The need to increase the quantity and quality of dairy products encourages research aimed at improving the efficiency of processing dairy raw materials, which, in turn, is impossible without studying the technological properties of milk and functionally necessary ingredients used in the production of various dairy products. On the basis of scientific and technical information from international and Russian data bases, systematized within the framework of the subject under study, a review of scientific works on milk protein coagulants of various origins used in acid, acid-rennet and rennet coagulation is presented. It is established that coagulants of animal, microbial and recombinant origin are in demand in the Russian and international production practice. The greatest demand among coagulants of animal origin is chymosin, obtained from the stomachs of calves. Microbial and recombinant enzymes are characterized by more stable quality and lower cost, but their production is almost entirely concentrated abroad. In addition, there are some consumer biases towards recombinant coagulants, as they are produced using genetic engineering techniques. If consumer loyalty is increased, recombinant enzymes may become the most promising functional ingredients. Studies of the potential of various proteolytic enzymes of plant origin revealed a low technological effect of their use. The considered material allows us to predict the prospects of scientific research to identify the mechanisms of milk coagulation and new effective and universal coagulants together with the breeding practice of animal selection, aimed at improving the technological properties of dairy raw materials.Keywords: casein, whey proteins, starter cultures, milk-converting enzyme preparations, plant milk coagulants, enzymes of microbial and recombinant origin.
Table of contents for # 1 (379), 2021
Chemistry of Food Products & Materials
Influence of the composition fatty acids of phospholipid contained in sunflower lecithins on the process of micelle formation in nonpolar solvents
A comparative analysis of the chemical composition of lecithins obtained from sunflower oils of the oleic and linoleic types and the process of micelle formation of phospholipid molecules of these lecithins in nonpolar solvents is carried out. It was determined that the content of saturated fatty acids in phospholipids of sunflower lecithin of the linoleic type is 2 times higher than in oleic type phospholipids, and the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, the predominant of which is linoleic – 63,36 vs 15,54%, is 4 times higher. The content of monounsaturated fatty acids, mainly oleic, in phospholipids of sunflower lecithin of the oleic type is 5 times higher compared to linoleic type phospholipids, 72,63 and 14,32%, respectively. Next, the process of micelle formation of phospholipids of sunflower lecithins of the oleic type was studied. It is established that the critical concentration of micelle formation ККМ1 solutions of phospholipid oleic sunflower lecithins type in the model oil and CCl4 lower values of solutions of phospholipids lecithins linoleic type: 0,041 vs 0,052 and 0,078 vs 0,098 respectively at a temperature of 20°C; 0,052/0,061 and 0,113/0,117 respectively at t 35°C; 0,071/0,083 and 0,142/0,149 respectively at t 45°C. It is shown that the ability to micelle formation of phospholipids of sunflower lecithins of the oleic type in CCl4 is lower than in the model oil. The expediency and efficiency of using CCl4 in order to reduce the degree of micelle formation of sunflower lecithin phospholipids of the oleic type during sample preparation for the development of a method for determining the acid number of these lecithins using the pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance method was confirmed.Keywords: sunflower lecithins of oleic and linoleic types, composition of fatty acids, individual groups of phospholipids, nonpolar solvents, micelle formation process.
Acceptable values of additional parameters for detecting signs of defectiveness of young brandy distillates: 2-butanol, diacetyl, acetoin, acetic, propionic and butyric acids were studied. Experimental summary data on the ranges of concentrations of 2-butanol, diacetyl, acetoin, acetic, propionic and butyric acids in brandy distillates produced in the main geographical zones of brandy production in Russia, as well as in distillates imported from Armenia, Azerbaijan, France and Spain are presented. It was found that in young brandy distillates produced from healthy raw materials, the concentration is, mg/dm3: 2-butanol is no more than 10, acetoin 15, diacetyl 10, propionic acid 15, butyric acid 30, acetic acid 500. It is shown that distillates obtained on the basis of grape pomace in compliance with microbiological requirements are not characterized by a high concentration of 2-butanol and its accompanying volatile impurity components. It has been experimentally established that the production of distillates based on yeast sediments significantly increases the risk of an extreme increase in the concentration of 2-butanol, diacetyl, as well as acetic, propionic and butyric acids.Keywords: brandy distillate, defectiveness markers, 2-butanol, diacetyl, acetoin, volatile acids.
Study the interphase distribution of nicotinic acid in extraction systems based on poly-N-vinylformamide
A method for extracting nicotinic acid from aqueous solutions using a water-soluble polymer as an extractant has been developed. Complex formation in extraction systems using liquid extraction is investigated. Poly-N-vinylformamide with a molecular weight of 25 ∙ 103 g/mol was synthesized as an extractant. For the extraction of nicotinic acid, salting agents (ammonium sulfate and chloride) were used, distribution coefficients and the degree of analyte extraction were calculated. The distribution coefficients – from 36 to 215 and the degree of analyte extraction – from 87,8 to 98,8% were calculated. The experiment was performed at pH 6–7, under these conditions, nicotinic acid is in solution as a bipolar ion. Complex formation in extraction systems has been studied by IR spectroscopy. It was found that the zwitterions of nicotinic acid form strong complexes with water. Based on the results of IR spectroscopy, a mechanism for the interaction of nicotinic acid with water and poly-N-vinylformamide is proposed, which allows us to explain the results of interphase distribution of vitamin in extraction systems. The conditions under which almost complete extraction of nicotinic acid is achieved (the 6–7 pH of the water-salt solution, the polymer concentration are 0,2 g/cm3 and the salting agent is 20% by weight) are established. The extraction characteristics obtained with poly-N-vinylformamide and other polymers were compared. It was found that the use of poly-N-vinylformamide as an extractant provides almost 99% recovery of nicotinic acid, which exceeds this indicator in comparison with other polymers by up to 96% and organic solvents by up to 45%. Determination of nicotinic acid in an aqueous solution was performed by UV spectrophotometry based on self-absorption at 262 nm and capillary electrophoresis.Keywords: nicotinic acid, extraction, degree of extraction, poly-N-vinylformamide, IR spectroscopy.
For the enrichment of bakery products, bioactivated wheat grain is used, which leads to the introduction of an additional stage of the technological process – bioactivation. The use of deep-freezing technology allows you to reduce the labor intensity and reduce the duration of the process of preparing grain bread from bioactivated wheat, which is especially important in the conditions of small-scale enterprises. However prolonged freezing reduces the activity of the cells of the fermentation microflora of the dough, so it is necessary to establish the optimal shelf life of the frozen dough semi-finished product. For research, wheat grain was previously cleaned from weed and grain impurities, washed, left to swell in water for 22–24 hours, germinated for 11–12 hours and ground by passing through a matrix with a hole diameter of 2 mm. The dough pieces were made according to the recipe for «Aysbred» bread, then they were subjected to shock freezing at a temperature of –35°C and stored at –18°C for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Before use, the dough was thawed, the semi-finished product was fermented, and dough pieces weighing 0,07 kg were formed from it, which were baked after proofing. The control was the dough without freezing, prepared according to the recipe for bread «Kolosok». After 20 hours after baking, the physico-chemical and organoleptic parameters of the baked bread were evaluated. Microscopy revealed that with an increase in the shelf life of frozen semi-finished products, the content of dead yeast cells increases. Their lowest number was observed in the sample of the test without freezing – 12,2%, which is by 29,0% less than in the sample of the frozen test, stored for 28 days. It was found that in the frozen dough samples stored for 7, 21 and 28 days, the content of reduced glutathione was by 1,6; 7,4 and 7,8% higher respectively, than in the control sample. After 120 min of fermentation, the amount of carbon dioxide released in the frozen dough samples stored for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days was in 1,4; 1,5; 2,5 and 2,8 times less respectively, than in the test without freezing. In terms of quality, the products baked from the dough after freezing and without it did not differ significantly. Based on the research results, it is recommended to store the frozen test semi-finished product for the preparation of grain bread at a temperature of –18°C for no more than 21 days.Keywords: bioactivated wheat grain, frozen dough, glutathione, fermentation activity, bread quality, product enrichment.
A constant shortage of polyunsaturated fatty ω-3 acids – α-linoleic and eicosapentaenoic acids is observed in the diet of the Russian population, which leads to the search for biologically active additives to enrich products and dishes. Flaxseed oil, which contains a significant amount of PUFA, was used as such an additive for salad. The recipe for a salad of increased nutritional value has been developed. The organoleptic parameters were investigated, the nutritional value was determined, and the integral score was calculated for the salad enriched with linseed oil in comparison with the salad prepared according to the original recipe. It was found that adding 5 g of flaxseed oil to the salad recipe increases its caloric content by 14,8% compared to the salad prepared according to the original recipe. When eating 1 serving of fortified salad, the need for PUFA is met by 50% of the daily of the norm, in vegetable fats – by 34,4%. A comparison of organoleptic ratings and profilograms of a salad enriched with linseed oil and a salad prepared according to the original recipe showed that when adding 5 g of linseed oil, there are no defects in the organoleptic parameters of the dish. However, with an increase in the amount of linseed oil applied over 5–7 g, a pronounced linolenic taste and a «fishy» smell appear, the salad becomes dark in color. The product prepared according to the developed recipe can be used in preventive nutrition and for balanced diets aimed at covering the deficiency of ω-3 acids.Keywords: products with specified properties, salads, flaxseed oil, increase of nutritional value, product enrichment, PUFA.
Influence of sulphitation treatment on technological and microbiological indicators of thick juice during its long-term storage under conditions of sugar factory
To increase the productivity of the sugar factory without significant financial costs, you can use a technological scheme for the withdrawal of thick juice for long-term storage with its subsequent processing in the off-season. One of the disadvantages of such a technological scheme is the risk of microbiological contamination of the thick juice, to reduce which domestic researchers offer treatment with electromagnetic fields. However, in our opinion, the treatment of thick juice with sulfite-containing reagents is safer and less energy intensive. Laboratory studies aimed at reducing the microbiological contamination of the thick juice during its storage were carried out. The object of research was a concentrated thick juice obtained under laboratory conditions with a dry matter content of 67%, which was divided into three samples of 300 ml each. The control sample of the thick juice was left untreated, sample 1 was treated with sulfur dioxide to a pH of 7,3–7,5, sample 2 – with a solution of sodium bisulfite in an amount of 0.01% by weight of the sample. After that, all three samples were alkalized with 1 n NaOH solution to pH 9,15 and stored for 100 days at room temperature. At the end of the shelf life, microbiological parameters and the content of reducing substances were determined in the thick juice samples. It was found that the pretreatment of thick juice sent for long-term storage with sulfite-containing reagents contributes to a sufficiently effective reduction in the number of mesophilic aerobic and facultative anaerobic microorganisms and molds. The greatest reduction effect is observed when the thick juice is treated with sulfurous anhydride: the indicator of microbial contamination is reduced by 69% and the number of molds is reduced by 58% compared to untreated thick juice. When treating the syrup with sodium bisulfite, the reduction was 31 and 33% respectively. The degree of prevention of the accumulation of reducing substances when treating the thick juice with sulfur dioxide was 18,8%, and when treating with sodium bisulfite – 11,5%. Reducing the microbial contamination of the thick juice when it is taken out for long-term storage will help to reduce the loss of sucrose.Keywords: thick juice, sulfite-containing reagents, storage, microbiological parameters of syrup, sucrose losses, reducing substances.
Use of dry extracts of fruit and berry raw materials to increase the nutritional value of kvasses of fermentation
The kvasses of fermentation using dry extracts of raspberries, black currant and sea buckthorn have been developed. Extracts of sea buckthorn fruits, raspberries and black currants obtained by pulse-vacuum drying in LLC «Visterra» (Biysk) were studied. Kvasses was prepared according to industrial technology on a concentrate of kvass wort. The extracts were added to the kvass before fermentation in a dosage of from 2 to 8%. Samples of kvasses using extracts had a pleasant aftertaste, slightly pronounced fruit aroma. The resulting kvasses is characterized by a high content of ascorbic acid, mg/100 g, and polyphenolic substances, mg/100 ml, respectively: control – less than 0,1 and 42,6; with the addition of raspberry extract 2,7 and 58,7; sea buckthorn 6,9 and 47,7; black currant 4,6 and 66,2. It was determined that the consumption of one glass (200 ml) of freshly prepared kvass with fruit (berry) extract can satisfy from 100 to 150% of the daily need for flavonoids (85 mg/day) and phenolic acids (10 mg/day), which are predominant in the composition of polyphenolic substances. Taking into account the recommendations of MR 22.214.171.1242-08, it was found that kvasses with buckthorn and currant extracts can meet 10–15% of the physiological need for vitamin C in adults and 15–45% in children of different age groups. It was found that the addition of 6% fruit and berry extract to the blend before fermentation makes it possible to produce kvasses of standard quality with original organoleptic characteristics and increased nutritional value.Keywords: kvass, technology, fruit and berry extracts, beverages quality, nutritional value, enrichment of beverages.
Influence of food acids on the consumer properties salty fish products made from fish of the south of Russia
Consumer properties of finished salted fish are characterized by the presence of taste, aroma and consistence of usable products. Fish of the South of Russia are slow maturing fish species. The production of salted fish products with specified consumer preferences requires an intensification of the maturation process. The effect of food acids – tartaric, citric, and acetic – on reducing the pH of fish muscle tissue in the area of action of tissue cathepsins was studied. The pH value of fish muscle tissue is on average 6,0–6,5 and is not a constant value. The highest activity of fish muscle tissue enzymes was found at pH 5,0–5,3, units/g: silver carp 0,22; common carp 0,24; white carp 0,26; pilengas 0,31. The dependence of the pH values of fish muscle tissue on the type of acid and its concentration of 0,3; 0,5 and 1,0% in a salt solution with a density of 1,2 g/cm3 was determined. It was found that the addition of food acid – tartaric, citric or acetic concentration of 0,5% in the salting process reduces the pH of muscle tissue in the area of action of tissue cathepsins and make salted fish with the taste, aroma and consistency of the finished ripened production.Keywords: proteolytic activity, food acids, pH of fish muscle tissue, pilengas, silver carp white, common carp, silver crucian, consumer properties.
Technological basics of moisture preservation during the production and storage of flour confectionery products
The developed technological techniques for the production of flour confectionery products while maintaining moisture at all stages of production are described and theoretically justified. The following tasks were solved in the framework of the study: increasing the specific surface area of the particles of the dispersed phase of the emulsion by modeling the recipe composition; disaggregating flour, increasing the uniformity of the distribution of the dispersion medium (emulsion) with the formation of shells around the maximum possible number of flour particles of various fractions. The object for modeling the formulation composition was sugar cookies. It is established that the replacement of prescription components with high humidity with raw materials with a high content of dry substances allows you to release moisture and use new types of raw materials with increased native properties. The proposed methods of preparation of raw materials: reducing the viscosity of malt extract used to reduce the amount of granulated sugar, osmotic swelling of egg powder, fat plasticization with the stabilization of its structure with lecithin, sucrose inversion under conditions of combining hydrodynamic and acoustic cavitation effects in the production of invert syrup – provide favorable conditions for obtaining an emulsion with an increased specific surface area. The production of an emulsion in two stages is a distinctive feature of the proposed technology: the preparation of a suspension without fat and the actual production of the emulsion. Separate supply of sugar in two steps: 40–60% of its prescription amount is introduced at the stage of preparation of the suspension, the remaining part – during the preparation of the emulsion – and cavitation treatment of the suspension at a temperature of 36–38°С and the waveguide oscillation frequency of 24 kHz, it is possible to increase the partial concentration of sugar particles by 8–12 times. When preparing the emulsion, the plasticized fat and lecithin are pre-mixed with the remaining part of the granulated sugar, and then with the suspension. The aeration-disaggregated flour and emulsion are fed simultaneously and in parallel to the kneading machine to achieve their desired ratio before the dough-forming process begins. The developed complex of technological techniques allowed to create a technological flow for the production of sugar cookies with improved quality indicators – wetting up to 230% (according to the classical technology 180–200%), reduced density by 20%, increased porosity and friability, and preserving up to 92% humidity, which is 18% higher than in products obtained by the classical technology.Keywords: cavitation effect, partial concentration of the dispersed phase, monolayer, adsorption-bound moisture, molecular force field.
Improvement of the technology and formulation of finishing semi-finished product for flour confectionery products for dietary prophylactic purposes
Improvement the structure of the range of confectionery products is aimed at increasing the production of products of increased nutritional value. The possibility of replacing butter in the formulation for finishing cream semi-finished products for flour confectionery products with animal cream to reduce its caloric content is investigated. Samples of butter cream «Charlott», made on the basis of a standard formulation, but with the replacement of butter with cream with a fat content of 33%, were the object of the study. To stabilize the structure of the cream apple pectin was added in an amount of 1,5% by weight of the sample. Optimization of indicators of balance of composition and organoleptic properties was performed using applied mathematical programs Mathcad 15.0 and Statistica 13.0. Based on the data obtained, the technology and formulations for finishing cream semi-finished products with and without cocoa powder were developed. Organoleptic evaluation showed that the developed cream semi-finished products have the necessary quality indicators – plastic texture, stable shape, pleasant, odorless taste. It is established that the caloric developed cream samples with replacement of butter cream 33% fat is 23% lower than the calorie content of the cream «Charlott», made on the basis of a standard formulation. The inclusion of apple pectin in the cream formulation allows us to recommend the developed finishing semi-finished product for the production of functional flour confectionery products.Keywords: flour confectionery, finishing semi-finished product, butter cream «Charlotte», apple pectin, reduced calorie content, nutritional value.
Recipes and technologies of handmade sweets of reduced caloric content, enriched with biologically active substances without changing the original organoleptic properties, have been developed. The possibility of using carob as a substitute for cocoa is justified. The substitution of carob for cocoa in various concentrations in the candy recipe was investigated. The technology of handmade functional sweets with the addition of black currant berries and carob powder is described. The quality indicators of model candy compositions using carob powder were evaluated. It was found that the improvement of the technology of chocolate production allowed us to obtain a product with a functional value, reduced energy value, acceptable organoleptic parameters and an increased content of vitamin C and dietary fiber. The nutritional value of one serving (100 g) of the developed products – sweets with carob – was in comparison with the control, respectively, %: protein 5,9/8,1; fat 56/60; dietary fiber 64/36; vitamin C 67/0; energy value, kcal, 388/516. Reducing the caloric content, increasing the content of vitamin C and dietary fiber in a chocolate bar is achieved by introducing fresh black currant berries. The use of grinding without removing the seeds and skins of berries allowed to increase the content of dietary fiber in the finished product.Keywords: carob, black currant, sweets, cocoa powder, nutritional value, functional product.
Tempering chocolate masses is a process that ensures the crystallization of cocoa butter in a stable β-modification in order to avoid fatty bloom of the finished product. Presents the results of studies on the use of βV-form seed crystals in tempering chocolate mass with sweeteners inulin and inulin-stevioside complex instead of sucrose. It was found that crystals of the βV-form provide a chocolate mass with a stable β-modification of cocoa butter, regardless of the type of sweetener. The optimal modes of the process of seed crystals of βV-form in the technology of obtaining chocolate mass have been determined. The influence of the synergy of the method of introducing seeding and the type of sweetener on the structural and mechanical properties of the chocolate mass was studied. It is shown that the hardness and rheological parameters of the chocolate mass with sweeteners using technology with seeding of the βV-form crystals correspond to the same parameters chocolate mass technology with a traditional tempering stage with a significant reduction in the duration of the process.Keywords: chocolate, cocoa butter, crystallization, tempering, inulin, stevioside, structural and mechanical properties.
Traditional methods of removing moisture from raw brewer’s grains are mechanical dewatering and drying. Drying is an energy-intensive technological process, since it requires prolonged exposure to the material to remove a significant amount of bound moisture from the large particles of raw brewer’s grains. To study the possibility of reducing the drying time, we put forward the assumption that the destruction of the brewer’s grains cells, which contributes to the transition of part of the bound moisture to the free one, should affect the kinetics of drying the material. Before drying, the raw brewer’s grains were placed on a sieve until the liquid was completely drained from it. Three samples were formed from the material obtained in this way: sample 1 – initial; sample 2 – crushed brewer’s grains; sample 3 – crushed and pressed on a manual press brewer’s grains. Three samples were dried at a temperature of 60°C in a Memmert UFE 400 drying cabinet. The weight loss of the sample was recorded on the scale every 5 minutes throughout the experiment. The dry matter content determined according to GOST 31640–2012 was, : for samples 1 and 2 – 19,2; for sample 3 – 22. According to the results of the experiment, the drying rate curves are constructed. Based on their analysis, it was found that the crushing operation before drying allows you to destroy the cellular structure of the brewer’s grains and transfer part of the bound moisture to the free. The final moisture content of the beer pellet samples was, %: sample 1 – 112,453; 2 – 10,842; 3 – 9,585. On the basis of the experimental data obtained, it was proposed in the production of dry feed additives from the secondary product of brewing production to introduce after its extraction before drying a stage of crushing the brewer’s grains to a particle size of 3–5 mm. This allows you to increase the mass transfer surface between the drying agent and the solid fraction, which increases the drying speed and reduces its duration, as well as to obtain a dried solid fraction of brewer’s grains with a humidity of 9–10. Reducing the final moisture content of a dry forage additive can increase its shelf life.Keywords: drying kinetics, drying rate, technological stages, mechanical dehydration, brewer's grains moisture, dry forage additive.
Food Engineering, Processes, Equipment & Automation of Food Production
The design of the separator unit is proposed, which differs from the existing ones in that its base is made with circular grooves of semicircular cross-section, through which the rotor-drum is mounted with the possibility of rotation on non-ferromagnetic balls. In addition, the heating of the separated product in the installation is carried out using the unavoidable heat generation in the windings of the installation by passing the separated product through the tubes that are wrapped around the front parts of the windings of the installation. A mathematical model in the form of a system of differential equations describing the relationship between its parameters (the resistance of the stator and rotor windings, the number of turns in them) and the parameters of transients (shock currents, the duration of the transient process) has been developed to study the emergency modes of this installation (phase breaks, short circuits) and to obtain its dynamic characteristics. The operation of the separator unit in the event of a single phase wire breakage is modeled using the Simulink is a Simulation and Model-Based Design (MATLAB) application software package. The developed model allowed us to estimate the influence of the stator and rotor parameters of the plant on the transient process in emergency modes and to take this influence into account at the design stage. The advantages of the proposed installation are increased reliability, improved energy and weight and size indicators.Keywords: mathematical model, electromechanical energy converters, stator, rotor, transients, emergency modes.
In a number of food, chemical and other industries, in order to ensure a homogeneous distribution of particles in the mixture, mixing devices are used, the working body of which is a set (or tier) of blades. In the working volume of the mixer, particles of bulk material under the action of internal forces move randomly relative to each other. Although mechanical mixing has been studied relatively fully, however, given the complex nature of the process for its mathematical description, its quantitative analysis in most cases proceeds from the results of regression modeling of calculated dependencies based on generalizing experimental data. This makes it difficult to make a reasonable forecast of the development of the mixing process, when it is necessary to process powdered substances with different geometric and physical and mechanical parameters from those obtained on the basis of experiments with other products. Taking into account the uncertainty of the kinetics of the processed material, a mathematical description of the mixing process is proposed on the basis of statistical analysis using the entropy method. On the example of a paddle agitator used in sugar production for mixing massecuite, a simulation of the process is carried out. The proposed algorithm for quantitative analysis of the quality of the mixture during its mixing can be used to predict the flow of the mixing process of bulk material, regardless of the nature of the powder, in a wide range of particle dispersion.Keywords: powdery substance, mixing equipment, diffusion apparatus, efficiency of the mixing process, entropy method.
The method of the heating degree calculation of grinded sunflower seeds in a microwave chamber using absorption, reflection and attenuation properties is presented. The value of the useful energy of microwave radiation in the range of 5,6 to 12,1 GHz with different material and emitter position in a chamber was determined. It was obtained that the maximum transformation degree of electromagnetic radiation into useful heat energy is 48,7% of the total energy of microwave radiation at 12,1 GHz with positioning the material near the reflector. The presented method can be applied for a heating processes modeling and calculation of various plant materials using microwave treatment.Keywords: electromagnetic radiation, reflection coefficient, absorption coefficient, composite absorbing material.
Analysis and modeling of the kinetics of the extraction of vegetable oils on the turns of oil-pressing units
Used in the industry the pre-oil extraction pre-presses and the expellers for the final spin differ in the geometry of the screw shaft turns. Currently, there is a tendency to combine these devices into a single oil-pumping unit based on the geometry of the sets of turns of the forpress and expeller or two rotating screw shafts, which can significantly increase the duration of the process by increasing the length of the screw channels. An analytical solution is proposed for a mathematical model of the distribution of flow and hydrostatic pressure of oil-bearing material in the process of pressing vegetable oil in a continuous way in the channel of the screw press. The possibility of mathematical modeling of this on the basis of a two-dimensional model of a layered flow of a non-newtonian fluid, taking into account the geometry of the turns of the screw shaft and the speed of its rotation, is shown, which makes it possible to consider this process from a single point of view of using modern oil-extracting units, both on the basis of the geometry of sets of turns of the forpress and expeller, and two screw shafts. As a result of the conducted studies, an estimate of the channel capacity was obtained, taking into account the resistances of the output device, as well as an analytical solution for the distribution of the flow of oilseed material and the hydrostatic pressure of the oilseed material during the extraction of vegetable oil.Keywords: equipment for the production of vegetable oil, hydrodynamics of laminar flows, viscous liquid, two-phase mixture, mathematical model, modeling, pressing, press, extrusion.
The need to develop gluten-free products is due to the growing number of people suffering from celiac disease, the prevalence of which is 1 case per 100–200 people of the population. Solving the problems that arise in the production of gluten-free flour confectionery products makes it relevant to search for new types of raw materials that do not contain gluten and can improve the consumer properties of products. Buckwheat flour (BF) was chosen as a source of gluten-free raw materials. Gluten-free cookies from BF were obtained in combination with various hydrocolloids-acacia, tragacanth, guar and xanthan gums, which were separately added to BF samples in the amount of 1 g/100 g, and its physical and chemical and sensory properties were studied in comparison with similar properties of wheat flour cookies (WF). The purpose of this work is to obtain gluten-free cookies from BF in combination with various hydrocolloids – acacia gum, tragacanth, guar gum and xanthan gum, which were separately added to BF in the amount of 1 g/100 g, and to study its physical, chemical and sensory properties in comparison with similar properties of cookies from WF. It was found that the samples of BF with the addition of gums have higher moisture content, and the cookies obtained from a mixture of BF with gum according to the technology developed by us – a greater thickness, weight and reduced strength at destruction compared to BF and cookies made from it. In the sensory evaluation of the quality of products conducted on a nine-point hedonistic scale, it was found that the highest quality indicators are cookies made from WF, the lowest – cookies made from BF. The introduction of gums improved the sensory performance of BF-based products. A sample of BF-based cookies with the addition of xanthan gum was recognized as the best. Thus, the use of hydrocolloids improves the water-binding ability of flour and the sensory characteristics of the product – color, aroma, taste, and makes it possible to obtain gluten-free cookies of sufficiently high quality, comparable to the quality of cookies made from wheat flour.Keywords: buckwheat flour, gums, gluten-free cookies, physical and chemical indicators, sensory assessment.
Influence of biogenic substances adding into molasses solutions on the efficiency of biologically active substances synthesis
A byproduct of sugar production – beet molasses is used in the microbiological industry as a component of a highly productive substrate for the cultivation of microorganisms that synthesize biologically active substances. In our opinion, the preliminary preparation of molasses by its saturation with biogenic substances to increase the efficiency of the vital activity of microorganisms is promising. To confirm this, the effect of introducing biogenic substances into the solution of beet molasses during their processing on the vital activity of microorganisms that contribute to the increase in the synthesis of vitamin B2 and fats has been studied. The objects of the study were a solution of beet molasses with a mass fraction of dry substances of 78% and 3 strains of microorganisms – Bacillus subtilis B-501, Cryptococcus curvatus Y-2236 and Rhodotorula glutinis Y-332. Analysis of the initial content of macro-and microelements in the solution of beet molasses allowed us to establish that the nutrients contained in the molasses are sufficient for the vital activity of Bacillus subtilis B-501 with a specific production of vitamin B2 in the amount of 0,019 g/g of sugars with a degree of sugar utilization of 42,55%. To improve the vital efficiency of the Rhodotorula glutinis Y-332, the addition of ferrous FeSO4 and manganese MnSO4 sulfates is required, which increase the fats specific production from 0,019 to 0,030 g/g of sugars in each case. To improve the vital efficiency of the Cryptococcus curvatus Y-2236 the addition of ferrous FeSO4 and manganese MnSO4 sulfates, as well as sources of phosphorus KH2PO4 and nitrogenium (NH4)2SO4 is required. Adding these nutrients contributes the increase of fats specific production from 0,011 to 0,015–0,020 g/g of sugars.Keywords: beet molasses, synthesis, fats, vitamin B2, biogenic substances, vital activity of microorganisms.
Grain energy bars, which are in high demand among consumers, are convenient for introducing healthy nutrients and functional compounds into the diet. The influence of the basic components – blasted rice grains, amaranth and quinoa on the protein, fat content, total dietary fiber, hardness, and overall acceptability in grain energy bars was studied. It was found that the content of protein and fat in the samples of bars increased as the proportion of quinoa and amaranth grains in their composition increased. The increase in fat content led to a decrease in the carbohydrate content of cereal bars. Samples of manufactured bars, depending on the ratio of grain components, can contain up to 7,76% fiber, which allows us to classify such a product as a functional prebiotic product. The addition of fibrous ingredients affects the texture of the product, improving the hardness, chewiness and adhesion. The overall acceptability of the manufactured samples of grain bars ranged from 5 to 7,9 points with a 9-point rating. The highest rating was given to a sample with an equal content of exploded quinoa, amaranth and rice grains in the formulation, and samples with a higher content (66,67%) of exploded quinoa and amaranth grains were also noted.Keywords: rice, quinoa, amaranth, exploded grains, grain energy bars, reduced carbohydrate content, fiber, sports nutrition.
Methods of Investigation, Quality & Safety of Food Products
Determination of the botanical origin of honey and the bonitet of honey-bearing vegetation by pollen analysis
The development of quality systems for honey products consumed by the population is impossible without an assessment of the floral wealth of the region. The purpose of this study is to establish the botanical origin of honey by pollen analysis, as well as the bonitet of honey-bearing vegetation in the south of Western Siberia. The object of the study was 92 samples of honey collected in 2019, obtained from apiaries located in different soil and climatic zones of the region. For the analysis, honey in the amount of one natural drop was applied with a glass stick to a slide, covered with a cover glass. The morphological structure of pollen grains was examined under a microscope at a magnification of 400. After identification of pollen grains at an increase of 100, the number of grains of each morphological type found was counted. Then the arithmetic mean of the results of five parallel determinations in 5 drops was calculated, the sum of the arithmetic mean values of the total number of counted pollen grains of each identified type was determined, and the frequency of occurrence was calculated. The botanical origin of honey was determined based on the percentage of pollen grains present: when the number of pollen grains of the same morphological type exceeds 45%, the sample was considered monoflower, from 44 to 15% – a component of mixed honey (polyflower), from 14 to 0% – the presence was recorded, but not taken into account. It was found that when obtaining monofleral honey, honey bees prefer plants: siberian angelica (Archangellica decurens Idb.), wood angelica (Angelica silvestris L.), yellow melilotus (Melilotus officinalis L.), white melilotus (Melilotus albus Medic.), rapeseed (Brássica nápus L.), common bruise (Echium vulgare L.). Based on the presence of pollen grains in honey samples, it was found that 82,02% of honey plant species are wild, 17,08% are introduced into culture and are used for food, feed, and as supply plants. The connection of soil-climatic zones with the specific priority of pollen grains of plants in honey is revealed. For the entire region, these are wild species – siberian angelica and forest angelica, from which the maximum amount of monoflower honey is obtained – 42,42%.Keywords: honey-bearing vegetation bonus, honey quality. monoflower and polyflower honeys.
The influence of the complex feed concentrate «Tetra-Bio» on the quality, safety, nutritional value, culinary and technological properties of pork
The influence of the complex feed concentrate «Tetra-Bio» on the quality, safety, nutritional value, culinary and technological properties of pork was studied. The objects of the study are meat samples obtained after slaughter of pigs of two groups. During the period of rearing and fattening, the 1st group of pigs received the main diet (control), the 2nd group received «Tetra-Bio» in addition to the main diet (experimental). It is established that the control and experimental samples of pork belong to the I category, to the extra class and meet the requirements of GOST 31476–2012. It was found that the content of toxic elements and pesticides in the experimental sample of pork is significantly lower than in the control: the content of lead, cadmium and mercury is 2 times, arsenic is 2,5 times, pesticides are 2 times. In the experimental sample of pork, the protein content is higher by 5,5% than in the control, and the moisture content is lower by 3,7%. It was found that, in contrast to the control sample, in which vitamins A and E are absent, in the experimental sample of pork, the content of vitamins A and E is 0,13 and 0,33 mg/100 g, respectively. Application in animal feeding integrated feed concentrate «Tetra-Bio» ensures high safety of meat, the increase in meat protein, decrease of water and fat, the increase in the content of macronutrients potassium and phosphorus and trace element iron, the accumulation of vitamins A and E, as well as improvement culinary and technological properties of pork.Keywords: pork, feed ration, quality, safety, nutritional value, culinary and technological properties.
Carbon monoxide content in the aerosol gas phase of electronic nicotine delivery systems of various designs
The results of the analysis of the content of carbon monoxide CO in the aerosol gas phase (AGPh) of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) of various designs are presented. Aerosol collection was carried out on the Cerulean SM450 smoking machine according to the 2 methods: CRM № 81 and experimental CRM № 81exp. The novelty of the AGPh ENDS research is the quantitative assessment of the CO content included in the list of nine priority toxic substances of the WHO. It was found that AGPh produced by Luxlite and Von Erl My devices contains trace amounts of CO, which is due to the relatively low power of the devices and the temperature at which AGPh is generated. The analysis of the iKuu i200 devices showed the formation of CO from 0,04 to 12,4 milligram per puff. The lack of regulation the maximum permissible CO content in the aerosol ENDS different designs, methodological framework for the control of substances generated during their operation, is a definite risk to consumers, which requires the development and implementation of the system of technical regulation products containing nicotine.Keywords: carbon monoxide CO, electronic nicotine delivery systems, nicotine-containing products, gas phase, aerosol, liquids for ENDS.
Economics of Food Industry
Marketing-emotional brand locator – designer of innovative modernization transformations in the production sector
The concept of “marketing-emotional brand locator” is introduced, which is a complex tool for managing changes in the main components of the subject. It is argued that the marketing-emotional locator of the brand acquired the properties of the constructor of innovative modernization transformations in the production sphere, allowing to modify marketing and communication ties between market participants, filling them with new content and increasing the entrepreneurial activity of the commodity producer and owners of resources and capital. A communication brand model with a predominant marketing-emotional dominant is developed, which allows transforming incoming signals from external market agents into the focus of the brand’s impact on the targets audiences of the market economic space.Keywords: regional economy, production sphere, modernization transformations, marketing-emotional brand locator, innovation factor, trust, communication brand model, economic growth.
Indicators of the quality of transport and logistics services that affect the competitiveness of logistics companies are considered. The levels of quality of transport service services are presented. The assessment of the quality and competitiveness of transport and logistics services of the consulting company LLC Mabetek (Khabarovsk) in comparison with other logistics companies of Khabarovsk and the Khabarovsk region was carried out. The calculation of parametric indices of transport and logistics services according to the indicators of integrated security has been performed. It is established that the company Mabetek according to the consumer is the average service quality among the similar, but superior to them by the criterion of «Time of order» indicator and integrated safety, i. e. it is the safest. To increase competitiveness, the company’s management department is recommended to develop and systematically monitor criteria for quality assessment, including not only the segmentation of the consumer market, but also the level of integration with food and processing enterprises; to determine the optimal ratio of indicators for maximum satisfaction of consumer demand and the company’s costs.Keywords: quality indicators of transport and logistics services, quality level, integrated security indicators, competitiveness.
The features of the professional identity of food processing engineers are revealed on the based on the survey of young engineers and students of food specialties. It is established that the concept of professional identity among young respondents evolves from a formal understanding of the specifics of the specialty to an awareness of responsibility and social significance as the personal meaning of the profession, which shifts the vector of career orientations from stability and significance to independence and creativity. The factors that, according to the respondents, are significant for the formation of a competitive engineer’s personality are identified. Methods of research: analysis of scientific literature on the problems of professional identity formation; modeling; methods of qualimetry; survey methods and questionnaires; cognitive multiparametric analysis; methods of mathematical statistics. Methodological bases of the research: subject, competence, sociological, system and qualimetric approaches.Keywords: professional identity, reflection, image of an engineer, motivation, values, career, psychological diagnosis.
Solution of situation tasks as a method for implementing the profile of training students «Technology of the organizations restaurant business»
The use of the method of solving situational tasks in the training of public catering specialists of the profile «Technology of the organization restaurant business» is justified. The use of situational tasks in the educational process, the conditions of which should reflect the practical activities of a specialist in the field of public catering and restaurant business, is proposed. Examples of such tasks are presented. The algorithm for solving them has been developed. The use of the method of solving situational tasks in practical classes activates the cognitive activity of students, contributes to a deeper mastery of theoretical and reference material, the formation of professional thinking of future specialists in the field of public catering.Keywords: situational tasks, training profile, teaching method, educational process.