Food technologyIssues → № 4 (376), 2020

Table of contents for # 4 (376), 2020

Anniversaries

6

Anniversary of Professor of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Biological Sciences,
Professor M.G. Baryshev

Scientific Review

8

Perspectives of bioinformatics for researching food bioactive peptides using in silico instruments

K.A. Ryazantseva, E.Yu. Agarkova
Annotation

The article describes the main classical approaches to the production of biologically active peptides and methods for their identification. It has been shown that the traditionally used methods of obtaining and analyzing bioactive peptides (BP) are not only very costly, but also require a significant amount of time, which limits detailed research and rapid development of BP. New bioinformatic approaches in silico used for identification, characterization, development of bioactive mechanisms and production of BP from food proteins can simplify the production and study of biologically active peptides, which will speed up the development of functional products using BP.

Keywords: bioinformatics, bioactive peptides, proteomics, functional products.
12

Molecular genetic modifications of kappa-casein

A.G. Kruchinin, S.N. Turovskaya, E.E. Illarionova, A.V. Bigaeva
Annotation

The analysis of the fractional composition and the main models of the molecular structure of casein micelles are given. Being a phosphoprotein, casein is a colloid micellar complex with calcium phosphate and some other minerals. Inner molecule structure of casein’s micelle is not thoroughly studied. However, many scientists acknowledge one formation model, in which hydrophilic C-terminal part of kappa casein occupy micelle’s surface, thus providing steric and electrostatic repulsion and preventing micelles’ aggregation. Kappa casein fraction has a wide polymorphism, but the most common ones are A and B alleles with a distinctive replacement of amino acids Thr157>Ile in B allele. This genetic modification loses one glycoside center, resul- ting in milk’s cheeseability improvement, but also its heat resistance decrease. Moreover, milk with B allele of CSN3 has higher protein content, while A allele influences the increase in milk yield. The study of the relationship between the structure of casein micelles, polymorphic variants of casein genes and technological properties allows for the selection of cows to obtain milk with the required technological properties.

Keywords: casein micelle, kappa casein, genotype, amino acid sequence, technological properties, cheese suitability, heat resistance.
17

Trends in the use of packaging materials and packaging methods for products containing labile biologically active substances

E.P. Viktorova, A.D. Achmiz, M.V. Lukyanenko, S.O. Semenikhin
Annotation

When producing high-quality food products, special attention should be paid to their packaging and storage. Vitamin and mineral concentrates used for food preparation and production of high-quality safe livestock products contain a complex of labile biologically active substances, for the safety of which it is necessary to minimize oxidative processes. This leads to increased requirements for the packaging of such products. In order to select the material and method of packaging of vitamin and mineral concentrates, a thematic review of publications of domestic and foreign scientists was conducted. Trends in the use of packaging materials are considered, advantages and disadvantages of biopolymers are indicated. It was found that for packaging vitamin and mineral concentrate, polymer pellicle with high light and gas tightness, which allows reducing the rate of oxidative processes and, consequently, reducing the loss of labile biologically active substances contained in the product, should be used as a packaging material. Vacuuming, which ensures the absence of oxygen in the air in the package, can be recommended as a method of packaging.

Keywords: packaging materials, vitamin and mineral concentrate, storage, reduction of vitamin loss.

Chemistry of Food Products & Materials

21

Composition of low-molecular-weight metabolites of plant raw materials used for enrichment of food

N.S. Evdokimov, O.V. Safronova
Annotation

The results of the study of low-molecular-weight metabolites in water extracts of plant raw materials – calamus rhizome, milk thistle meal, pumpkin seeds, spirulina are presented. Powders from the specified plant raw materials weighing 50 g were extracted for 4 hours with 150 ml of distilled water at a temperature of 50°C and continuous stirring on a heated device. The study was performed by chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. 33 low-molecular-weight metabolites, including 11 organic acids, substances of phenolic nature, 14 carbohydrates and their derivatives were detected. The release time of individual substances is from 10,07 to 40,58 minutes. The results of the study provide a detailed understanding of the composition, physiological value and antioxidant properties of plant raw materials used for enrichment of food.

Keywords: water extracts, calamus rhizomes, milk thistle meal, pumpkin seeds, spirulina, gas chromatography, mass spectrometric detection, organic acids, carbohydrates and their derivatives, phenolic compounds.
25

Influence of tap water contaminants on the components of reduced whey

A.K. Gorelkina, I.V. Timoshchuk, N.S. Bagdonas
Annotation

The stability of milk raw materials’ nutrients – proteins, lactose, vitamins C and B used in the production of whey beverages in the presence of priority organic contaminants – trichloroethylene, chloroform and dichloroethane, which have a toxic and carcinogenic effect and are formed during chlorination during water treatment in water used for the production of reduced and recombined dairy products was studied. The content of proteins and lactose in the reduced serum was determined by refractometry; water-soluble vitamins – by capillary electrophoresis; chloroform, trichloroethylene and dichloroethane – by gas-liquid chromatography. It was found that chloroform in water does not affect the safety of lactose, proteins and vitamins in the preparation of reduced whey. There was a decrease in the content of serum proteins prepared in water in the presence of trichloroethylene and dichloroethane by 11%, and lactose – by 32% in comparison with control samples produced in water without organic contaminants. Vitamin C content in the recovered whey in the presence of trichloroethylene has declined by 19%, vitamin B1 – 28%, vitamin B2 – 53%, vitamin B6 – 8%; for dichloroethane content of vitamin C decreased by 17%, vitamin B1 – 36%, vitamin B2 – 38%, vitamin B6 – 36% in comparison with control samples without organic impurity. The mechanism of interaction of proteins, lactose, and reduced serum vitamins with trichloroethylene and dichloroethane is theoretically justified. Therefore, to prevent a decrease in the quality of the finished product, the water used for the production of whey beverages must first be subjected to additional purification from organohalogen contaminants.

Keywords: chloroform, trichloroethylene, dichloroethane, water, whey drinks, vitamins.
30

Influence of various factors on the content of the mass fraction of the insoluble part in hookah tobacco

N.N. Bubnova (Matyukhina), A.G. Mirgorodskaya, O.K. Bedritskaya
Annotation

The influence of humidity of tobacco raw materials, its variety type, and the amount in the recipe on the content of the mass fraction of the insoluble part in hookah tobacco has been studied. Samples of hookah mixes of various brands purchased in the retail network of Krasnodar and compiled in the laboratory of the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Tobacco, shag and Tobacco Products were the object of research. Samples of hookah mix were made according to the same formulation and technological scheme for all samples: humidification, cutting, keeping in a sauce with heating, cooling. The humidity and amount of tobacco raw materials in the formulation varied. By quantifying the content of tobacco in the finished product, based on the ability of some of the ingredients of hookah mixtures to dissolve in water, the content of the mass fraction of the insoluble part was determined. It is established that the content of the mass fraction of the insoluble part in hookah tobacco of various brands purchased in the retail network of Krasnodar is 5,2–8,8%. The variety type of tobacco raw materials, its chemical composition and added flavor to the mixture do not affect the content of the mass fraction of the insoluble part in hookah tobacco. The content of the mass fraction of the insoluble part of tobacco for hookah largely depends on the humidity and the amount of tobacco raw materials used in the formulation. The increase of humidity of raw materials leads to a decrease of the mass fraction of the insoluble part of hookah tobacco: if moisture content of raw materials 10% mass fraction of the insoluble portion of 6,8%; the humidity of the same raw materials 16%, the mass fraction of the insoluble portion of 5,2%.

Keywords: hookah tobacco, tobacco raw materials, variety type, chemical composition, raw material humidity.
34

Comparative analysis of the content of toxic substances in the gas phase of aerosol of cigarettes and heated tobacco sticks for electric tobacco heating systems

S.N. Medvedeva, T.A. Perezhogina, E.V. Gnuchikh
Annotation

The results of the analysis of the content of carbon monoxide, benzene, 1,3-butadiene in the aerosol gas phase (AGPh) of heated tobacco sticks for electric tobacco heating systems, five brands of commercial cigarettes, 3R4F control cigarette using testing on a Smoking machine in standard ISO smoking mode and ISO Intense are presented. A significant decrease in the content of carbon monoxide, benzene and 1,3-butadiene in stick aerosols according to the ISO Intense and ISO modes was found. The amount of carbon monoxide produced in the effluent AGPh is 2% of its content in the AGPh of 3R4F control cigarettes, which confirms the absence of thermal decomposition (pyrolysis) of tobacco. It was determined that the AGPh of verses contains significantly fewer harmful and potentially dangerous compounds. A decrease in the content of benzene and 1,3-butadiene was found by more than 99% compared to the control sample of 3R4F cigarettes and five brands of cigarettes popular in Russia.

Keywords: toxic substances, aerosol gas phase, electric tobacco heating system, heated tobacco stick, standard 3R4F cigarette, 1,3-butadiene, benzene, carbon monoxide, aerosol, tobacco smoke.

Technology

38

Technology and recipes of bakery products of high nutritional value based on the developed composite mixtures

V.Yu. Ayrumyan, N.V. Sokol, E.A. Olkhovatov
Annotation

Recipes and technologies for the production of bakery products with rice processing products based on the composition of flour composite mixtures to increase their nutritional value have been developed. Samples of rice flour and flour, corn flour and wheat flour of general-purpose type M55-23 of domestic producers were studied. The control sample is a recipe for bread made from general-purpose wheat flour. The prototypes consisted of composite mixtures (CM): I CM – general-purpose wheat flour and rice flour in a ratio of 90 : 10; II CM – general-purpose wheat flour, rice flour, corn flour and grain rice processing products in a ratio of 50 : 20 : 20 : 10. The target improver is apple pectin. The maximum specific volume of samples of tin bread of adding 0,3% pectin in a mixture with table salt with subsequent dissolution of the resulting composition in water, cm3/100 g was defined: control – 289; with I CM – 285; with II CM – 280. The nutritional value of proteins was 8,12; 8,55; 9,12 g/100 g in the samples of bread control, «Luchik», «Maniya», respectively. Vitamin content, mg/100 g: B1 – 0,31; 1,36; 1,46; B2 – 0,26; 1,32; 1,52; PP – 0,47; 3,55; 4,02 in the control bread samples, «Luchik», «Maniya», respectively. It was found that the introduction of CM based on rice grain processing products into the recipes of wheat bread «Luchik» and «Maniya» increases the protein content by 6 and 12%, fat by 2–2,5 times, respectively, compared to the control. Adding grain rice processing products, rice flour and corn flour to the recipe of bakery products was increased the content of K and P in 100 g of the finished product by 3–3,5 times, Mg and Fe by 4–4,5 and 6–6,5 times, respectively, vitamins B1 and B2 by 4,5–5,5 times, respectively, vitamin PP by 8 times, which was increased the nutritional value of minerals by 2 times, and vitamins by 7 times compared to the control. The energy value of new products increased by an average of 18% compared to the control. It was found that when using 250 g of bread «Luchik» on based the I CM, the degree of satisfaction of the body in protein for men and women of the III activity group aged 30–39 years and children aged 14–18 years was 26,8% of the daily requirement; in minerals – 15,7; 16,7 and 18,9%, respectively. When using 250 g of bread «Maniya» on based II CM, the degree of satisfaction in protein was 25,6; 30,8 and 28,5% of the daily requirement, respectively. It was found that the content of the main food substances-protein, dietary fiber and minerals in the bread «Maniya» produced on the basis of the II CM is higher by 8,0; 4,0 and 10,7%, respectively, compared with the bread «Luchik».

Keywords: rice flour, grain rice processing products, corn flour, apple pectin, bakery products, nutritional value.
44

Functional and technological properties of minced fish with the addition of vegetable and cereal raw materials

S.V. Zolotokopova, G.I. Kasyanov, A.V. Zolotokopov, E.Yu. Lebedeva
Annotation

Recipes of fish multicomponent minced meat based on red tilapia with vegetable and cereals have been developed. Vegetables – zucchini, beets, carrots, onions, white cabbage were passed through a meat grinder along with fish fillet. Cereals – oatmeal, corn, rice, quinoa were previously crushed in a blender to 0,5–1,0 mm and were mixing with minced fish. The mass fraction of moisture, water-binding and water-holding ability (WBA and WHA) of minced fish with cereals and vegetables were determined. Reducing the amount of cereal additives from 10 to 20% reduced the WBA and WHA of fish minced meat by 1,5 and 0,9–1,7%, respectively. Installed a slight increase in the mass fraction of moisture in the minced fish when adding the vegetables, : on 1,9 onions; zucchini – 1,6; chayot – 1,5; cabbage – 1,4; carrots – 1,2; beet – 0,9. Determined the increase in WBA of fish mince, %: when you add Luke 2.7; zucchini – 2,2; chayot – 2,1; beet – 1,5; carrots – 0,4. When you add cabbage WBA decreased by 0,5. With an increase in the amount of additives from 10 to 20%, the amount of moisture and WBA of minced fish increased by 0,7–1,0% and 0,5–1,6%, respectively. A significant increase the WHA of fish mince, % was found: when adding zucchini by 20,4; cabbage – 20,3; carrots – 19,4; beets – 18,6; onions – 16,8, which contributes to the juiciness of the finished product. It is recommended to add up to 40% of vegetables and up to 10% of crushed cereals to fish mince to improve the functional and consumer properties of fish-growing cutlets.

Keywords: tilapia; cereals, vegetable raw materials; minced fish; minced fish with the addition of vegetable and cereal raw materials; functional and technological properties; water-binding and water-holding ability.
47

Optimization of the micronutrient composition of cookies with the use of buckwheat flour

I.I. Mizinchikova, T.V. Savenkova, M.A. Taleysnik, N.A. Shcherbakova, S.Yu. Misteneva
Annotation

The influence of partial replacement of high grade wheat flour with buckwheat flour and whole wheat flour on the quality characteristics of the product is studied. The optimum ratio, , the high grade wheat flour : whole wheat flour : buckwheat flour 55 : 15 : 30, which provides an increased content of food fiber from 4,75 to 6,29 g/100 g, or 32; minerals phosphorus and magnesium 15,5 and 18,2%, respectively; vitamins niacin and B6 18,8 and 10,3%, respectively, relative to control, %, the high grade wheat flour : buckwheat flour 70 : 30. Organoleptic evaluation of sugar cookies showed that the use of buckwheat flour in combination with whole wheat flour provides a rich balanced taste, pronounced aroma and crisp, crumbly texture of the finished product.

Keywords: buckwheat flour, whole wheat flour, fortification, micronutrients, cookies, food fiber, magnesium.
51

Improving the efficiency of extracting the target product from nut and fruit raw materials by electrophysical processing

E.V. Shcherbakova, M.P. Bagdasarova, E.A. Olkhovatov, G.I. Kasyanov
Annotation

Processing of fruit raw materials with an electromagnetic field in the range of low and extremely low frequencies with modulated characteristics – in a rotating electromagnetic field and in the spectrum of resonant frequencies was proffered. A quantitative increase in the yield of nutrients in the target product – puree, juice-pectin extracts and nut milk. Raw materials of aronia, sea buckthorn, apples, hazelnuts, and walnuts that were not processed served as control. Chemical composition of sea buckthorn puree obtained without processing and after processing, g/100 g: proteins 1,0 and 1,2; fats 5,2 and 5,4; carbohydrates 3,2 and 4,0; dietary fiber 1,8 and 2,0; в-carotene 1,2 and 1,5; vitamin C, mg/100 g, 200 and 220, respectively. The content in milk from raw nut crops – hazelnuts and walnuts, obtained without processing/after processing, g/100 g: protein 0,40/0,67 and 0,7/1,0; fat 2,90/3,11 and 1,60/1,85; carbohydrates 3,10/3,39 and 1,4/1,7, respectively. New technological methods of transformation of nut and fruit raw materials into semi-products are proposed.

Keywords: hazelnut, walnut, aronia, sea buckthorn, apples, electrophysical effect, nut milk, juice-pectin extract.
55

Resource-saving technology for processing medicinal sage

T.V. Pelipenko
Annotation

The potential of resource-saving technology for processing medicinal sage (MS) has been studied. Samples of essential oil raw materials-freshly harvested aboveground parts of MS in the phase of full flowering of the plant and dry leaves of MS were the object of research. The proposed process flow diagram includes the following stages: obtaining essential oil; recovering a particular from deester waste by extraction with a hydrocarbon solvent and its subsequent distillation; obtaining absolute oil and refined waxes from a specific waste; extraction of diterpene compounds from raw waste after treatment with hexane by extraction with ethyl alcohol. As a result of studies of the fractional composition of raw materials and the features of localization of essential oil, it was found that the mass fraction of essential oil is, % of the dry mass of the studied fractions: 2,75 in leaves and inflorescences, and 0,31 in stems. The introduction of restrictive norms on the ratio of technically valuable fraction – leaves and inflorescences and ballast – stems is recommended. The essential oil obtained from MS has a high content of tuyons (31,50%), camphor (21,0%) and 1,8-cineol (18,80%). The yield of diterpene compounds in the complex processing of essential oil raw materials MS is 38,0% lower than from dry leaves of the plant. However when calculating the dry mass of leaves and inflorescences, which make up 62,3% of the mass of raw materials, the indicators differ slightly. The total yield products containing a complex of biologically active substances amounted to 15,53%, which confirms the feasibility of complex processing of medicinal sage.

Keywords: medicinal sage, complex processing, essential oil, alcohol extract, absolute oil, carnosolic acid, refined waxes.

Food Engineering, Processes, Equipment & Automation of Food Production

60

Formalization of the concept of a slit capillary taking into account the contact angle of wetting

V.G. Zhukov, V.M. Chesnokov, N.D. Lukin
Annotation

The calculations of the processes of saturation and transfer of fluid in porous media are based on taking into account of its capillary properties in the pore space. Given our previously derived formulas for the maximum amount of capillary with a circular transverse section, wetting angle and parameter specific surface tension obtained calculation formula size limit for capillaries with a slit and annular transverse section. It is established that the obtained calculation formulas of the limit sizes for tubular capillaries of slotted flat and annular section with the account of the wetting edge angle are identical. The difference between the formulas for capillaries with slotted and annular section and the formula for a capillary with a circular transverse section is determined only by a function that depends on the wetting edge angle. The values of the limit sizes of capillaries with a slotted transverse section are 10–17,5% less than those of a capillary with a circular transverse section. The response surface allowed us to evaluate the effect of specific surface tension and the function of the wetting edge angle on the change in the capillary size limit. The research results can be used to improve the efficiency of calculations of heat and mass transfer in porous media in food production and other similar tasks.

Keywords: porous medium, the capillary limit is the size of the capillary, slit and annular transverse section, wetting angle, the meniscus, the specific surface tension.
65

Improvement of sorption purification of unrefined corn oil with an aqueous solution of sodium silicate

K.K. Davydov, V.V. Derevenko, L.V. Borovskaya
Annotation

An analytical review of methods for cleaning unrefined and hydrated vegetable oils pretreated in an electromagnetic field with solutions of organic acids and sodium silicate was conducted. Influence of technological parameters – temperature cleaning process, the concentration and dosage of an aqueous solution of sodium metasilicate given concentration with silicate module 1.0 (the molar ratio SiO2/Na2O) on the change in quality parameters of oils are studied. Unrefined corn oil obtained by a double pressing of corn germ produced by wet way of separation, with the following parameters: acid number 3,7 mg KOH/g, mass fraction of phosphor containing substances of 1,77% in calculation on stearooleocytin, peroxide value 4,5 mmol of active oxygen/kg, the colour value 70 mg of iodine, the mass fraction of moisture and volatile matter 0,2% – was the object of the study. The color number of the obtained corn oil in all experiments was 30 mg of iodine, and the mass fraction of moisture – 0,1–0,15%. The experiment was performed according to the three–factor Box–Benkin plan. Adequate experimental and statistical models for calculating the degree of excretion of fatty acids and phosphorous-containing substances, the peroxide number and soap content, allowing to determine the concentration and dosage of an aqueous solution of sodium silicate at a given process temperature for obtaining corn oil with the required quality indicators, were obtained. The assessment of the degree of influence of the studied factors by comparative ranking of one-factor dependencies with the stabilization of other factors in the coordinates of the zone of the best output is carried out. The effect of the process temperature, concentration and dosage of an aqueous solution of sodium silicate on the efficiency of excretion of concomitant substances is established. It is shown that when the process temperature is reduced to 50°C, the removal of free fatty acids to 0,96 and phosphorus-containing substances to 0,92 is achieved.

Keywords: corn oil, sodium silicate, experimental and statistical models, temperature of the sorption cleaning process, concentration and dosage of the reagent.
70

Analysis of sugar extraction kinetics with concentration-dependent diffusion coefficient

E.G. Stepanova, S.E. Koshevaya
Annotation

A numerical analysis of sucrose extracting data is given and a nonlinear dependence of the internal diffusion coefficient on the sucrose concentration D = D© is established. The possibility of predicting the diffusion properties of chips in the extraction process when applying thermal and electrochemical influences is considered, which will allow to obtain diffusion juices with the specified parameters of juice purity of 82–84% and minimum sugar loss in the pulp – 0,35%. A mathematical model is constructed to solve the second Fick’s law under certain initial and boundary conditions. The method and results of calculations of sucrose diffusion coefficients for beet chips in the form of a plate are given. The kinetic dependences of the values of the molecular diffusion coefficients on the sucrose concentration are analyzed for the values of the nonlinearity parameter from 0,07 to 148,4. When analyzing the results of a numerical experiment, the concentration dependence of the diffusion coefficient is approximated as a linear combination of Legendre polynomials. It is shown that the process is described by linear equations near the equilibrium state. A graphical dependence of the Sherwood number on the Fourier number Sh = f(Fo) is obtained. It is found that for solving linear and nonlinear problems of internal mass transfer, the Sherwood number asymptotically approaches Sh →Pi2/2.

Keywords: non-stationary diffusion, extraction kinetics, beet chips, sucrose, diffusion coefficient, non-linearity parameter, Sherwood number.
73

Biotechnological properties of starter culture on based a consortium of industrial strains of lactic acid bacteria

G.S. Volkova, E.M. Serba
Annotation

The creation of fermented functional food products is possible only after a detailed study of the biological properties of strains and their consortiums. The aim of the study was to study the biological properties of the starter culture, including the lyophilized biomass of industrial strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) Lactobacillus rhamnosus L-2 and Lactobacillus helveticus 1147. The primary identification of LAB was carried out as part of the API-web system. To assess the biocompatibility of LAB, a drip technique was used. Antimicrobial activity was studied by the method of holes. It was found when studying the growth dynamics of LAB strains that the lag phases of Lactobacillus rhamnosus L-2 and Lactobacillus helveticus 1147 cultures practically coincide and begin after 4–4,5 hours. These strains have similar optimal pH and culture temperatures, common sources of carbohydrate and protein nutrition, and are resistant to the action of their own bacteriocins and each other’s bacteriocins. This allows you to use both strains as part of the starter culture. The consortium consisted of 6-hour crops combined for joint cultivation in a ratio of 1 : 1. The results of research on the growth dynamics of a mixed crop confirmed an increase in the growth rate and an increase in the amount of biomass produced by the consortium in relation to the monoculture. It is proved that the presence of microorganisms in the consortium increases their biotechnological properties, antibiotic activity and resistance to antibiotics. The results of the studies show the promise of using lactic acid starter culture, including strains of Lactobacillus rhamnosus L-2 and Lactobacillus helveticus 1147, as a component of food products with probiotic properties.

Keywords: Lactobacillus, antimicrobial properties of strains, starter culture, probiotic properties, antibiotic resistance.
77

Optimization of the ratio of components of the basic formulation of chewing marmalade

I.B. Krasina, D.B. Galtelov, A.N. Kurakina, E.V. Krasina
Annotation

The basic formulation of chewing marmalade using oxidized starch as a gelling agent has been developed. To get a harder texture and give chewing properties to marmalade, gelatin is introduced into the formulation. When designing the formulation, we used methods of mathematical statistics. A mathematical model is obtained that allows optimizing the ratio of modified starch and gelatin in the composition of the confectionery gel to produce a product with the specified hardness and elasticity parameters. It was found that to obtain marmalade with elastic–elastic properties and a hard texture, with a hardness of about 80 N and a elasticity of 4,21 mm, modified starch must be added in an amount of 7,4–10.7%, gelatin – 3,9–5,7% to the marmalade mass. It is shown that modified starch and gelatin act synergistically: gelatin provides elasticity of the gel, starch increases the hardness, without affecting its destructibility or elasticity. Based on the results of the study, a basic formulation for chewing marmalade was developed.

Keywords: chewing marmalade, hardness and elasticity of marmalade, gelling component, confectionery gel, starch, gelatin, synergy.
80

Study of the kinetics of drying brewer’s spent grain

T.G. Korotkova, A.S. Danilchenko, N.Yu. Istoshina
Annotation

The kinetics of drying of the crude brewer’s spent grain – a secondary product of LLC «Belorechensky brewery» (Russian Federation, Krasnodar region) has been studied. Drying is carried out in two temperature modes – 60 and 55°C. The speed of the drying agent under forced convection was 4,5 m/s. The dry matter content was determined according to GOST 31640–2012 in laboratory conditions and was 12,9%. Measurement of mass loss during drying was performed at an interval of 5 min. The total drying time of the brewer’s spent grain sample in the amount of 50 g is 420 min at 50°C, 360 min – at 60°C. The average value of the final moisture content of brewer’s spent grain made up 11,85%. Curves of drying and drying speed are constructed. Drying speed when removing free moisture in the first drying period, min–1: at 60°C – 3,5, at 55°C – 3,0. It was found that the content on average of bound moisture is 57% of the mass of moisture in brewer’s spent grain, free moisture – 43%. Analysis of the structure sample of brewer’s spent grain a microscope before and after drying confirmed the fact that the amount of bound moisture in the studied material is greater than the amount of free moisture. The presence of particles of 5–7 mm in size indicates a significant amount of cellular moisture in undisturbed capillaries. Further improvement of the technology for processing brewer’s spent grain should be aimed at destroying the cellular structure of the material after its mechanical dehydration.

Keywords: brewer’s spent grain, LLC «Belorechenskiy brewery», secondary product of brewing production, drying time, drying speed, free and bound moisture.
83

Justification of the choice of components of the fat mixture for confectionery glaze

Z.A. Baranova, I.B. Krasina, V.S. Kazaryan
Annotation

An important indicator of the quality of glazes is their organoleptic characteristics, which largely depend on the complex properties of the fat base containing cocoa butter. The search for vegetable fats for complete or partial replacement of cocoa butter while preserving the nutritional qualities of high-quality chocolate varieties and glazed confectionery products is relevant for economic benefit. The object of the study was coconut, palm, and palm kernel oils and their fractions. The content of solid triglycerides at various temperatures, melting point, iodine number, mass fraction of fatty acids, triglyceride composition of these oils and their fractions and the physical and chemical parameters of four samples of non-lauric alternative to cocoa butter of industrial production – Akopol NH 53 (AAK, Denmark), Couva 850 NH (IOI Loders Croklaan, Netherlands), Melano NH (Fujl Oil Europe, Belgium), Ecolad 0101-36 TF (Efko, Russia) were studied. It is established that analogues of selected industrial samples of alternative to cocoa butter of non-lauric type can be fat mixtures based on solid stearic fraction.

Keywords: fatty base, confectionery glaze, trans isomers, triglycerides, alternative to cocoa butter.
87

Influence of intensive sugar substitutes on chocolate storage

S.A. Kalmanovich, I.A. Dubrovskaya, O.V. Taranets, P.S. Krasin, K.M. Kislaya
Annotation

The effect of the combination of the stevia (St) and sucralose (Su) sweeteners on the thermal properties, moisture content, texture and graying of chocolate that does not contain sucrose at different storage temperatures was studied. The study noted a close relationship between the microstructure and the highest percentage of chocolate graying. Samples with 100% Su and 50% St + 50% Su had a microstructure with channels through which solids and fat could more easily migrate to the surface, increasing the formation of fat and sugar in the surface layers. However, samples with 50% St + 50% Su and 75% St + 25% Su showed minimal fat bloom. Studies have shown that for samples containing 100% St and 75% St + 25% Su, the melting enthalpy had the smallest decrease with increasing storage temperature. In addition, the nonisothermal kinetics of crystallization was studied by applying the Avrami model. A sample of 75% St + 25% Su showed the highest values of activation energy, demonstrating the greatest stability in the studied temperature range from 7 to 30°C.

Keywords: chocolate, stevioside, sucralose, sweeteners, storage, physico-chemical properties.

Methods of Investigation, Quality & Safety of Food Products

93

Research of sensory characteristics of poultry meat obtained using various methods of stun

D.B. Shalginbaev, R.U. Uazhanova, L.V. Antipova
Annotation

The color and aroma characteristics of broiler meat obtained by stunning poultry with carbon dioxide and electric method were studied. Samples of broiler meat produced in Kazakhstan by electric deafening – sample 1; in the Russian Federation: gas deafening – sample 2; electric deafening – sample 3 were the object of research. Each of the samples was represented by meat from 2 parts of the carcass: thighs and breasts. Meat samples were scanned in TrueColor color mode, with an optical resolution of 300 dpi and a size of at least 500 ґ 500 pix. The digital image was processed using ImageJ 1.46. Numerical characteristics of the color of the studied samples of poultry meat were determined by the manometric method using a flatbed scanner. Images were processed on a computer in RGB mode. The study of the smell of meat was carried out on the MAG-8 smell analyzer using the “electronic nose” method in the mode of frontal sample delivery and injection of the equilibrium gas phase over the test material. A set of 8 sensors. the most sensitive to various classes of volatile organic compounds were used as a measuring array. It was found that the colorometric characteristics of meat samples obtained by different methods of stun poultry are identical. Differences in the qualitative and quantitative composition of the flavor of meat sample 2, obtained by stun poultry in a gas environment, and meat sample 3, obtained by electric stun poultry, are from 2 to 10%, which does not allow us to talk about a significant change in the composition of low-volatile compounds released from the meat, The sensory characteristics of the studied meat samples obtained by different methods of stun poultry are almost identical. This proves the possibility of using more effective gas stun technology.

Keywords: poultry meat, broiler, poultry stun, colorometric characteristics, aromatic characteristics.
96

Change of consumer properties of pork, depending on the feed diet

M.V. Lukyanenko, A.D. Achmiz, R.V. Kazaryan, A.S. Borodikhin, E.V. Velikanova
Annotation

The influence of feed vitamin and mineral concentrate (FV&MC) «Tetra+» on consumer properties of pork, including nutritional value, technological and culinary properties, was studied. The object of research is the second category of pork from the experimental and control groups of young pigs weighing 100 kg that were fattened for 140 days. Control group pigs received the main diet; experimental group received FV&MC «Tetra+» in an amount of 1% in addition to the main diet. Chilled meat from young pigs of both sexes of the control and experimental groups was evaluated by organoleptic parameters 48 hours after slaughter. It was determined that samples of pork obtained from the experimental group of animals contain 4,1% more protein compared to samples of pork from the control group, while the proportion of moisture and fat in meat samples from the experimental group of animals is lower by 3,08 and 1,10%, respectively. The content of phospholipids in pork from the experimental group is 0,32% higher than in pork from the control group. It was found that the moisture-binding capacity of the muscle tissue of pork from the experimental group is 3,11% higher than the same indicator of pork from the control group; losses during heat treatment of pork from the experimental group are 2,17% lower. Culinary and technological index of muscle tissue of the rib cut of pork from the experimental group is higher by 0,15. The total tasting score of cooked pork in the experimental and control groups was 44,3 and 39,7 points, respectively.

Keywords: feed ration, piglets, pork, consumer properties, culinary and technological indicator.
99

Research of quality indicators of skeletal tobacco varieties of natural drying with a cutted the middle vein

E.E. Ulyanchenko
Annotation

The influence of the method of cutting the middle vein of the leaf on the quality indicators of tobacco raw materials is studied. Studies were conducted on large-leaved skeletal tobacco varieties Virginia 202, Yubileyny Novy 142, Trapezond 92. The vein was cut with a disk cutter using innovative equipment – a line for preparing tobacco leaves for drying. Dried leaves with a cut vein and without cutting in vertical garlands under a canopy in a natural way. The quality of tobacco raw materials was determined by commodity grades and technological properties, fractional composition of cut tobacco; the level of nicotine values was controlled. Monitoring of indicators was carried out according to the methods of laboratory control of All-Russian scientific research institute of tobacco, makhorka and tobacco products (Krasnodar). The use of the method of cutting the middle vein on large-leaf tobacco varieties revealed a positive technological result. The intensity of drying increased, the variety: Virginia 202 – 1,54 times; Yubileyny Novy 142 – 1,93 times; Trapezond 92 – 1,78 times. The drying period of the varieties was 13–14 days. Raw materials with a cut-through vein slightly reduced the commodity grade to 5–7%. The cutting of the vein did not impair the technological properties of the raw material: the yield of the fiber as a whole increased by 5% in comparison with raw materials with a non-cut vein. The volume of fiber in the Yubileyny Novy 142 variety was 92,96%, the variety showed a good rate of moisture loss and the highest efficiency of using the method of cutting the middle vein. The method of cutting through the middle vein of the leaf prevented a decrease in the level of nicotine values in the process of sushi in the varieties Virginia 202 and Trapezond 92 by 35 and 15%, respectively, due to a reduction in the drying time. The level of nicotine in tobacco leaves of the Yubileyny Novy 142 variety decreased by 8%. It was found that the method of cutting the middle vein is effective on large-leaf varieties with a massive vein tobacco leaves, it intensifies drying, does not worsen the main quality indicators, preserves the level of nicotine in tobacco and is recommended for use in the production of tobacco raw materials.

Keywords: tobacco leaves, cutting of the middle vein, drying, quality of tobacco raw materials.
102

Features of aerosol collection of various types of electronic nicotine delivery systems

T.A. Zaytseva, T.A. Perezhogina, N.V. Popova, I.M. Eremina
Annotation

The features of collecting aerosol of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) of various types on a laboratory machine smoking of linear type are investigated. For research, three brands of ENDS were taken: single-use Luxlite of non-collapsible closed-type design; Von Erl My refillable closed-type with liquid in replaceable cartridges; Ego Aio refillable open-type with a tank for self-filling. An exhaustive collection of aerosol was carried out on a laboratory Smoking machine of linear type according to ISO 20768:2018 in 2 modes: standard ISO and experimental ISOEXP with an extended duration of puffing. It was found that an aerosol can be collected per one filter for ENDS: Luxlite and Von Erl My from 50 puffs, Ego Aio – 40 puffs. An exhaustive collecting of aerosol for ENDS was determined, the number of puffs: Luxlite 250–300, Von Erl My 300–350, Ego Aio 160–200. For ENDS Luxlite under the collecting of aerosol according to ISO and ISOEXP, the loss mass of liquid was 2,7 and 4,8%, respectively. The mass loss of the Von Erl My/Ego Aio liquid in ISO and ISOEXP modes was, %: the 1st cycle – 6,9/7,5 and 10,0/12,6; the 2nd cycle – 7,9/30,7 and 8,1/49,2; the 3rd cycle – 8,7/24,3 and 12,1/6,1; the 4th cycle – 11,6/44,5 and 10,1/22,7, respectively. The stable operation of Luxlite devices and unstable operation of Von Erl My and Ego Aio devices with liquid leaks and aerosol losses were noted. It is established that the increase in the duration of puff under the regime ISOEXP leads to increased production of aerosol performance degradation ENDS and increase weight loss liquid for ENDS. The development of a method for collecting aerosol of ENDS, taking into account the characteristics of consumption and their design, will allow an objective assessment of the component composition of aerosol of ENDS.

Keywords: electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), nicotine-containing products, aerosol, liquids for ENDS.
107

Development of a process guide algorithm QMS «Preservation of product conformity» on the small innovative enterprise «Mikrovinodelie, LLC»

I.A. Ilina, I.A. Machneva, A.O. Chuyko
Annotation

The management of the Quality Management System process “Preserving Product Conformity” was developed for the small innovative enterprise “Mikrovinodelie, LLC”. The structure of the management process including maintenance in production units related to receiving, unloading, storage, raw material procurement, packaging and delivery of finished products, to ensure hoisting and lifting operations within the company. An algorithm for the execution of the process is presented and described; responsibility distribution matrix, context diagram developed; process requirements, input and output data, resources and evaluation criteria for this process are defined.

Keywords: wine products, quality management system, algorithm, preservation of product conformity.
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