Food technologyIssues → № 2-3 (374-375), 2020

Table of contents for # 2-3 (374-375), 2020

Anniversaries

6

On the anniversary of the President of Kuban State Technological University V.G. Lobanov

Scientific Review

8

Implementation issues of the best available technologies in the food industry

A.G. Khramtsov, A.A. Borisenko, A.A. Bratsikhin, I.A. Evdokimov, A.A. Borisenko, L.A. Borisenko, S.A. Ryabtseva, A.D. Lodygin
Annotation

Improvement of production technologies in the food industry, rational use of material and financial resources, the formation of environmental culture and increasing the competitiveness of products in modern conditions are associated with the introduction of the best available technology (BAT). The analysis of normative acts that establish requirements for their phased implementation is carried out, the structure and relationship of information and technical reference books containing a description of technologies classified as the best available for food industries is considered. Innovative and technological aspects of BAT development based on interdisciplinary research, multi-level approach, convergence of biotechnologies, nanotechnologies and information and communication technologies are considered, examples of their practical implementation in the food industry are given.

Keywords: best available technology, information and technical reference books, multi-level design, digitalization of production.

Chemistry of Food Products & Materials

14

Dependence of nuclear-magnetic relaxation characteristics of liquid soy lecithins on the content of lipids showing acidic properties

E.V. Lisovaya, M.R. Zhane, E.V. Velikanova, E.P. Viktorova
Annotation

Liquid soy lecithins are produced in larger volumes than lecithins from other vegetable oils. Therefore, the search for an instrumental method for determining the quality of liquid soy lecithins – the acid number (AN) is relevant. To develop a method for determining the AN of liquid soy lecithins based on the pulse method of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), the content and effect on the nuclear magnetic relaxation characteristics (NM-relaxation characteristics) of liquid soy lecithins of lipids that exhibit acidic properties were studied. The object of the study was two pairs of samples of liquid soy lecithins. The samples in each pair had the same content of phospholipids and oil at different values of AN. The study of the NM-relaxation characteristics of protons of liquid soy lecithins was performed on an AMV-1006M NMR-analyzer at a temperature of 23°C. It was found that the value AN of liquid soy lecithins does not affect the relaxation time and the amplitude of NMR signals of proton components of liquid soy lecithins, which changes only depending on the content of oil and phospholipids in lecithin. Thus, it is necessary to continue searching for an analytical parameter that would accurately characterize the content of lipids that exhibit acidic properties in liquid soy lecithins and, consequently, the value of their AN.

Keywords: lecithins, free fatty acids, phosphatidylserines, phosphatidic and polyphosphatidic acids, acid number, nuclear magnetic relaxation characteristics.

Technology

17

Efficiency of technology of rye-wheat bread from frozen semi-finished products of a high degree of readiness for preventive nutrition using grain fillings

A.O. Loktionova, E.M. Markin, N.V. Labutina, E.O. Gerasimova
Annotation

The technology of rye-wheat bread from frozen semi-finished products of high readiness for preventive purposes using grain starter culture has been developed. To prepare the starter culture, wheat grain was sprouted for 12–13 hours at a temperature of 23–25°C; then water was added to the crushed grain mass in a ratio of 1 : 1 and solutions of xylanase-acting enzyme preparations. The resulting mixture was kept for 2 hours at a temperature of 40°C. The dough was prepared using a thick rye sourdough, as well as grain starter cultures at a ratio of 60 : 40 rye skinned and wheat flour of the first grade, respectively. Baked semi-finished products were cooled in natural conditions, Packed and placed in a freezer at a temperature of –27°C. After defrosting, the product was baked to 100% readiness. Analysis of physical and chemical quality indicators of rye-wheat bread made from frozen semi-finished products showed that the use of grain starter cultures improves the quality of finished bread and preserves its main indicators after cryopreservation. Specific volume of bread samples on sourdough thick rye/grain, cm3/g: 2,2/2,4; humidity, %: 44,5/44,0; degree of acidity 4,4/3,8; porosity, %: 64/60; total deformation, mm: 3,0/3,3 respectively.

Keywords: sourdough, chia flour, semi-finished products of high degree of readiness, rye-wheat bread, baking.
20

Influence of fruit food additives on the forms of water binding in wheat flour dough

E.P. Viktorova, O.V. Fedoseeva, T.A. Shakhray, N.N. Kornen
Annotation

The influence of fruit food additives «Apple» and «Pear», obtained from secondary resources of fruit processing, on the forms of water connection in the wheat flour dough was evaluated. Additives are added to the test samples from wheat flour of the 1st grade in the amount of 6, 8 and 10% by weight of flour. Measurement of the nuclear magnetic relaxation characteristics of dough samples was performed using an NMR-analyzer AMV-1006M at a temperature of 23°C. It was found that introduction additives «Apple» or «Pear» to the dough samples in an amount of 10% by weight of flour allows increasing the content of strongly bound water in the dough by 6,5 or 4,9% respectively, which is explained by the higher content in additive the «Apple» compared to the additive «Pear» of pectin (3,7% vs. 2,1%), largely showing water-retaining ability. The results obtained using the NMR method are consistent with the data obtained in the study of the effect of these food additives on the water absorption capacity of the dough. Increasing in the dough the content of water, which is in a strongly bound state, will allow for further baking of dough blanks to reduce baking loss and, consequently, increase yield of products.

Keywords: fruit food additives, wheat flour dough, water absorption capacity, strongly bound water, increase in the yield of bakery products, NMR method.
23

Mechanochemical activation method technological process refining of vegetable oils

V.I. Martovshuk, S.A. Kalmanovich, A.A. Lobanov, E.V. Martovshuk
Annotation

The effect of mechanochemical activation on the hydration of phospholipids of vegetable oils has been studied. A mechanochemical activator providing high local pressures, shear deformations and cavitation effect was used for the experiment with the following operating parameters: pressure on the contact surfaces of 70 MPa, frequency of 180 Hz, shear rate of 10200 s–1, the size of the emulsion drop of 1–2 microns. Processing of sunflower oil samples was carried out during 0 to 80 s at temperatures of 50, 60 and 70°C. The activity of phospholipids was estimated by the amount of their adsorption at the border with the polar surface (water) in the optimal temperature mode when processed in a mechanochemical activator and without it. It was found that mechanochemical activation contributes to a decrease in the activation energy from 6,4 to 4,7 kJ/mol due to chemical and structural changes in phospholipids. In the fatty acid composition of phospholipids, the content of oleic acid increased by 10–12% with a corresponding decrease in linoleic acid; in phosphatidylethanolamines and phosphatidylserines, the increase in the content of palmitic acid was noted to 3%, and stearic acid – slightly. These changes in the fatty acid composition and physical properties of phospholipids contribute to increasing their hydration and reducing the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which should ensure the stability of the oils processed in the mechanochemical activator to oxidation during storage.

Keywords: phospholipids, mechanochemical activation, fatty acid composition, surface pressure, interfacial tension, oil stability, oil storage.
26

Technology of soft cheese with a high content of dietary fiber

A.V. Borisova, Yu.M. Eliseev, N.M. Tuzova, N.V. Dolibozhko, E.N. Makeeva
Annotation

A recipe for soft cheese with an increased content of dietary fiber due to the introduction of bran has been developed. Oat, wheat and rye bran were taken for the study. Three ways of bran application at different technological stages of cheese preparation are considered: sample 1 – before pasteurization of milk; sample 2 – before introduction of the enzyme; sample 3 – in the finished cheese grain. The cheese is made using the technology of soft cheese of the «Slavyanskiy» type. Dosage: for a portion of cheese weighing 50 g, you need 3 g of bran without taking into account 3–5% of losses. Moisture absorption of oat bran in water and milk was determined, : at t 35°C – 670 and 446, at t 75°C – 840 and 560, respectively. In wheat bran, moisture absorption is lower, %: at t 35°C – 760 and 506, at t 75°C – 800 and 533 in water and milk, respectively. Physical and chemical analysis of bran: the mass fraction, %, of dietary fibers of wheat, oat and rye bran was 60,0; 66,6 and 63,3, respectively. The highest content of dietary fiber is found in oat bran (66,6). The maximum rating of tasters was given to sample 2. The uniform distribution of bran in sample 2 affected its consistency and shape, which was preserved for 12 h. It is established that to obtain soft cheese with a high content of dietary fiber, it is necessary to add oat bran in the amount of 6 g/100 g of the milk mixture before adding the enzyme to the fermented milk. Research has shown that it is possible to create a new type of dairy product with a given composition and properties.

Keywords: functional food products; cheese grain; cheese; wheat, oat, rye bran; dietary fiber; moisture absorption capacity.
29

Modeling recipes of dry breakfast with prescribed indicators of food value

G.I. Kasyanov, A.M. Medvedev
Annotation

Three recipes of dry breakfast recipes based on grain and nut raw materials with prescribed indicators of food value have been developed. Walnuts (Urozhaynyi grade), almonds (Forus), pistachios (Lakomka) and hazelnuts (Trapezund) grown in the Krasnodar region containing 15–22% protein were used as initial raw materials. The authors’ proposal is innovative to remove part of easily oxidized fatty acids from nuts and seeds of legumes using liquid carbon dioxide under a pressure of 7 MPa and a temperature of 25–27°С. The cold extrusion method proposed by the authors makes it possible to obtain an extrudate with the maximum preserved chemical composition of the raw material. The designed composition of breakfast cereal recipes corresponds to the recommendations of the Federal research center for nutrition, biotechnology and food safety (Moscow) for the ratio of protein : fat : carbohydrates as 1,0 : 0,7 : 1,6.

Keywords: breakfast cereals, nuts, legumes, technological solutions, modeling of recipes.
33

Improving the technology of soft drinks based on CO2-meal of fruit and berry crops and thick extracts of medicinal plants for the population of the northern regions of Russia

E.Yu. Mishkevich, G.I. Kasyanov
Annotation

The technology of soft drinks based on CO2-meal of fruit and berry crops and thick extracts of medicinal plants for their intended consumption in the Northern regions of Russia has been improved. CO2-meal obtained from fruit and berry raw materials grown on the territory of the Krasnodar region – such as rosehip, black currant, sea buckthorn, and raspberry, are selected for the production of beverages. Fruit and berry raw materials were once treated with liquid carbon dioxide in a subcritical state (extraction parameters: pressure 6,0 MPa, temperature 22°C). Echinacea purpurea, oregano, and chamomile are used for the preparation of thick extracts. The resulting purified extracts of plants were subjected to thickening to obtain a viscous mass with a moisture content of 20–25%. Developed soft drinks are a source of a wide range of biologically active substances, including vitamin C. The main normalized physical and chemical parameters of the developed soft drinks meet the requirements of regulatory documentation: the dry matter content is 9–10%, the mass fraction of vitamin C is 12,9–17,6 mg/100 ml, the energy value is 246–253 kcal, the acidity is 6,3–11,2 cm3. A biotest to determine the viability of Paramecium caudatum culture confirmed the harmlessness of the developed beverages. Microbiological and toxicological indicators of beverages do not exceed acceptable levels.

Keywords: non-alcoholic beverages, CO2-meal, extracts of medicinal plants, improving the immune system.
38

Production of granulated instant kissel based on whey and vegetable raw materials

A.L. Maytakov, L.N. Beryazeva, N.T. Vetrova, K.B. Plotnikov
Annotation

A new fast – soluble product (kissel) with a certain phase composition and structure based on whey and local plant raw materials Aronia melanocarpa. A model of technology for the production of a rapidly soluble granular product (kissel) based on whey and Aronia melanocarpa has been developed. The stability of kissel in three temperature modes was studied: 1st (21 ± 1)°C; 2nd with a low plus temperature (5 ± 1)°C; the 3rd with the increased (39 ± 1)°C at 80% ambient humidity. At the end of a year-long study at temperature conditions (21 ± 1)°С and (5 ± 1)°С, no changes in the organoleptic characteristics of the product were observed. Dissolution rate of the product under storage temperature conditions (21 ± 1)°C and (5 ± 1)°C did not change for 9 months. It is established that when stored at low positive temperatures 4–6°C. With and at room temperature (21 ± 1)°C. At the end of 6 months of storage, the food concentrate under study did not change its properties in terms of quality. The product testing period was 2 times longer than the specified storage period. The test results were the basis for the development of technical documentation for the production of instant granulated fruit and berry kissel.

Keywords: modeling, porous systems, granulation, instant kissel, physical and chemical parameters.
42

Development of a recipe for gluten-free waffle loaves from a mix of buckwheat flour and a food additive «Kofeynaya»

I.B. Krasina, B.O. Khashpakyants, E.V. Filippova, E.V. Krasina
Annotation

The formulation for gluten-free waffle loaves from non-traditional raw materials: buckwheat flour and food additive «Kofeynaya» in a ratio of 1 : 0,3 respectively has been developed. The optimal dosage of water for cooking waffle loaves from a mix in which the mass fraction of moisture in the test does not exceed the normative values should be increased in comparison with the design value for a control sample prepared by traditional technology from wheat flour, and to be 150 ml, the mass fraction of moisture in the test – 65,20%, and waffle batter from a mix of buckwheat flour and a food additive «Kofeynaya» becomes an optimum viscosity. It was found that the average value of the mass fraction of moisture of waffle loaves made from a mix of buckwheat flour and the food additive «Kofeynaya» is 3,25%, which is slightly higher than the average value of the same indicator of the control sample. The average alkalinity values for the pilot sample are 2,06 deg., for the control sample – 1,92 deg. The average wetness value of the developed waffle loaves is 405,62%, which is not lower than that of the control sample. Analysis of physical and chemical indicators and organoleptic evaluation of the developed product showed that replacing wheat flour with gluten-free buckwheat flour and the food additive «Kofeynaya» does not worsen the main quality indicators of the finished product, which can be recommended for people suffering from celiac disease.

Keywords: buckwheat flour, wafer dough viscosity, waffle loaves, gluten-free products, quality indicators.
45

Improving the technology of cryopowders from vegetable raw materials

S.P. Zaporozhskaya, G.I. Kasyanov, O.V. Kosenko, A.M. Medvedev, Z.A. Yaralieva, L.N. Shubina, S.V. Belousova
Annotation

A method for drying vegetable raw materials in nitrogen at a temperature of 45–50°C for 3 h is proposed, which makes it possible to achieve a decrease in the moisture of mass humidity from 88 to 14–18%. Technology and equipment for the production of cryopowders from carrots, beets and celery root are presented. The content of the main components in the raw materials dried on the modernized drying unit was, carrot/beet/celery, g: water 14/18/16; protein 3,4/3,0/2,3; fat 1,2/0,4/0,5; carbohydrates 48,4/57,6/65,7; dietary fiber 23,2/14,8/9,6; energy value 284/43/231 kcal, respectively. During the period of cryo grinding, the product had a temperature of –120°C, the processing time was 10 minutes. The content of the most labile components in the cryopowder – vitamins was, mg/100 g: C in carrot/beet/celery 82/88/115; в-carotene respectively 41,0/0,4/0,7; B1 – 0,4/0,1/0,1; B2 – 0,3/0,4/0,3; PP – 6/8/5. It is recommended to use food additives in the form of cryopowders made using advanced technology to enrich the composition of meat and fish products.

Keywords: cryopowders, carrots, beets, celery, raw material drying, modernized drying plant.
49

Development of technology and installation for fodder production using spent filter powders

E.O. Smychagin, S.K. Mustafaev
Annotation

It has been suggested modernizing the previous technology for recycling of sunflower seed waste, developed by the authors that included waste separation to obtain secondary oily raw materials. A technology and installation has been developed for recycling spent filter powders into fodder products immediately after freezing of sunflower oils at oil and fat plants to exclude the process of their oxidation. It is established that the centrifugation must be carried out for 35 min at 900 rpm of the centrifuge. The greatest efficiency of pressing with extrusion is determined when adding 1–3% of fat-free filter powder to secondary oilseeds. The maximum amount of fat-free filter powder (10%) is set. The co-processing of sunflower seeds waste and spent filter powders at the created experimental operation-performing installation made it possible to produce an experimental fodder product which meets the requirements of normative acts for sunflower seed cake and sunflower fodder product «Podsolnechnyy» used for feeding farm animals.

Keywords: seed cleaning waste, spent filter powder, centrifugation, extrusion, pressing, feed product.
53

Technologies of water treatment on the example of the LLC «Krasnodar vodokanal»: analysis and recommendations

N.K. Strizhov, A.V. Dubakova, A.A. Lazarev
Annotation

The analysis of the state of water supply to the population and food industry sectors with clean water and recommendations for improvement of existing water treatment technologies in Krasnodar are given. The issues of multi-stage water treatment for domestic and industrial purposes, where water acts as a raw material: the technology of water treatment at intakes, the restoration of electrode bags in installations for the production of sodium hypochlorite and the cleaning of drinking water tanks are considered. Studies of water in the Novo-Zapadny water intake were carried out according to quality indicators: microbiological, organoleptic and generalized, according to the content of inorganic and organic substances, as well as radiation safety. Recommendations on water treatment technology and restoration of electrode packages for installations for the production of sodium hypochlorite, are offered. It is determined that water quality is the main condition for determining the amount of the reagent-purifier: coagulant, potassium permanganate, ozone, sodium hypochlorite.

Keywords: drinking water, water treatment technology, water intake, deferrization station, water quality indicators.
56

Development of a formulation for perfumery and cosmetics product for skin care of children of the first years of life

V.V. Illarionova, A.A. Vinokurova, S.A. Ilinova, E.N. Guba, M.V. Guseva
Annotation

The formulation of perfumery and cosmetics product for skin care of children of the first years of life, which meets the safety requirements, has high consumer properties and affordability, has been developed. Four recipes with different percentages of ingredients were compiled to test the quality of the product being developed. According to these formulations recipes, 4 samples of children’s cosmetic oil were made. After three months of storing samples under various conditions of destabilizing influence and testing by the perfumer engineer for further research, the best sample was selected. It is established that the sample of children’s cosmetic oil made according to the developed formulation fully meets the requirements of GOST 32852–2014. The study of the transepidermal water absorption indicator (TWA), conducted using the device DermaLab Series SkinLab Combo, showed that when using baby oil made according to the developed formulation, TWA indicator decreases, which provides the necessary hydration by creating a thin occlusive film that does not allow moisture to evaporate from the skin surface. The developed product, enriched with active ingredients, meets the requirements of safety and quality, is suitable for daily gentle care of children’s skin and massage.

Keywords: perfume and cosmetic products, baby cosmetic oil, cosmetic product enrichment, skin hydration.

Food Engineering, Processes, Equipment & Automation of Food Production

61

Formalization concept of a capillary of the circular transverse section taking into account the contact wetting angle

V.G. Zhukov, V.M. Chesnokov, N.D. Lukin
Annotation

The calculations of the processes of saturation and transfer of fluid in porous media are based on taking into account of its capillary properties in the pore space. The intensity of the processes occurring in the pore space depends on the degree of filling of it by capillary liquid. Only small pores are filled with capillary fluid. Larger pores remain unfilled. However, there is no analytical justification for the transverse pore size taking into account the wetting angle of the meniscus, more than which the pore cannot be filled with liquid by capillary forces. With this in mind, the concept of the limiting transverse size of a capillary for a liquid is considered. The calculated formula for the largest transverse size of model pores of circular transverse section, which relates them to capillaries, taking into account the value of the contact wetting angle, is obtained. It is proposed to use a parameter called specific surface tension lambda to evaluate the effect of a complex of physical constants of liquids on the value of the maximum transverse size of the capillary. The parameter lambda represents the ratio of the surface tension coefficient of a liquid to the gravity of its unit volume. According to the obtained formula for a number of liquids, calculations of capillaries of limit sizes as functions of contact wetting angles are performed. The research results can be used to improve the efficiency of calculations of heat and mass transfer in porous media in food production and other similar tasks.

Keywords: porous medium, capillary, limiting size, meniscus, specific surface tension.
65

Engineering model for the consolidation of oilseed material during viscoplastic deformation

A.V. Gukasyan, D.A. Shilko
Annotation

The aim of the study was to compile a model equation for the consolidation of oilseeds, taking into account the process of its viscoplastic deformation for a non-Newtonian solid/liquid mixture. To compile the equation, we used in parallel a combination of Newton models with viscosity epsilon-Н and Saint-Venant with yield strength у0. Both formulas are constitutive rheological equations of state. In the calculation process, the direct and inverse Laplace transforms were used, and a one-dimensional version of the plastic deformation of the oil material was considered, due to which the displacement gradient and velocity gradients were derived. As a result, the obtained equation of pressure distribution over the height of the material layer allows one to determine the pressure change over the thickness of the pressed material, taking into account its viscoplastic deformation.

Keywords: oil-bearing material, viscoplastic deformation, rheology, Bingham’s model, vegetable oils.
68

Substantiation of optimum parameters of pneumatic separation of crushed oil seeds

V.V. Derevenko, A.V. Didenko, G.A. Glushchenko, G.KH. Mirzozoda, A.V. Zhuplev
Annotation

For the purpose of substantiation of the optimal separation parameters of sunflower, rapeseed and pumpkin crushed seeds by air flow, the features of separation of crushed seeds in an industrial air separator in bench conditions were studied and the process was modeled. The adequate mathematical model of movement of crushed seeds particles in constrained conditions has been developed. A numerical experiment presented as curved particle paths at different air velocity, soaring velocity and other parameters was performed. Optimal parameters of pneumatic separation of oil seeds are calculated. When separation of crushed sunflower seeds fractions incompletely crushed (maximum soaring velocity husk 4,5 m/s), medium crushed (average soaring velocity husk of 3,1 m/s) and small crushed (minimum soaring velocity husks 1,8 m/s) air velocity should be maintained respectively in the range of 7,5–8, 5–6 and 3–4 m/s when the velocity of the incoming particles in aspiration channel is not more than 1,1 m/s. When separating of the crushed rapeseed from a sieve with a diameter of 1,8 mm (the maximum soaring velocity of the fruit shell is 4,45 m/s), the velocity of vertical air flow must be maintained in the range of 6–7 m/s, while the velocity of incoming particles in the separation zone should not be more than 0,8 m/s. Separation of the crushed pumpkin seeds (the soaring velocity of the shell is 3,8–5,2 m/s) in a vertical air flow is advisable to carry out with its velocity in the range of 6–7 m/s at the velocity of incoming particles in the separation zone of no more than 1,1 m/s.

Keywords: pneumatic separation, soaring velocity, air separator, crushed oil seeds, particle paths.
74

Influence of thin juice sulfitation treatment on its viscosity and evaporation efficiency

V.O. Gorodetskiy, S.O. Semenikhin, N.M. Daisheva, I.N. Lyusyy, N.I. Kotlyarevskaya, M.M. Usmanov
Annotation

The mechanism of influence of viscosity on the processes of evaporation of purified juice and crystallization of sucrose is described. The influence of sulfitation treatment of purified thin juice according to the standard scheme on its kinematic and dynamic viscosity and evaporation efficiency has been studied. For the experiment the purified thin juice with pH value of 9,2 is divided into two equal parts. One part was left unchanged – the control sample, the other was subjected to sulfitation treatment to pH 8,8 – the experimental sample. Kinematic viscosity with subsequent conversion to dynamic viscosity was determined in both samples. The effectiveness of sulfitation treatment is determined by the degree of reduction in the dynamic viscosity in the sample of processed thin juice and the content of dry substances in the thick juice samples obtained after evaporation of the control and experimental samples of juice for 90 minutes in a glycerin bath heated to 120°C. It was found that the sulfitation treatment of purified thin juice provides a decrease in its dynamic viscosity by 6,27%, and during its subsequent evaporation – increases the dry matter content in the thick juice by 4,0% compared to the control sample. The suggestion was made that the sulfitation treatment of purified juice is appropriate for improving the quality – reducing the color and competitiveness of products by reducing the consumption of conventional fuel to obtain the finished product.

Keywords: sulfitation treatment, thin juice, thick juice, viscosity, evaporation efficiency.
77

Physical and mathematical justification of dielectric separation of seeds of spicy-aromatic plants

Yu.K. Gorodetskiy, Yu.F. Roslyakov, V.V. Litvyak
Annotation

The results of analytical studies of the influence of the technological parameters of the dielectric separator on the quality of the separation of seeds of spicy-aromatic crops of the Umbrella family (Apiaceae) for their introduction into food formulations are presented. An analytical dependence of the polarization force Fp on the charge on the seeds Q, on the dielectric characteristics of the insulation of the electrodes of the bifilar winding epsilon-i, the film coating epsilon-p and seeds еpsilon-s, on the effective surface of the charged particle (its part) in contact with the insulation of the electrodes, Sef on the working body of the dielectric laboratory separator, is established for dill, caraway and coriander with a voltage and frequency of the mains 230/50 V/Hz; power consumption (0,7 ± 0,2) kW and voltage at the bifilar winding 0,9–1,5 kV. It was shown that the polarization force is proportional to either the square of the charge received by the seed or the square of the supply voltage. The electrodes forming the bifilar winding of the working body should be laid tightly next to each other in order to minimize the angle б arising between the projections of the acting forces.

Keywords: seeds of spicy-aromatic plants, seed cleaning, dielectric separation, increasing nutritional value, electric capacity of the system bifilar winding–seed.
81

Functional and technological characteristics of textured products of different fractional composition of extruded grain cereals

M.A. Yanova, YU.F. Roslyakov, YA.V. Smolnikova, O.V. Stutko, P.S. Gurskikh
Annotation

A comparative assessment of the functional and technological characteristics of textured grain products is given. The research objects are textures obtained from extruded wheat, barley and oats of various fractional composition. The functional and technological characteristics of textured grain products are determined: moisture binding capacity (MBC), moisture holding capacity (MHC), fat holding capacity (FHC). It was found that the MBC of textured grain products increases in comparison with control samples, g/g: wheat texturate by 2,2; of barley – 2,45; of oat – 2,58. It was found that the highest MBC is found in the fractions of texturates with the smallest particle size, less than 450 µm. There was an increase in the MHC of textured grain products, g/g: wheat texturate by 1,9; barley by 1,6; oatmeal by 2,4. When the particle size decreases, there is an increase in the MHC. All types of textured grain products have MBC from 4,5 to 5,8 g/g and higher FHC compared to control. The maximum value of FHC textures of fine-milled extruded wheat grain is 1,4 g/g; control is 0,7–0,8 g/g. Textured grain products from extruded wheat, barley and oats with high MBC, MHC and FHC can be used in the production of bakery, flour confectionery products, as well as flour multicomponent mixtures to adjust the technological properties of wheat flour.

Keywords: grain of cereals; extrudate; textured products; fractional composition; moisture binding, moisture holding, fat holding capacity of texturates; technological properties of flour; quality of flour products.
85

Substantiation of optimal parameters and development of high-temperature sterilization modes for compote from pears in heated air flow

M.E. Akhmedov, A.F. Demirova, G.I. Kasyanov, Yu.F. Roslyakov, M.M. Rakhmanova
Annotation

New modes of sterilization of compote from pears in glass containers of SKO 1-82-1000 using high-temperature high-speed heat carriers have been developed. A mathematical model for calculating the duration of the sterilization process depending on the parameters of the heat carrier is obtained. To obtain a mathematical model, we used the method of mathematical planning of the experiment. A technological method for accelerated sterilization of pear compote in a glass jar with a volume of 1 dm3 is proposed. The research made it possible to develop new modes of heat treatment (sterilization) of compote from pears in a glass jar 1-82-1000 at different parameters of hot air and different initial temperatures of the product, °C: 70, 80, 85 and 90. The shortest duration of the thermal sterilization process is achieved at the heat transfer fluid speed of 7,5 m/s at the initial product temperature of 90°C.

Keywords: compote, high-temperature sterilization, heat carrier, sterilization modes, glass jar, intensification.
88

Influence of additives of crushed flax seeds and flax flour on technological and consumer properties of flour products

I.E. Minevich, T.B. Tsyganova
Annotation

Products of processing of seeds of oil flax are a valuable supplement for the enrichment of healthy foods. The influence of the addition of crushed flax seeds (FS) and flax flour (FF) on the technological and consumer properties of flour products – bakery (B) and flour confectionery (FC) has been studied. Raw materials for the preparation of samples of B and FC purchased from the retail chain met the standards. Bakery (shaped bread) prepared in a non-stick way according to GOST 27669–88, flour confectionery (muffins) – according to the formulation previously proposed by the authors. A control sample of B from wheat flour of the first grade without additives and experimental samples of B and FC with the addition of crushed FS or FF were baked. It was found that when adding crushed FS or FF in the amount of 6–10% of the mass of wheat flour to the B formulation, the specific volume of molded bread increased by 2,5–4,2 and 8,0–11,3%, respectively, and the porosity – on average by 4,8% compared to the sample of bread without additives. Organoleptic analysis showed that samples of B with the addition of FF or FS had developed porosity, elastic crumb, well-defined bread taste and aroma. It was determined that the greatest increase in the specific volume of products was observed when adding FF or FS muffins to the recipe in the amount of 5–10% of the weight of wheat flour. At the same time, the products were characterized by high organoleptic properties and met the requirements of GOST 15052–2014. It was found that the addition of crushed flax seeds or flax flour in an amount of at least 6% of the weight of wheat flour in bakery and crushed flax seeds in an amount of 10% of the weight of wheat flour in flour confectionery (muffins) gives these products functional properties.

Keywords: food and energy value, functional products, healthy nutrition, bakery and flour confectionery, muffins.
92

Modeling of multicomponent flour mixes for bakery products with specified indicators of food adequacy

N.A. Berezina, A.V. Artemov, I.A. Nikitin
Annotation

A comprehensive approach to optimizing the composition of multicomponent flour mixes (MFM) for rye-wheat bakery products, taking into account the chemical composition of the food ingredients of the mixes, is presented. The use of a software tool for calculating and analyzing the optimal composition of MFM allowed using the nutritional potential of non-traditional bread-making raw materials – soy flour, sesame seeds and sunflower, skimmed milk powder, sugar-containing powder from potatoes and beetroot powder in combination with rye flour and wheat of the 1st grade to obtain flour mixes of a balanced composition with a ratio of proteins and carbohydrates 1 : 4 respectively, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium – 1 : 1,5 : 0,5 respectively. In the developed MFM, the amount of protein increased by 2,1–2,2%, lipids by 4,3–4,4 times, fiber by 5,6–8,6 times, and the content of easily digestible carbohydrates (mono- and disaccharides+starch) decreased by 12,1–14,2%, the content of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium increased in 4,2–4,8; 1,1–1,2; 1,3–1,4 thus, the biological value increased by 15,1–17,0% compared to the control-a mixture of baking flour-rye and wheat of the 1st grade in the ratio of 50 : 50.

Keywords: bread making, multicomponent flour mixes, non-traditional raw materials, automated calculation of composition, balanced composition, biological value.
96

Influence of the parameters of the gradient impact of a constant magnetic field on the intensification of the tobacco wilting process

E.I. Vinevskiy, A.V. Chernov
Annotation

The influence of the parameters of the gradient effect of a constant magnetic field (CMF) on the intensification of the process of languishing tobacco leaves is studied. A working hypothesis is put forward that to stimulate the process of tobacco languor, it is necessary to have a gradient effect on them of CMF, which occurs as a result of the movement of leaves relative to the system of permanent magnets. The concept of the reduced coefficient of moisture loss is introduced, which is equal to the ratio of the humidity of treated leaves to the humidity of control samples-untreated leaves. It was found that when using a point gradient effect of CMF on the middle vein of tobacco leaves with a frequency of 0,3 Hz and a duration of processing for 115–125 s at the height of the magnets of 25 mm, the process of leaf languor is accelerated by 28,8% in comparison with the control. When the linear gradient effect of CMF on the tobacco leaf with a frequency of 0,3 Hz, the languor process is accelerated by 4,7–15,5%, depending on the duration of treatment (10–40 s). In the future, with an increase in the processing time to 80 s, the process of languishing tobacco leaves slowed down. The maximum acceleration of the process of languishing tobacco leaves is established: for spot gradient effect of CMF on the mid-veins of tobacco leaf frequency of 0,3 Hz and duration of treatment for 115–125 s; a linear gradient in the impact of CMF on the tobacco sheet with a treatment frequency of 0,3 Hz and duration of treatment for 55–65 s.

Keywords: tobacco leaf, tobacco drying, constant magnetic field, intensification of the tobacco wilting process, reduced coefficient, loss of moisture.

Methods of Investigation, Quality & Safety of Food Products

101

Assessment of the secondary product of sea buckthorn fruit processing as a source for obtaining a functional food additive

E.A. Verbitskaya, A.V. Kulakova, V.V. Illarionova, A.N. Drozdov, M.V. Filenkova, V.I. Martovshchuk, S.A. Kalmanovich
Annotation

Secondary product for processing sea buckthorn fruits are considered as a source of enrichment of products with functional ingredients. The authenticity and quality of the raw materials are established by the commodity characteristics of the selected sea buckthorn fruits. After squeezing the juice from the sea buckthorn fruit, the resulting pulp containing the stone and fruit shell was dried by infrared rays at a temperature of 40°C for 30 minutes to a residual moisture content of 6% and subjected to coarse and fine grinding on a rotary-roller disintegrator. The resulting fine powder from the pulp of sea buckthorn fruit, 95% of whose particles were up to 30 microns in size, had a bright orange color, a sour smell characteristic of sea buckthorn fruit, a crumbly, lump-free consistency. The oil is extracted from the resulting powder by extraction. The fatty acid composition of the oil is determined. It is established that the obtained powder is rich in vitamins C and E, carotenoids and в-carotene content in 100 g of the powder is 4–5 times higher than the recommended daily requirement of these substances, and the oil is extracted from the powder of the pulp of sea buckthorn fruits, the content of palmitic, palmitoleic, oleic and linolenic acids superior to sunflower and pine oil, which allows us to recommend the powder from the pulp of sea buckthorn fruits as a valuable functional additives for enrichment of different types of food.

Keywords: non-traditional vegetable raw materials, sea buckthorn fruit, functional ingredients, product enrichment.
104

Practical solutions for implementation on enterprises of the food industry of the system food safety management

N.V. Ageeva, V.K. Kochetov, E.Yu. Litvinenko
Annotation

The experience of implementing the food safety management system at OJSC Kuban Confectionery plant is shown. Physical, chemical and microbiological factors that reduce the safety of products produced at the Kuban Confectionery plant-flour confectionery products and products of the chocolate production workshop, have been established. Preliminary programs developed and implemented at the plant to prevent the risk of contamination of products are listed. It was found that the introduction of preventive measures allowed: to gradually reduce the number of critical control points at the plant from 88 to 4, to ensure that there are no complaints about the quality and safety of products from regulatory authorities, to reduce by 10% in 2019 the number of claims from consumers compared to 2018.

Keywords: introduction of a food safety management system; factors that reduce product safety; preventive measures, pre-visa programs.

Economics of Food Industry

108

Managing the economic growth of the agricultural complex in the region under unstable conditions economies

M.B. Shchepakin, E.F. Khandamova, V.A. Gubin
Annotation

The growth of contradictions and disagreements in the internal environment of the agroindustrial complex of the region due to the increased manifestation of crisis phenomena in the regional economy is indicated. It is pointed out that it is necessary to include an innovative component in the development of elements of the marketing mix and in the formation of marketing fillers of subjects to create a new systemic quality in the agroindustrial complex through their marketing and behavioral adaptation to the requirements of a competitive market and solvent demand of consumers. The significance of modernization structural and other transformations in the conditions of economic instability is revealed. Its influence on the retention of competitive positions by agribusiness entities due to changes of a different nature has been revealed. The concepts of “behavioral-resource compensation” and “innovation-investment resonance” were introduced into the scientific circulation. A conceptual model for managing the economic growth of a business in the agroindustrial complex through the activation of anti-crisis components of the region’s subjects has been developed.

Keywords: region’s economy, agroindustrial complex, crisis processes, modernization changes, marketing filler, innovative component, behavioral-resource compensatory, innovative-investment resonability, region agribusiness development management model.

Reviews

115

Textbook of the XXI century on the technology of dairy products – gift for professionals

A.G. Khramtsov
Annotation

Dr of Techn. Sciences, prof., academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences A.G. Khramtsov rating of the textbook was assessing. In 2019, in Barnaul, the publishing house “Apostrophe” published a textbook with the traditional name: “Technology of milk and dairy products”, in 3 volumes, the 2nd edition, revised and supplemented. The authors are well-known scientists in the field of milk and dairy products, prof. N.B. Gavrilova (Stolypin Omsk State Agrarian University) and prof. M.P. Shchetinin (Polzunov Altai State Technical University) present for study and research to students, teachers, specialists traditions and innovations of the dairy industry (1st and 2nd vol.), as well as biotechnology of specialized food products (3rd vol.).

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