The system of training highly qualified specialists for the restaurant and hotel industry, implemented by the department of public catering and service of the Kuban State Technological University, is presented. The characteristics of the main directions of educational activities and research work of the department and results achieved are given. The material and technical capabilities of the scientific and production base of the department are shown, which make it possible to provide training of highly qualified personnel for public catering, restaurant and hotel businesses. The main directions of activity and achievements of two scientific schools formed at the department are outlined, the developments of which have been tested and implemented in the educational process and production, including at public catering enterprises in municipal preschool and general education institutions of the Krasnodar region.Keywords: catering, hotel management, restaurant service, innovation-oriented training, specialists of sphere of hospitality.
Table of contents for # 5-6 (377-378), 2020
Training of Personnel
The analysis of the results of research on the biochemical composition of non-sugar precipitate obtained by various methods of pre-purification of sugar beet diffusion juice is presented.
It is shown that it is possible to separate the sediment of non-sugars with a total alkalinity of no more than 0,5% CaO by volume, followed by use as a feed additive in the diet of farm animals.
Analysis of scientific developments in the field of functional beverages for sports nutrition based on patent databases
According to the draft strategy for the development of physical culture and sports in the Russian Federation until 2030, in 2008–2019, the number of people systematically engaged in physical culture and sports increased by 2,5 times. This makes it necessary to create innovative products for people involved in sports. To determine the prospects for creating special-purpose products, in particular functional beverages for sports nutrition, an analysis of patents in this area was conducted. 59 patents published from 1995 to may 2020 and included in the national – FIPS and international – EAPATIS, USPTO, EPO, CISPATANT databases were the object of analysis. Subclasses of inventions according to the updated version of the IPC A23C, A23D, A23F, A23G, A23J, A23K, A23L, A61K, A61P and C12G are analyzed. The results of the research are presented in figures in the form of diagrams. It is established that the production of functional beverages for sports nutrition is actively developing. The Russian Federation has an advantage in the number of registered patents in this area, but in terms of production volume it is inferior to foreign countries. Since the products of the Russian agro-industrial complex fully meet the requirements of consumers for the naturalness of the raw material composition of the product, the development of domestic production of functional beverages for sports nutrition is promising to ensure the stability of the domestic market.Keywords: functional products, beverages for sports nutrition, sports nutrition market.
Chemistry of Food Products & Materials
Influence of storage duration on the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of confectionery cream with the addition of fruit and berry juices
Dynamics of the content of antioxidants and indicators of antioxidant activity in confectionery cream made according to TU 9134–003–45031498–04, without additives and with the addition of concentrated juices of cherries, black currants, mountain ash, blueberries when stored for 1 and 120 hours at a temperature of (4 ± 2)°C is considered. It was found that when storing confectionery cream without additives and with the addition of fruit and berry juices for 120 hours, a decrease in the content of phenolic substances, flavonoids and indicators of antioxidant activity determined in three systems, complete destruction of anthocyanins (except for the sample with the addition of blueberry juice) occurs. A more dramatic decrease in these indicators was observed in cream samples with the addition of fruit and berry juices compared to the control sample of cream without additives. However even after 120 hours of storage, the content of phenolic substances and flavonoids and indicators of antioxidant activity in the cream samples with the addition of fruit and berry juices were higher than in the freshly prepared cream without additives stored for 1 hour. After storage for 120 hours, the cream sample with the addition of blueberry juice had the highest content of phenolic substances and flavonoids – 294 mg of gallic acid/100 g of raw materials and 276 mg of catechin/100 g of raw materials respectively, the lowest – with the addition of cherry juice – 168 mg of gallic acid/100 g of raw materials and 180 mg of catechin/100 g of raw materials respectively; cream samples with the addition of Rowan and blueberry juice retained the highest antioxidant activity in the linoleic acid system – 12,5 and 11,7% respectively.Keywords: confectionary cream; concentrated juice of cherries, black currants, mountain ash, blueberries; antioxidants, antioxidant activity.
Development of rye-wheat bakery products from flour multi-component mixtures for functional and dietary nutrition
A comprehensive approach to optimizing the composition of a multi-component flour mixture for rye-wheat bakery products, taking into account the chemical composition and technological properties of the food ingredients of the mixture, as well as their influence on the main technologically forming component – rye-wheat flour, is presented. The design of the composition of multicomponent mixtures was carried out using a previously developed program. More than 20 samples of model flour mixtures were generated, of which 4 samples with indicators of biological value of at least 70% were selected for the preparation of bakery products. Preparation was carried out by an accelerated method using the acidifier «Lezisauer», compressed yeast and salt in an amount, % of the mass of the mixture, 2,0; 2,2 and 1,5 respectively. Water is added according to the calculation taking into account the mass fraction of moisture of the ingredients. The duration of fermentation was 60–70 minutes, proofing – 35–40 minutes. The products were baked at (200 ± 10)°C to the temperature inside the crumb 97–98°C. The rye-wheat bread «Spassky» purchased in the retail chain was used as a control. It was found that the baked samples of rye-wheat bread from the developed multi-component flour mixtures have a balanced composition of proteins, fats and carbohydrates – 1,0 : 0,8 : 3,9–4,8 respectively and calcium, phosphorus and magnesium – 1,0 : 0,5–0,6 : 1,2–1,5 accordingly. Compared with rye-wheat bread «Spassky» in bakery products made from flour multicomponent mixtures, the content of protein and lipids increased respectively by 0,8–2,3 and 2,7–3,5%, the amount of carbohydrates decreased by 5,5–7,2%, the amount of fiber increased by 4,5–5,5 times, calcium by 5,5–7,5 times, phosphorus by 1,5–1,6 times, magnesium by 1,1–1,2 times. The biological value of the developed bakery products increased by 7,9–18,4% in comparison with the control sample.Keywords: rye-wheat bakery products, flour multicomponent mixture, increase of biological and energy value, balanced composition.
Influence of polysaccharides on the quality of bread from a composite mixture of wheat and buckwheat flour
Experimental data on the use of polysaccharides in the formulation and technology of bread made from a composite mixture of wheat and buckwheat flour with a ratio of 85 : 15 are presented. Bread samples were made from a composite mixture of flour with polysaccharides at a concentration of 0,5; 0,6; 1,0 and 1,5%. It was found that the addition of xanthan at a concentration of 0,5% improves the organoleptic and physico-chemical parameters of the finished product. It was determined that the humidity and porosity of bread increased by 1,57 and 15%, respectively, and the acidity decreased by 0,3 degrees compared with the control –bread made from wheat flour (GOST R 56631–2015). There was an increase in the content of vitamins and minerals in the experimental sample: thiamine by 100%; riboflavin – 150%; potassium – 1,3%; calcium – 23,7%; magnesium – 42,4%; phosphorus – 38,6%; iron – 50%. The content of proteins, fats and carbohydrates in the sample of bread with xanthan increased slightly, by 5,2; 12,5 and 10,3%, respectively, which led to an increase in energy value by 7,2%; the content of dietary fiber increased by 7,7% compared to the control. It is determined that the use of xanthan allows you to extend the shelf life of bread from a composite mixture of wheat and buckwheat flour for 24 hours.Keywords: composite flour mixture, xanthan, polysaccharides, bakery products, quality, microbiological indicators.
For the enrichment of meat- and fish-vegetable food products with cryopowders and CO2-extracts, formulations for meat and vegetable pate, fish and vegetable sandwich paste and pancakes with meat and fish fillings are proposed. As raw materials, we used carrot, beet and celery root crops, varieties zoned in the Krasnodar region; semi-fat pork obtained from animals grown using organic technology. The fish basis of minced meat was the muscle tissue of silver carp and white cupid, acclimatized in the reservoirs of the Kuban. Mathematical methods of experiment planning were used to optimize the formulation composition and statistical processing of research results. It is established that the meat and vegetable pate made according to the developed formulation has a ratio of proteins, fats and carbohydrates as 1 : 0.8 : 3.5 respectively, due to the enrichment of meat and vegetable raw materials with cryopowders from carrots and beets. The composition of the pate includes potassium succinate and CO2- extract of ginger, which give the product immunoprotective properties. The formulation of fish and vegetable sandwich paste is enriched with microelements from finely ground powder from fish bones containing easily digestible calcium and phosphatides, as well as cryopowder from carrot roots, succinate and CO2-extracts with immunoprotective properties. In the formulation of the dough for pancakes, quinoa and amaranth flour was used, cryopowders from carrot, beet and celery root vegetables were used. Cryopowders from the same root vegetables were added to fish and meat fillings for pancakes. The tasting evaluation showed that all products prepared according to the developed formulations have high organoleptic characteristics and can be recommended for implementation at processing enterprises of the agro-industrial complex.Keywords: meat and vegetable pastes, fish and vegetable sandwich pastes, test semi-finished products with filling, cryopowders, CO2-extract, product enrichment.
To increase the volume of sales of products, restaurateurs are implementing special solutions in their establishments, in particular, serving buns with various additives that stimulate the appetite. The authors of the article developed a recipe and technology for baking buns for appetizer. Garlic, Cuminum cyminum (zira), cinnamon, rosemary and a mixture of parsley and celery roots are offered as flavoring additives. The buns were baked using a combi steamer, oven and a frying oven. Four baking modes were used in the combi steamer: 1 – convection; 2 – convection–10% steam; 3 – convection–30% steam; 4 – convection–50% steam. Baking was carried out at a temperature of 180°C. It took 20 min to bake the buns in the oven, and in the combi steamer when adding 10 and 50% steam – 11 min. The highest dry matter content was observed in 2 samples baked in a combi steamer: with the addition of aromatic roots and garlic, 74,5 and 75,0%, respectively. The most preferable mode for baking baked goods in a combi steamer: convection–steam 50% has been determined. It was found that increasing the amount of steam in the working chamber of the combi oven to 50% increases the yield of finished products by 2,06% compared to bakery products baked in the combi oven without steam.Keywords: garlic, Cuminum cyminum (zira), cinnamon, rosemary, parsley, combi steamer, a frying oven, porosity, organoleptic characteristics.
A method for the production of candied fruits with reduced sugar content from Jerusalem artichoke tubers of the “Interest” variety, adapted to the production capabilities of public catering enterprises, has been developed. The expediency of using milk whey and sucralose as prescription ingredients of candied fruits has been proved. The highest dry matter losses were determined when blanching Jerusalem artichoke in water (55%), the average – in citric acid (43%), and the lowest – when blanching in milk whey (25%). The optimal mode of blanching samples in whey was established – for 6 minutes at a temperature t of 80°C. After cooking in a solution of sugar substitute, the best organoleptic properties have been defined in samples has been subject to heat treatment from 3 to 5 minutes at t from 95 to 98°C, followed by exposure in a solution of sugar substitute for 1 hour. The optimal mode of drying candied fruit in a dehydrator is set: at t from 65 to 68°C, the duration is 3 hours. The best organoleptic properties were obtained from samples aged and boiled in sucralose solution, the nutritional value of which was, %: dry matter 66,0; protein 1,2; carbohydrates 16,0; inulin 4,97; pectin 0,8; ascorbic acid and P-active substances 5,6 and 19,2 mg %, respectively. At the end of the shelf life, candied fruits had high taste indicators (4,9 point). When stored for 60 days, according to microbiological indicators, candied fruits met hygienic standards. Improvements in candied fruit technology have reduced the process to 4 hours and 20 minutes (260 min), while traditional technology requires from 6 to 24 hours (360–1440 min). Candied fruit of low sugar content from Jerusalem artichoke tubers are recommended for dietary nutrition of diabetes mellitus.Keywords: candied fruit, Jerusalem artichoke tubers, reduced sugar content, sucralose, milk whey, blanching, production technology, quality.
New protein-pectin products based on nut and fruit raw materials with improved nutrient composition for children of school age
Prescription compositions of new functional protein-pectin beverages for school-age students based on nut and fruit raw materials with modified functional technological properties after its preliminary electromagnetic processing have been developed. Objects of research – puree of sea buckthorn and chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa), apple juice and pectin extract, nut milk. The mass fraction of the amount of pectin substances in puree from sea buckthorn and aronia, respectively, % was determined: 1,8 and 3,9 without treatment (control); 2,0 and 4,1 after electromagnetic field treatment. In juice-pectin extracts from apples, the mass fraction of pectin substances without treatment (control) and after electromagnetic field treatment was, respectively, , grade: Florina 1,72 and 1,83; Liberty 1,92 and 1,97. The yield of pectin substances in puree from sea buckthorn and aronia increased by 11,11 and 5,30, respectively; in extracts from Florina and Liberty apples grade – by 6,4 and 2,6%, respectively. We have developed recipes for smoothies with intermediates produced after the preparation of raw materials by our proposed method – autohydrolysis in combination with the processing of the hydrolyzed mass of raw materials by an electromagnetic field. Total amount of pectin substances in the finished product (smoothies) it was: with the addition of sea buckthorn and aronia puree 2,0 and 4,1%, respectively; with the addition of extracts from Florina and Liberty apples grade 1,83 and 1,97%, respectively. Optimal formulations of pectin-protein drinks for functional purposes are proposed. In 100 g of the developed product for schoolchildren contains 15–35% of the daily requirement in pectin substances.Keywords: protein-pectin drink, smoothies, fruit and berry raw materials, nut-fruit raw materials, school-age children.
The effect of inulin added to the formulation of soft wafers instead of sugar on the quality of products was studied. Beneo (Orafti) GR inulin solution was added to the dough in an amount of 3, 5 and 7% by weight of flour. A sample of soft wafers without inulin supplementation was a control. Wheat dietary fiber Kametsel FW 200 in an amount of 15% by weight of flour was added simultaneously with inulin to all samples. On the basis on the study of physical and chemical parameters of humidity and density of test blanks, and after baking-wetness and humidity of finished products, it was found that a sample of soft wafers with 5% inulin content had optimal quality indicators. According to the developed recipe, soft wafers with the addition of wheat fibers and a set amount of inulin are made. Organoleptic evaluation of products was carried out, the content of the main food substances was determined. It was found that soft wafers with wheat fiber Kamenzel FW 200 and inulin Beneo (Orafti) GR added to the recipe retain freshness longer, contain 15% less fat, 6% more protein and 8% less calories compared to the control sample.Keywords: dietary fiber, inulin, soft wafers, fortification, nutritional value.
Food Engineering, Processes, Equipment & Automation of Food Production
To deepen the fundamental understanding of the mechanism of gelation of food biopolymers at the molecular level, a thermodynamic analysis of the conditions and factors that influence the process of structuring their aqueous solutions was carried out. Thermodynamic features of phase transitions of hydrocolloid systems are considered on the basis of quantitative description of parameters and estimation of regularities of structuring in the interaction of active groups of colloids with a dispersion medium. It is shown that the energy state of such water systems depends on the active acidity index, is determined by the amount of charge of molecules, the number of reactive groups and the viscosity of water structures of food biopolymers. An example of predictive calculation of conformational characteristics of gelatin molecules as one of the most common and typical representatives of food biopolymers is presented. It is shown that at a pH of 11 units, the charge of the molecule is minus 40 units, and the characteristic viscosity (15,0 cm3/g), hydrodynamic radius (5,24 nm), and surface area (345,0 nm2) are the largest in comparison with neutral and acidic media.Keywords: hydrocolloids, food biopolymers, structuring, gelation, food systems, charge of molecules, hydrodynamic radius.
Calculation of parameters of a diffusion process with a concentration-dependent diffusion coefficient
We present a solution to the nonlinear diffusion transfer problem, taking into account the preliminary preparation of the extractant by electrochemical activation (ECHA). A capillary model is used to calculate the process parameters. The results of calculating the concentration simplex from the Fourier number E = f(Fo) are shown. The description of the laboratory installation, the method of the process, and the modes of ECHA preparation of extractants are given. Extraction curves in pure sucrose solutions with different types of extractants and process temperatures are presented. Analytical processing of the kinetic curves of the sucrose extraction process for the regular stage of the process allowed us to determine the main parameters of the diffusion process. A complete two-factor experiment ln E = f(C; τ) was performed. A regression equation was obtained and the response surface was constructed, which was studied by the method of indeterminate Lagrange multipliers to obtain optimal values for the series of experiments С = 15,4% and τ = 750 s. The calculations performed allow us to model the internal mass transfer of extraction of the concentration-dependent sucrose diffusion coefficient when an electric field is applied during processing of the extractant.Keywords: unsteady diffusion, extraction kinetics, sucrose, concentration simplex, diffusion coefficient, capillary model.
In recent years, the volume of production of liquid lecithin – one of the most technologically functional and widely demanded food ingredients of natural origin-has been growing in the Russian Federation. In regulatory documents, the viscosity level refers to the recommended indicators, but periodically there are problems associated with an increase in the viscosity of lecithins during storage. High viscosity degrades technological properties, which limits the use of such lecithins in food technologies. Therefore, the study of the causes of increasing the viscosity of lecithins during storage and determining possible ways to reduce it is relevant. The research objectives included: analysis of factors that determine the rheological properties of lecithins; identification of mechanisms for increasing the viscosity of lecithins during storage; consideration of existing methods for conditioning lecithins by viscosity. The object of the study was samples of soy, sunflower and rapeseed liquid lecithins of various viscosities produced at domestic oil processing enterprises. It is shown that the rheological properties of lecithins are determined by the level of moisture content, substances insoluble in acetone, metal ions, and the value of the acid number. The main methods used abroad for conditioning lecithins by viscosity – the introduction of refined deodorized vegetable oils, distilled fatty acids and polyvalent metal ions in the form of water-soluble salts and their limiting factors are considered. The results of the study can be used in the fat and oil industry in the analysis of technological processes for obtaining lecithin.Keywords: lecithin, phospholipids, rheological properties, viscosity reduction, methods of lecithin conditioning.
Justification of optimal modes of ultrasonic action on the aqueous suspension of black mulberry fruit pomace
With ultrasonic (US) irradiation of plant raw materials the temperature increases, and when its values exceed the threshold the probability of destruction of anthocyanins and loss of the necessary consumer indicators of raw materials increases. Since it is practically impossible to determine experimentally the change in the temperature field in a water suspension particle, a numerical experiment using an adapted mathematical model of heat energy and substance transfer in the object of study – a suspension of black mulberry fruit pomace under certain boundary conditions was carried out. To assess the adequacy of the solution of the thermal energy transfer model, which is constructed for an average particle, a series of experiments to find the temperature change depending on the duration of US-action on the suspension was performed. The research was carried out on a laboratory stand using the ThermoChart software product. The thermal energy transfer equation was solved using a numerical finite difference method. The found temperature distribution over the particle volume shows that the duration of US-action should not exceed 9 min. The model of heat energy transfer constructed and adapted to the object of research is adequate and can be used for engineering calculations of installations with US-processing of raw materials.Keywords: natural dyes, fruits of black mulberry, mathematical modeling, numerical methods, heat transfer, ultrasonic action, temperature conditions.
Effect of cavitation processing and the chemical composition of fruit and vegetable purees on non-thermal inversion of sucrose
The influence of the initial chemical composition of fruit and vegetable purees and the frequency of ultrasonic radiation during acoustic cavitation treatment on the degree of non-thermal inversion of sucrose was studied. Fruit and vegetable purees from apples, pumpkins and carrots were made according to the standard technological scheme for natural pureed products on the equipment of the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Canning Technology. The samples were treated with acoustic cavitation at a frequency of 21,6 and 27,2 kHz on experimental circulation-type installations (Cryamide LLC, Moscow) until the samples reached a temperature of 50°C. Individual samples of purees were heated to 50°C by thermostating under identical heat pressure during cavitation treatment of purees. The mass fractions of glucose, fructose, sucrose, organic acids, K+, Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ cations, and active acidity were determined in the initial and processed samples. The values of the total and thermal inversion of sucrose were calculated, on the basis of which the degree of cavitation inversion was determined. It was found that, in general, the degree of cavitation inversion of sucrose is quite closely positively correlated with the frequency of ultrasound and the mass fraction of sucrose in the initial medium. However, the mass fraction of glucose is antagonistic to these indicators. Acetic and citric acids, as well as K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ cations, showed stable weakly expressed mediated antagonism against the cavitation inversion of sucrose, and the active reaction of the medium played a minor role, increasing it with increasing ultrasound frequency. Analysis of data by the principal component method showed that the degree of cavitation inversion of sucrose in fruit and vegetable purees is determined by 83,88% by the superposition of the influence of the component composition, while the rest is presumably determined by the influence of other factors, such as the severity and dynamics of rheological properties from temperature and mechanical activator load, surface tension, acoustic conductivity, etc. The hypothesis of strengthening the role of sonochemical processes in the transformation of mediums and their individual components in shaping the aggregate dynamics of the properties of the end product as a result of cavitation with increasing ultrasound frequency.Keywords: fruit purees, vegetable purees, thermal inversion, cavitation inversion, acoustic cavitation.
The regularity of the influence of modified starches E 1442, E 1422 and E 1412 on the rate of moisture transfer in jelly-fruit marmalade (JFM) was studied. The objects of the study are model samples of JFM, each of which contained 2% modified starch (E 1442, E 1422 or E 1412).The samples were packed in a polypropylene film 40 microns thick and stored under controlled conditions at temperatures of 18 and 28°C. JFM without a water-retaining component was taken as a control sample. During 8 weeks of storage at a temperature of 18°C, the mass fraction of moisture of the samples of JFM using 2% modified starch and without it decreased from 22,0% to various degrees: to 21,5% in the control (without starch); to 21,7% with E 1412 and E 1422; to 21,4% with E 1442. The activity of the water in the storage process of JFM, using modified starch amounted to 0,70 to 0,75. When the storage temperature was increased by 10°C, the moisture transfer rate of JFM, made without the use of modified starch, increased by 2,2 times. The rate of moisture transfer of JFM made using modified starch increased by 1,3–1,7 times. The established regularities of the influence of the type of modified starch on the rate of moisture transfer make it possible to control the shelf life of jelly-fruit marmalade.Keywords: jelly-fruit marmalade, modified starch, mass fraction of moisture, water activity, moisture transfer.
Most of the oil factories, located on the territory of the Southern federal district, for production of vegetable oil using extrusion technology. To preserve the maximum amount of useful nutrients of raw materials in the production of sunflower oil cold pressing is used (without additional heating). In order to develop a twin-screw oil press for cold-pressed sunflower seed oil, the main technical characteristics of the design were calculated: capacity 375 kg/h; oil yield 42%; inlet/outlet temperature – at least 15/(115–125)°C; supply voltage 380 V; rated electric heating power 12 kW; humidity of the processed crop 7–9%; rated drive power 18,5 kW; dimensions, mm: length 2750, width 1200, height (without hopper) 1100; weight 1000 kg. Taking into account the technical characteristics, a 3D-model of a twin-screw oil press has been developed. Using the Deal Compo program the effectiveness of the developed model of a twin-screw oil press was evaluated according to three criteria: installed capacity, dimensions, weight. It was found that the developed twin-screw oil press had the best result (34,84%) among the studied similar models of oil presses according to the studied parameters.Keywords: sunflower seeds, vegetable oil, cold pressing, twin-screw oil press, equipment efficiency.
Modern requirements for rational nutrition determine the production of low-calorie fat products. However during their manufacture the manufacturer faces with problems of the stability of the butter formation process, the formation of the structure and quality of the product, which can be solved by using stabilizers and emulsifiers and adjusting the operating modes of the butter-forming agent. The processes of forming the structure and quality of butter with a fat content of 55% were studied using the online control program for changing the parameters of the butter-forming machine and transmission electron microscope at a magnification of 6600. Butter samples were developed from cream with the addition of an emulsifier – mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids in an amount of 0,5% and a complex consistency stabilizer based on guar and xanthan gum in an amount of 0,2% – sample 1 and skimmed milk powder added based on the calculation of obtaining 7,5% of skimmed milk solids in the finished product – sample 2. Butter «Krestyanskoe» with a fat content of 72,5% was the control sample. It is established that the process of phase reversal in the manufacture of low-fat butter is similar to the process for traditional types of butter. The formation of an intermediate structure of the butter grain, as well as the increased load on the butter-forming agent at the time of supercooling of cream and the lengthening of the duration of the stable mode of operation of the device can be attributed to the peculiarities of the process. It is proved that to ensure a stable product structure, the specific power consumption should be increased by 9,8–13,2% when converting cream with stabilizers and an emulsifier (sample 1) and by 2,2–3,5% when converting cream with the addition of skimmed milk powder as a stabilizer (sample 2). The possibility of obtaining low-fat butter with a good consistency and plasticity is established.Keywords: low-fat butter, butter formation, microstructure of butter, structural and mechanical properties, rheological parameters, stabilizers, emulsifiers, quality of butter.
Change of the fresh mushroom texture in the process of refrigerated storage after processing with UV radiation
The effect of irradiation of fresh the fruiting bodies of champignons (Agaricus bisporus) with ultraviolet radiation in the short – wave range C (100–280 nm) doses of 160, 320, 480, 640, 800 J/m2 at a power flow density of 2,7 • 103 J/s • m2 on the change in the quality indicator of ability to store – the texture of mushrooms during cold storage was studied. Packages with mushrooms were stored in a refrigerator at t 4–5°C and relative humidity 85–90%. Monitoring of changes of ability to store was carried after 1, 3, 8, 13, 16, 21, 24 and 27 days. During storage, studied the dynamics of changes in the texture of mushrooms, kg/cm2. It was found that irradiation in the dose range up to 418 J/m2 leads to a negative effect of changes of ability to store and is impractical. It was determined that ultraviolet radiation in the dose range of 418– 800 J/m2 leads to an increase of ability to store and reaches extreme at 685 J/m2. When extrapolating the results of experimental data, such a tendency is presumably observed up to a dose of 876 J/m2. The dynamics of the texture obtained during storage after processing with ultraviolet radiation. A mathematical description of the dependence of the maximum storage capacity in terms of the texture of mushrooms on the radiation dose is developed.Keywords: ultraviolet radiation; Agaricus bisporus; texture; ability of mushrooms to storage; processing modes; radiation dose; power flux density.
The complementarity of flaxseed cake protein with the protein of a number of seeds and legume grains was studied in order to create food additives of increased biological value for use in individual, functional, specialized and sports nutrition. The calculation of the amino-acid score of the grain protein of some leguminous crops in relation to the FAO/WHO 2013 reference protein for humans (excluding digestibility) was made. In terms of the overall protein level and main indicators, flaxseed cake is significantly inferior only to soy cake and collapsed lupine. However, the protein of flax seeds is incomplete. An algorithm for optimizing five-component food protein systems based on the criterion of the maximum of the minimum amino-acid score of the limiting amino acids of the mixture is developed. The program for calculating the rational composition of protein mixtures equalizes the scores of limiting amino acids of two components with restrictions on the content of the other three components. It was determined that the ideal protein (18–20%) is obtained by mixing flaxseed cake with products of amaranth grain processing with a proportion of flax of 13–27%. Mixtures of flaxseed cake (FC) with chickpeas (Ch) and collapsed lupine (CL) with a proportion of flax of 37,0 and 6,5%, respectively, have a lower total protein content than each component separately, for example, : (FC + Ch) 28, (FC + CL) 39, FC 31, CL 40. However, the mixtures contain more of the reference protein: (FC + Ch) 28; (FC + CL) 37,6%. For comparison, the reference protein content in the product is, %: FC 23,3; CL 36,7; Ch 25,0. It was found that the high protein content in the cake obtained from flax seeds makes it possible to create mixtures with leguminous products whose protein is complementary to flaxseed protein, and to obtain food systems with protein of an improved amino acid profile.Keywords: flaxseed cake, plant protein, high-proteinaceous mixtures, amino-acid score, reference protein, food additives.
Methods of Investigation, Quality & Safety of Food Products
New method for determining the formaldehyde content in cork plugs in accordance with the requirements of the Eurasian economic Union
The entry of the Russian Federation into the Eurasian economic Union has led to stricter requirements for the safety indicators of alcoholic beverages, including packaging products. Alcoholic beverages are stored and even aged in the packaging, so the corking material – cork plugs can significantly affect the quality of the drink. In this regard, cork plugs are subject to safety requirements in the form of formaldehyde control. Existing methods for identifying it are quite time-consuming and very expensive, and also involve the use of expensive equipment. The proposed method for determining the content of formaldehyde released from cortical plugs into model media was developed on the basis of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography using the process of derivatization of a controlled compound with a solution of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH) in acetonitrile containing 5% acetic acid. System Kapel 105 equipped with a UV-detector with a variable wavelength, quartz capillaries with a diameter of 75 microns and a total length of 60 cm (50,5 cm to the detector) were used for the study. Working solutions of formaldehyde were prepared daily by appropriately diluting the samples of the initial solution with water. Calibration graphs were calculated for six concentrations – 2, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 100 mg/l standards in two repetitions. A certain amount of standard formaldehyde solution was added to the sample – model media obtained during the study of cork plugs samples and a derivatization procedure was performed. UV detection of 2,4-DNPH derivatives was performed at a wavelength of 360 nm. The results of testing the method are presented on electrophoregrams. A linear relationship was obtained between the peak area and the formaldehyde concentration (R2 = 0,99). The developed method for determining the formaldehyde content is low-cost, simple and highly accurate, and can be recommended as a tool for monitoring the safety of cork plugs in accordance with the standards of the Eurasian economic Union.Keywords: formaldehyde, deprivation, 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, UV-detection, electrophoregram.
Risk management as a tool to improve the quality of the activities of testing laboratories at food enterprises
The introduction of a risk-based approach as the basis for the implementation of the principle of continuous improvement contributes to an increase in the effectiveness of the QMS of laboratories in the food enterprises. The experience of work in the field of risk management and capabilities of the enterprise testing laboratory is summarized. Recommendations for assessing risks and actions in relation to them are given.Keywords: testing laboratory, quality management system, risk management, continuous improvement.
Economics of Food Industry
Classification of brand models as a tool control modernization transformation in the industrial and production sphere
The influence of the nature of communication processes on the state of competitiveness of business entities and the region’s economy has been substantiated. The need to implement modernization transformations in the national economy of a different nature based on the development and promotion of Russian brands is pointed out. The influence of the marketing-emotional component in the activities of a domestic commodity producer on the solution of the problems of structural modernization of the industrial and production sphere is indicated. It is argued that the source of filling the emotional component of the brand is the trust of the interacting parties, which changes the marketing behavior of subjects in the direction of implementing effective innovation changes in the entire spectrum of problems associated with the development of the national economy and ensuring its economic growth. The classification of brand models in the context of the developing market and changing marketing behavior of subjects is expanded. The proposed communication model of a brand with a predominant marketing and emotional dominant can be the basis for reengineering business processes in food industry enterprises.Keywords: regional economy, production sphere, modernization transformations, food industry, marketing-emotional component, trust, marketing behavior, classification of brand models, reengineering of business processes, innovation factor, economic growth.
Marketing research of consumer preferences of school-age children when choosing sugar and flour confectionery products
Replacing traditional products with low nutritional value with alternative functional products that meet the needs of the child’s body is necessary to change the current diet of schoolchildren. Confectionery products that are in high consumer demand among the population, especially children, are of particular interest for the production of functional products. Marketing research of consumer preferences of students of three age groups – 7–11, 12–15 and 16–18 years old when choosing sugar and flour confectionery products was conducted in order to create recommendations for changing the range of products, ways to advertise it and stimulate consumer demand. The survey was conducted in the form of a questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of closed-ended questions that were divided into alternative questions that allow you to choose only one answer option, and questions-«menu» that allow respondents to choose several answer options at the same time. Рarents of schoolchildren of the younger age group also took part in the survey. A total of 446 people were interviewed. The results of the survey are presented in the form of diagrams. It is established that the most preferred type of sugar confectionery is chocolate, flour – cookies. The criteria for choosing respondents when purchasing confectionery products are defined.Keywords: survey, consumer preferences, sugar and flour confectionery, cookies, chocolate.
Training of Personnel
The article considers the prospect of creating wine sommelier schools in the Krasnodar region from the perspective of training specialists to promote local wine products on the Russian and world markets.Keywords: sommelier profession, professional training, restaurant business, training of specialists, wine products.