Hz; drum material – bakelite (viniplast); drum diameter 220,0 mm; length of the forming drum 400,0 mm; rotation speed of the working body 22 min–1; thickness of polyethylene coating 40–60 microns; power consumption (0,7 ± 0,2) kW; productivity (5,0 ± 0,5) kg/h; voltage on a bifilar winding 0,9–1,5 kV. Wire for bifilar winding – APV-2,5; number of fractions after separation 3; number of staff – 1 person.

Keywords: seeds of fennel, coriander, cumin; sifting; small-seeded crops; native properties; (melted) butter; multifunctional product.
91

Improving the energy efficiency of operation of mobile cruciform knives grinders of food

P.L. Ataev, O.V. Islamova, A.Z. Tokov
Annotation

The designs of mobile cruciform knives grinders of food are considered. Based on the analysis of the forces acting on the blade of the knife in the process of its rotation and calculations, it is shown that, ceteris paribus, a decrease in the value of the wedge sharpening angle can reduce the horizontal component of the cutting force and the friction force between the wedge surface and the grid, thereby increasing the energy efficiency of the grinding process. The design of a mobile cruciform knife, the blades of which have in all cross sections the shape of a classical wedge with an angle alpha at the top of no more than 6–12°, is proposed. The optimum value of the angle beta between the surface of the blade and the grid is 2–3°. Movable cruciform knives were made according to the proposed design. Tests have shown that the energy consumption of the grinding process the meat when using a movable cruciform knives of the proposed construction was on a 30–32% lower compared to the energy consumption of the grinding process with movable blades having the shape of a parallelogram.

Keywords: movable cruciform knife, energy efficiency, wedge sharpening angle, knife blade, grinding.
95

Calculation of the efficiency of the modernized wastewater treatment system of food production

N.M. Privalova, M.V. Dvadnenko, S.S. Bulaev
Annotation

The most frequently used technological schemes of wastewater treatment in the food industry are considered. Their advantages and disadvantages are noted. In order to improve the quality of wastewater treatment, the upgraded system of treatment facilities with the introduction of the aeration tank as the main device for purification from organic pollution has been developed. This increases the proportion of oxygen used, system resistance to clogging, reduces pressure losses and energy costs, increases cleaning efficiency. It was found that the efficiency of wastewater treatment during the introduction of aeration tank is 70–75%. The calculated content of BOD and surfactant in the waste water of the enterprise after treatment during the installation of the aeration tank does not exceed the MPC.

Keywords: BOD, surfactant, efficiency of wastewater treatment, re-pollution of wastewater, grease trap, aeration tank.
98

Intensification of cleaning of drains of dairy industry

L.A. Marchenko, T.N. Bokovikova
Annotation

The analysis of the wastewater composition of the dairy industry was carried out. The technical characteristics of a number of sorption materials that can restore the composition of the resource to the MPC standards are investigated. It is shown that the use of two-stage purification of model solutions using on the first stage of the coagulation process, on the second stage, the sorption process, allows increase the cleaning efficiency up to 92%. The sorption capacity of sorbents was evaluated and the factors affecting it were analyzed, the optimal conditions for the sorption process were selected depending on the conditions and nature of the objects to be cleaned.

Keywords: sorption capacity, sorbents, filtration, coagulation, purification, regeneration, food industry, BOD, COD.

Methods of Investigation, Quality & Safety of Food Products

103

Project development of the national standard on quality control and identification of the chewing tobacco

N.P. Samoylenko, I.G. Kandashkina, E.V. Gnuchikh, L.A. Mirnykh
Annotation

The identification signs of smokeless tobacco products: of chewing tobacco and snus are considered. A method for determining the fractional composition of chewing tobacco has been developed. On the basis of scientific research for the first time developed a draft national standard GOST R “Chewing tobacco. General technical specifications”. After approval and entry into force, this standard will be used to identify types of smokeless tobacco products.

Keywords: chewing tobacco, tobacco raw materials, fractional composition, national standard, quality control, identification.
105

Evaluation of quality indicators and consumer properties of canned fruits sold in the retail network of Krasnodar

L.I. Ambartsumyan, M.V. Ksеnz, T.A. Dzhum, N.A. Bugaеts
Annotation

Organoleptic, physico-chemical indicators and safety indicators of canned pineapples and peaches produced in Thailand and China, sold in stores «Pyaterochka» of Krasnodar trading network, investigated. It was found that of the 7 samples studied only one sample – canned peaches «Lutik» (Xiamen Ovisen I/E Co., Ltd, China) on organoleptic and physico-chemical indicators meets the requirements of normative documents and can be allowed to be implemented in the trading network. Four samples of canned fruits have unacceptable deviations in terms of quality and consumer properties and should be removed from sale. The results of this study justify the need to strengthen the control of food products through mandatory monitoring provided by the state financial support in accredited laboratories.

Keywords: canned fruit, imported food products, organoleptic evaluation, indicators of food safety.
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