Food technologyIssues → № 2-3 (380-381), 2021

Table of contents for # 2-3 (380-381), 2021

Scientific Review

6

Modern technologies of rye-wheat bread with the use of amaranth flour

Shmalko N.A.
Annotation

A comparative analysis of modern technologies of rye-wheat bread with the use of amaranth flour obtained from the food grain of amaranth is given. The advantage of the technology of rye-wheat bread with the use of dry starter cultures with the introduction of acidifying additives and baking improvers is noted, which makes it possible to reduce the bread production process by 2,5–3 times in comparison with the traditional method using biological starter cultures. Evaluation of the efficiency of rye-wheat bread technologies using amaranth flour as an improver, providing for the combined use of the additive with dry sourdough-acidifiers, which ensures the duration of dough fermentation until the required acidity is reached, no more than (70 ± 10) minutes, is given. Studied of the effect of the dosage of amaranth flour – 0 (control); 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10,0; 12,5 and 15,0% on the change in the specific volume of bread, cm3/100 g, in comparison with the choice of the type of amaranth flour – whole-ground, protein, cereal was carried out. It was found that the introduction of sourdough-acidifier into the recipe of rye-wheat bread increases the baking properties of rye flour with reduced enzymatic activity due to the addition of amaranth flour (falling-number value of 63 seconds) with an indicator of the falling-number value of rye-wheat mixture of at least 327–330 seconds. These methods of making rye-wheat bread with using amaranth flour have been industrially tested and recom- mended for introduction into production.

Keywords: amaranth flour, rye-wheat bread, sourdough, improver, acidifier, technology.
10

Russian dairy products: the evolution of identification

Makeeva I.A., Stratonova N.V., Pryanichnikova N.S., Belyakova Z.Yu.
Annotation

In the modern market of dairy products, there is a tendency to reduce the cost of replacing expensive components and processes with budget ones. The need for technological developments is determined by marketing, guided by consumer preferences and the economic component. Russian dairy products produced from classic raw materials using traditional technologies are often falsified with similar products with reduced mass fractions of fat and protein, replacing dairy components and live starter cultures due to the lack of a system of identification characteristics. Product identification is an integral part of the assessment (confirmation) of compliance and the main means of combating falsification. The identification criteria are regulated product indicators. In TR CU 033/2013 “On the safety of milk and dairy products” includes the concept of “national dairy product”, but there are no criteria for identifying products of this group. The purpose of this work is to search for unique characteristics of Russian dairy products and classic technologies that distinguish them from similar products. The method used is a retrospective analysis of the literature with a search depth of up to the 1930s. The traced period of development of the identification of dairy products revealed the raw material, technological characteristics, as well as packaging as criteria. The identified criteria will form the basis for the formation of a system for identifying Russian dairy products.

Keywords: national dairy products, identification, retrospective analysis.
13

Use of various types of vegetable raw materials in the production of lactose-free food products

Ulyanova O.V., Illarionovа V.V., Guba E.N., Guseva M.V.
Annotation

In recent years in the world there has been a tendency to increase the consumption of lactose-free and low-lactose dairy pro- ducts, due to the increased attention to the problem of lactase deficiency, which is characteristic of all age groups of the population. By analyzing thematic sources, it was found that the production of new types of lactose-free products is possible both with the use of various technological methods that regulate the content of lactose in finished dairy products, and with the use of vegetable raw materials, an alternative to cow’s milk. Characteristics of the composition of nutrients, energy and biological value of the most popular types of vegetable raw materials used in the production of lactose-free products: soy, coconut, rice and almond milk – are given. The state of the Russian market of lactose-free products is analyzed.

Keywords: lactose-free and low-lactose dairy products, soy, coconut, rice and almond milk.
17

Prospects for obtaining food ingredients and biologically active substances from sugar beet pulp

Semenikhin S.O., Gorodetskiy V.O., Kotlyarevskaya N.I., Viktorova E.P., Lukyanenko M.V.
Annotation

The article provides a review of foreign scientific research on the production of vanillin, oligosaccharides, lipids and enzymes from sugar beet pulp. The presence of lignin in beet pulp, mainly consisting of ferulic acid, makes it a promising source for vanillin obtaining – according to Iranian researchers, its yield is 1439,3 mg/100 g of sugar beet pulp. In the works of Polish and Dutch researchers, it was noted that using various enzymes it is possible to achieve a 95% degree sugar beet pulp dietary fiber hydrolysis to oligosaccharides. In the microbiological treatment of sugar beet pulp to produce lipids, their production is 0,12 g/g of dry substances with a chain length of 16–18 carbon atoms, which is similar to the vegetable oils lipid chains length. Microbiological synthesis of enzymes from beet pulp has also shown its prospects. So, with liquid-phase fermentation of sugar beet pulp with a dry substances content of 2%, the production of β-amylase using P. chitinolyticus was 2,237 units/ml. During solid-phase synthesis of β-glucooxidase using T. aurantiacus, it was 70 units/g of dry substances, and A. __pullulans _– 13 units/g of dry substances. During solid-phase synthesis of α-galactosidase by _A. niger molds, production amounted to 230,159 units/g of dry substances, A. spinosa – 117,8 units/g of dry substances and F. moniliforme – 207,33 units/g of dry substances. It is noteworthy that the enzymes obtained by microbiological treatment of sugar beet pulp have high activity, as well as resistance to changes in temperature and the medium reaction. The data obtained by various researchers show the prospects of using beet pulp for the food ingredients and biologically active substances production.

Keywords: sugar beet pulp, flavorings, oligosaccharides, lipids, enzymes, microorganisms, food ingredients, biologically active substances.

Chemistry of Food Products & Materials

22

Influence of wort fermentation conditions on the content of biogenic amines in white table wine materials

Ageeva N.M., Shirshova A.A. , Matskul A.V.
Annotation

The influence of the conditions and method of fermentation of grape must on the concentration of biogenic amines in white table wine materials was studied. Wine materials prepared by fermenting the wort of the Chardonnay grape variety by the Pro Elif yeast race, which has the greatest decarboxylating ability, and the Sudak VI-5 race (control), which provided the least accumulation of biogenic amines. Fermentation of the wort was carried out under laboratory conditions in a stationary, continuous and fractional-topping way. The concentrations of biogenic amines in wine materials were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Experimental data on the content of biogenic amines – histamine, methylamine, cadaverine, putrescine and phenylethylamine in white table wine materials produced using various fermentation methods with and without stirring of the fermenting medium are presented. It was found that the yeast race has a significant effect on the concentration of biogenic amines. The use of the Pro Elif race led to a greater formation of biogenic amines in comparison with the _Sudak VI-5 _race. Mixing did not significantly affect the amount of biogenic amines. It was shown that the concentration of histamine, methylamine and phenylethylamine increased during fermentation. It was found that the greatest increase in the concentration of the sum of biogenic amines is observed when the wine material is aged on a yeast lees, especially in the absence of mixing.

Keywords: yeast, biogenic amines, decarboxylation of amino acids, white table wine materials.
24

Investigation of the extraction of aroma-forming substances from basil leaves with sugar syrup solutions

Alekseeva A.A., Kachaeva N.Yu., Yakuba Yu.F., Burlaka S.D.
Annotation

The possibility of using sugar syrup solution for the extraction of aroma-forming substances from basil leaves is investigated. Fresh crushed green basil leaves and sugar syrup solutions of 5, 10, 15 and 20% concentrations were used as the objects of the study. The extracts were kept at room temperature for 1, 2 and 3 days. During the aging process, samples were taken in a volume of 2 ml and the qualitative and quantitative composition of esters was determined by gas-liquid chromatography, as well as the presence of mineral elements by capillary electrophoresis. Esters were found: ethyl acetate (C2H5–O–CO–CH3), ethylcaproate (CH3–CO–(CH2)4–CH3), ethylcaprilate (C2H5–O–CO–(CH2)6–CH3), ethylcaprinate (C2H5–O–CO–(CH2)8– -CH3), ethylaurate (CH3–O–CO–(CH2)10–CH3), and ethyllactate (C2H5–O–CO–CH(OH)–CH3). It was found that the best extraction of ethyl acetate when extracted with 10% sugar syrup is up to 37,8 mg/dm3, 15% – up to 34,36 mg/dm3. Ethyl lactate is better extracted with a solution of sugar syrup of 20% concentration – up to 563,3 mg/dm3. Also acetaldehyde, acetoin, diacetyl, and 2,3-butylene glycol were extracted with sugar syrup. The formation of acetoin occurs due to the condensation of two acetaldehyde molecules. The presence of diacetyl and 2,3-butylene glycol can be explained by the formation of acetoin. The obtained extracts contain, mg/dm3: potassium – 500–680, sodium – 15–18, magnesium – 34–53, calcium – 83–125, ammonium – 10–20. It was found that the applied extractant concentrations are not sufficient for the complete extraction of esters.

Keywords: extraction, extractant, basil leaves, esters, aroma-forming substances, sugar syrup.

Technology

28

Revealing the effectiveness of the impact sulfide-containing reagents on microbiological contamination of sugar beet processing semi-products

Gorodetskiy V.O., Semenikhin S.O., Daisheva N.M., Kotlyarevskaya N.I., Usmanov M.M.
Annotation

The value of unaccounted sugar losses in Russia is 0,06–0,14 million tons per year, which makes it necessary to implement measures to reduce them. The article presents the results of studies to reduce the microbiological contamination of diffusion juice, purified juice of the and syrup removed for long-term storage. The reasons for the contamination of sugar beet root crops with pathogenic microorganisms are considered. The method of setting up laboratory tests is given. It was found that at the stage of processing the extractant, the use of sulfurous anhydride reduces the contamination of the diffusion juice with MAFAnM and mold fungi by 41,75 and 40,26%, respectively. At the stage of processing filtered juice of second carbonation, the use of sulfur dioxide reduces the contamination of MAFAnM juice by 76,67% and almost completely suppresses mold fungi. At the syrup processing stage, the use of sulfurous anhydride reduces the contamination of the syrup after long-term storage by MAFAnM and mold fungi by 68,97 and 58,33%, respectively, while the use of sodium bisulfite – only by 31,03 and 33,33%, respectively. Based on the results obtained, a reasonable conclusion is made that the treatment of beet sugar production intermediates with sulfite-containing reagents, namely, sulfur anhydride, is an effective technological technique to ensure the reduction of unaccounted losses of sucrose resulting from the vital activity of microorganisms.

Keywords: sulfur dioxide, sodium bisulfite, microorganisms, contamination, diffusion juice, purified juice, syrup.
31

Using of products of processing of fruits of rare crops in the formulation of a multicomponent functional food product

Prichko T.G., Droficheva N.V., Smelik T.L.,. Germanova M.G
Annotation

The formulation of a multicomponent functional food product «Dzhem profilakticheskiy» using the fruits of rare crops – henomelis, creb apples and sea buckthorn, containing polyphenolic and mineral substances, vitamins P, C, E, β-carotene and pectin, is developed. Four samples of the formulation are made up. Based on the requirements for the consumer characteristics of food products, the optimal ratio of the components of the formulation is calculated using the linear programming method. By the method of organoleptic evaluation, a sample of a multicomponent product prepared according to the formulation 3 was selected. The biochemical parameters were studied and the energy value of the developed product was calculated in comparison with the control sample – jam made from fresh crushed fruits – apples, pears, sea buckthorn, prepared according to GOST 31712–2012. It was found that the developed multicomponent product «Dzhem profilakticheskiy» surpasses the control sample in all the studied biochemical parameters. The total content of natural antioxidants in the developed multicomponent food product is 589,5 mg/100 g. Consumption of 100 g of the developed product provides the daily requirement of the human body for vitamin P and amino acids by 100%, β-carotene and pectin up to 95%, vitamins C and E by 50%. The energy value of 100 g of the developed multicomponent food product «Dzhem profilakticheskiy» is 167,9 kcal.

Keywords: henomelis, cream apples, sea buckthorn, functional product, natural antioxidants.
35

Effect of treatment with preparations based on 1-methylcyclopropene on the organoleptic and biochemical parameters of apples during storage

Kupin G.A., Pershakova T.V., Sverdlichenko A.V., Gorlov S.M.
Annotation

The problem of ensuring high quality products to optimize the cost of its production and storage is relevant for producers and processors of fruit crops. The effect of processing apple fruits with preparations based on 1-methylcyclopropene on the changes in the organoleptic and biochemical parameters of the products during storage was studied. The object of the study was apples of the Aydared variety grown on the territory of the Krasnodar region, the harvest of 2020. In preparation for the study, a part of apple plantations during the fruit ripening period was treated with the preparation «Rumyanets» based on 1-methylcyclopropene for 28 days with an interval between treatments of 7 days. After fruit picking, part of the fruits from the treated and untreated trees were treated once with 1-methylcyclopropene with a concentration of the active substance of 1.4% before being stored. 4 samples were prepared for storage: sample 1 – unprocessed apple fruits (control); 2 – apples treated with the preparation «Rumyants» during the ripening period; 3 – apples treated with 1-methylcyclopropene before storage; 4 – apples treated with the preparation «Rumyants» during the ripening period and 1-methylcyclopropene before storage. Apple samples were stored at a temperature of (2 ± 1)°C and relative humidity of 85% for 30 days. It was found that the highest score for significant organoleptic parameters – the area of the painted surface, the main and cover color of the skin, taste and smell had the sample of apples 2. Its biochemical parameters at the end of the storage period were higher than those of the control sample. The content of vitamin C in fruits at the end of storage decreased: in the control sample by 7,3%, in the sample of apples treated during maturation with a preparation based on 1-methylcyclopropene – by 3,6%. Additional treatment of apples with 1-methylcyclopropene preparation before storage contributed to a decrease in the organoleptic quality indicators of apples (samples 3 and 4).

Keywords: apple fruits, 1-methylcyclopropene, apple preservation, organoleptic and biochemical parameters.
38

Prospects for the use of a pulsed electric field in the processing of insect biomass

Shorstkii I.A., Parniakov O.S., Smetana S.N.
Annotation

The search for alternative sources of protein (microalgae, insect biomass) creates the need to develop new processing technologies or adapt existing ones, taking into account the preservation of valuable raw materials. The use of a pulsed electric field (PEF) for processing the biomass of the larvae of the black lion fly (Hermetia __Illucens) with subsequent conversion into food ingredients is considered. We studied the survival of insect larvae when using PEF, and also determined the effectiveness of its effect as a stage of pretreatment of insect biomass on the yield of valuable raw material components – protein and fat in the composition of cake, oil and the fatty acids and amino acids contained in it. Treatment with pulsed electric fields was carried out using positive rectangular pulses at electric field strength of 2 and 3 kV/cm and expended specific energy of 5, 10 and 20 kJ/kg at the PEF-Cellcrack II industrial unit (Elea, Germany). The oil was extracted by hot pressing. It is shown that when the electric field strength is 3 kV/cm and the specific energy consumed is 5 kJ/kg, all insects lose their viability; their tissues become looser after PEF treatment. It is established that the use of PEF does not change the qualitative composition of the components of the resulting oil. Changes in the PEF processing parameters of insect biomass samples do not significantly affect the oil extraction process and the content of fatty acids and amino acids in it. Pretreatment of insect biomass contributes to an increase in the yield of oil by 2,5%, amino acids by 5,7% compared to the control sample without PEF treatment. The results of the study allow us to recommend the use of PEF as a stage of preparation of insect biomass before further processing.

Keywords: pulsed electric field, oil yield, bio-product, fly larvae biomass.

Food Engineering, Processes, Equipment & Automation of Food Production

45

Influence of sugar substitutes and dietary fiber on the textural properties of gluten-free dough and cookies

Strelkova A.K., Krasina I.B., Filippova E.V., Lysenko A.V.
Annotation

The search for ingredients to replace or reduce the content of sugar, salt and fat while increasing the content of dietary fiber in the product is an actual trend in the development of food technologies. The influence of maltitol (M) and inulin (I) when replacing sugar in the formulation of gluten-free cookies on the texture and physical properties of the dough and the product prepared on the basis of a flour mixture of amaranth, quinoa and buckwheat in a ratio of 0.3 : 0.45 : 0.25 respectively was studied. Five samples of cookie formulations were compiled, in which sugar was partially (50%) or completely (100%) replaced by M and/or I. In the formulation of the control sample, sugar was used as a sweetener. When preparing the gluten-free cookie dough, the amount of water for all samples was the same. It was found that the complete replacement of sugar M and I increases the hardness, viscosity and adhesiveness of gluten-free dough, which makes it difficult to process it. In samples where 50% of the sugar was replaced by M or the sugar was completely replaced by M and I in equal amounts, the stickiness was reduced. Adding M to the formulation of gluten-free cookies did not significantly affect its physical properties – diameter, height, blurring, and color brightness. The cookie samples baked from the dough with the inclusion of I were darker and thinner than the control sample, and better preserved their crispy properties. The addition of M and I did not significantly affect the hardness of the products, but the samples of cookies with a complete replacement of sugar M, with a 50% replacement of sugar I, as well as containing M and I in equal quantities, were characterized by significant brittleness. When replacing 50% of the sugar M in the formulation, or 100% of the sugar I, a soft and less brittle cookie is obtained, which is attractive to the consumer. Thus, if you completely replace the sugar with a mixture of M and I in equal amounts, you can get a gluten-free dough and cookies with a good texture. Complete sugar replacement combined with the use of dietary fiber with prebiotic properties, along with the flour of pseudo-cereals, allows you to create a healthy product with a potentially lower glycemic index and reduced caloric content.

Keywords: gluten-free dough, gluten-free cookies, texture, maltitol, inulin.
49

Basic mixes for functional fat-based food products

Volf E.Yu., Simakova I.V., Kozyreva V.M., Mukhamedzhanova Yu.V.
Annotation

Most sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) do not contain them in the optimal ratios recommended by the FAO for a healthy diet. An unbalanced ratio of ω-3 : ω-6 leads to a number of alimentary-dependent diseases. The purpose of the research is to create mixtures of unrefined vegetable oils, balanced in the ratio of ω-3 and ω-6 PUFA, from regional raw materials for functional nutrition. The object of the study was unrefined vegetable oils from ginger seeds, milk thistle, safflower and mustard, and food oil compositions obtained by blending. The methods of gas-liquid chromatography revealed an imbalance of the fatty acid composition in each studied vegetable oil separately. By the method of mathematical modeling, food systems with a ratio of ω-3 : ω-6 acids of 10 : 1 were designed. By means of organoleptic analysis 3 samples of blends were selected. The reference points for selection were functional and sensory properties. It was found that when consuming 15 ml of blended oils, the daily requirement is met: in vitamin E by 19,0–37,5%, in ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids respectively by 14,8–24,0% and 28,7–47,2%, depending on the sample of the blend. The resulting mixtures can be recommended as a basic component in the production of functional products – salad dressings, mayonnaise, spreads, etc.

Keywords: blends of unrefined vegetable oils, polyunsaturated fatty acids, safflower oil, ginger oil, milk thistle oil, functional food products, and enriched products.
53

Influence of product to be fried type on the rate of thermal oxidation of oils

Borisevich A.V., Chalykh T.I.
Annotation

The study of the process of thermal oxidation of sunflower and coconut oils at 175°C under conditions of in-line frying of potatoes and chicken nuggets in them with the sampling of vegetable oil every hour of operation was carried out. To determine the amount of oxidation products the method of spectrophotometry was used. It was found that after 10 hours of roasting, the studied fryer oils were suitable for further use (E < 15). The optical density index of coconut oil, regardless of the type of product fried in it, was lower than that of sunflower oil throughout the experiment. The optimal heating temperature of coconut oil for deep frying is proposed-no more than 0,9 of the temperature of the smoking point. A more active accumulation of secondary oxidation products in deep-frying oil is shown when frying an animal product compared to frying a vegetable product, which can be explained by the presence of oxidation inhibitors (peroxidase, catalase, vitamin C) in the composition of potatoes.

Keywords: sunflower oil, coconut oil, thermal oxidation, deep-frying oils, spectrophotometry.
56

Comparative assessment of the functional properties of the food additive «Tomatnaya» obtained by various technologies

Viktorova E.P., Lisovaya E.V., Lukyanenko M.V., Kornen N.N., Kuzminova E.V., Semenenko M.P.
Annotation

For the obtaining of preparations and additives with antioxidant properties, tomato pomace, formed during the production of direct-pressed juice with preliminary separation of seeds, is of interest. A comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of the functional properties of food additive samples obtained from tomato pomace using various technologies was carried out. The sample of additive 1 was obtained using a technology that includes IR drying of pomace, cooling and grinding; the sample of additive 2 was obtained using a technology that includes additional pretreatment of pomace in microwave EMF before IR drying. The studies were carried out for 30 days on three groups of laboratory white rats: a control group, the animals of which were given a standard diet, and two experimental ones, in which the animals, in addition to the main diet, were given individually once a day with 2 g of an additive of sample 1 (1st experimental group) or sample 2 (2nd experimental group). It was found that the degree of decrease in the concentration of liver enzymes AsAt and AlAt in the blood of animals of the 2nd experimental group was respectively 10,6 and 11,0% higher, than in the blood of animals of the 1st experimental group. The degree of decrease in the content of diene conjugates, ketodienes and malondialdehyde in the blood of animals of the 2nd experimental group was higher respectively by 22,1; 10,1 and 12,7% compared with similar indicators of animals of the 1st experimental group. Thus, it is proved that the food additive «Tomatnaya», developed by innovative technology, shows pronounced antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties, which ensures the normalization of biochemical processes in the body, increases its antioxidant protection and prevents the destruction of cell membranes.

Keywords: tomato pomace, microwave EMF treatment, food additive, hepatoprotective properties, antioxidant properties.
61

Influence of sugar substitutes on stability of grain energy bars during storage

Krasina E.V., Kalmanovich S.A., Krasina I.B., Kurakina A.N., Kritskaya S.S.
Annotation

The increase in the number of alimentary-dependent diseases associated with an increase in the glycemic index makes the development of sugar-free products relevant. It is of interest to study the effect of sugar substitutes on the moisture-absorbing characteristics of grain energy bars, which are in great demand by consumers. The object of the study was samples of grain bars without sugar replacement-sample 1 (control) and with sugar replacement with isomalt and maltitol – samples 2 and 3 respectively. The moisture-absorbing properties of grain bars were analyzed by sorption isotherms constructed according to the Caurie, Khun, and Guggenheim Anderson de Boer models, with water activity from 0,1 to 0,9. It was found that when the water activity was higher than 0,6 in samples 2 and 3, in contrast to the control sample, a sharp increase in the moisture content occurred. The value of the equilibrium relative humidity for the control sample was 50%, and for samples 2 and 3 with sugar replacement – about 60%. After 90 days of storage, the sample of the bar 2 with isomalt had a higher sensory quality (it retained its softness and crunchy properties) compared to the control sample and the sample 3 prepared with maltitol. Thus, replacing sugar with alternative sweeteners in grain energy bars makes them more stable during storage.

Keywords: grain energy bars, sports nutrition, sorption isotherms, equilibrium relative humidity, persistence, quality.
65

Research of fat mixtures – analogues mid-fraction of palm oil

Baranova Z.A., Krasina I.B., Nikonovich S.N., Baranova E.I.
Annotation

Improvement of the processes of modification of oils and fats when obtaining fatty semi-finished products with optimal crystal formation properties is relevant for production fat and oil products and confectionery. There is a limited amount of natural vegetable oils with an optimal fatty acid and triglyceride composition for use as the basis of fatty mixtures in the production of confectionery fat fillings. Rich in saturated fatty acids, cocoa butter and shea butter are expensive fatty components with specific properties for use in confectionery. Meanwhile, palm oil has a good balance between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. In order to reduce the cost of semi-finished fat products by re-processing the formed intermediate oleic fractions of palm oil and obtaining fat semi-finished products having physicochemical and structural-mechanical properties similar to the middle fraction of palm oil, a comprehensive study of the physicochemical properties and the main indicators of melting and solidification developed fatty compositions: pour point no more than 23,4°C; hardness at 20°C from 43,7 to 44,7%; mass fraction of POP triglyceride from 41,4 to 42,7%. Physical and chemical characteristics of the initial components of fatty semi-finished products, , hardness at 20°C: intermediate oleic fraction 32,5; first stearic fraction 74,3; middle palm oil fraction 45,6. The melting point of the intermediate oleic fraction is 32,8°C. Samples of fatty semi-finished products for the production of confectionery fatty fillings (crystallization index from 1,9 to 2,0) were obtained. The results of the study showed the possibility of creating fatty semi-finished products – analogues of the mid-fraction of palm oil, which contain 10 of the intermediate oleic fraction.

Keywords: technologies of modification of oils and fats, confectionery fats, fat semi-finished products, transisomers of fatty acids, mid-fraction of palm oil, fractionation.
68

Efficiency of multi-level rotary thermal sterilization of pear compote in a container SKO 1-82-1000 in open-type apparatuses with the use of liquid high-temperature heat transfer agents

Rakhmanova M.M., Demirova A.F., Akhmedov M.E., Roslyakov Yu.F., Kasyanov G.I.
Annotation

A new method of multi-level sterilization of compote from pears in glass containers SKO 1-82-1000 with the use of liquid high-temperature heat transfer agents, the essence of which is that the step heating is carried out sequentially in water and a solution of dimethyl sulfoxide, followed by step cooling in water with a temperature difference of up to 20–25°C. For the first time in the development of new sterilization regimes, the coefficient of industrial sterility was introduced, which is determined by the ratio of the actual value of the sterilizing effect of the developed regime to the standard one that ensures industrial sterility of products. For the developed sterilization mode, the coefficient of industrial sterility, taking into account the standard value of the sterilizing effect for compotes, equal to 150–200 conditional minutes, is for the wall layer Pst = 220/200 = 1,1; for the central layer Pst = 207/200 = 1,03. Both values of the industrial sterility coefficient approach one, which indicates the absence of overheating of individual layers of the product, which is typical for traditional sterilization modes. Multi-level sterilization mode helps to reduce the duration of heat treatment, exceeding 60 minutes, while ensuring the required level of product safety.

Keywords: energy efficiency, multi-level sterilization, compotes, sterilization mode, heating, cooling, apparatus, liquid heat carriers.
71

Statistical representation of porous medium technological coefficients formulas

Zhukov V.G., Chesnokov V.M., Lukin N.D.
Annotation

In various industries, materials are used that are porous media, on which the efficiency of the production process and, consequently, the quality and cost of the product largely depend. The most common processes in food production are filtration separation, drying and filtration impregnation. Their solution is usually based on the technological coefficients of porosity and permeability, the values of which are determined by relatively simple experimental methods for a real poly-dimensional porous medium. In this case, it is impossible to analytically take into account the difference in filtration rates in pores of different sizes, the change in the moisture content of the porous material during drying, or the displacement of the mobile medium filling the pores. Therefore to solve this problem, it is necessary to take into account the statistical nature of the distribution of pores by their size. In this paper an analytical representation of the formulas for the coefficients of discontinuity, transparency, porosity, and permeability is developed based on the statistical functions of the pore size distribution. The object of the study was a porous medium made of fine-grained or consolidated material, the pore space of which consisted of a poly-dimensional ensemble of through pore channels in the form of a statistically ordered isotropic homogeneous system of communicating pores of random, very small sizes. The method of obtaining formulas was based on the statistical formula of the lognormal distribution of pores of the characteristic size of a random variable and the theorem on the relationship of technological coefficients for describing the properties of a porous medium. The calculations were performed using the Mathcad program. The correctness of the calculated formulas is confirmed by the coincidence of the limit points of the calculated graphs with the points of the histograms constructed on the basis of the experimental values of the coefficients.

Keywords: porous medium, discontinuity, transparency, porosity, permeability, histogram of the pore frequency distribution, lognormal distribution, statistical formulas.
76

Construction of a model for obtaining press oil in oil-compression units taking into account the hydrodynamics of the layered flow of the material of non-Newtonian rheology

Gukasyan A.V., Shilko D.A., Kosachev V.S.
Annotation

By solving the Navier–Stokes equation in the Couette–Poiseuille problems, the boundaries were determined, within which the process of pressing oil is described using the geometric and speed parameters of the auger turns. The calculations were performed for a high viscosity material having non-Newtonian rheology effective viscosity characteristics. Using the balance flow ratios, it was possible to predict the operation of the oil-pumping units in the pre-pressing and expeller mode. As a result, a model of vegetable oil extraction is derived based on the hydrodynamics of the layered flow of oilseed material in oil-pressing units, taking into account the flow distribution and hydrostatic pressure in the channels of the auger turns. The use of a two-dimensional layered flow model based on the solution of the Couette–Poiseuille problem is based on the Navier–Stokes equation for the steady-state regime. The simulation results are based on the technological parameters of the pulp entering the pressing – the initial oil content of the sunflower pulp and the initial flow rate of 380 kg/h, which is determined according to the throughput as an analytical solution to this problem. The upper limit of the applicability of the model of layered flow of oil-bearing material is determined by the ratio of the geometry of the auger turn with a minimum throughput of 154 kg/h and the oil content in this material in the range from 0 to 0,5 kg per 1 kg of oil-bearing material. The lower limit of the applicability of this model is determined by the idealized case of extrusion of pulp through the auger channels in the absence of pressing. The dependences of the pressure change on the pulp flow rate, obtained on the basis of the layered model, allow us to reliably interpolate the pressure distribution along the auger turns during the pressing of oilseed material. The residual oil content of the oilcake is about 10% at a capacity of 200 kg/h, which gives a good match with the calculated values.

Keywords: Navier–Stokes equations, Couette–Poiseuille problems, oilseed material of non-Newtonian rheology, effective viscosity, high-viscosity material flow.
81

Use of complex vepol technologies in designing technological equipment for efficient processing of raw materials and production of food products

Ermoshin N.A., Nikolyuk O.I.
Annotation

The results of the analysis of the efficiency of the use of traditional types of energy and the influence of physical and mechanical fields in the production, storage and transportation of food are presented. The complex effect of fields of different nature on technological processes is considered. New principles for the development and production of technological equipment based on the synergy of heat, ultrasound, vacuum, pressure, electromagnetic influences, mechanical vibration are proposed, which reduce the cooking time by 1,1–2,2 times, the number of mold fungi and mesophilic aerobic microorganisms by 1,5 and 2 times, respectively, and reduce energy costs by 10–15%. To assess the effect of the integrated use of various types of energy in the preparation and storage of food, the synergy coefficient is introduced and justified.

Keywords: food raw materials, foodstuffs, initial components, technical means of the food industry, vepol (substance + field) technologies, synergistic effect, quality and safety.

Methods of Investigation, Quality & Safety of Food Products

88

Comparative analysis of the physicochemical properties of varietal red wines researched by different methods

Sheludko O.N., Strizhov N.K., Kosarev E.S., Sheludko N.O.
Annotation

A comparative analysis of the type of titration curves, optical spectra, the content of organic acids and cations of alkaline and alkaline earth metals of red varietal wines with the search for criteria markers was carried out. The objects of the study are red varietal wines produced using the same technology from grapes grown in the central zone of the Krasnodar Territory, the variety: Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Saperavi, Isabella. It is established that the titration curves are individual, allowing us to give a qualitative assessment of the authenticity of wine products by the initial pH value (due to the potassium content), by the type of titration curves before the jump (due to the content of tartaric and malic acids). The quantitative content of titrated acids was determined, as well as marker values confirming the authenticity of the wines: pH, tk, dpH/dt. The optical properties of wines do not allow us to give a quantitative assessment of phenolic substances, but they expand the possibilities of using this method as an integral characteristic of varietal red wines by the type of optical spectrum and the value of the optical density D and the wavelength λ. The ratio of cations of alkali and alkaline earth metals to each other can be used as an additional marker of varietal wines produced from grapes of the Vitis vinifera or Vitis labrusca species. It is shown that the difference in the shapes of the titration curves of different wines, as well as the optical spectra and differences in the content of organic acids and cations of alkaline and alkaline earth metals can be used as graphic images of wine products of a specific denomination within the framework of the national system for the protection of wines with special qualities.

Keywords: Russian wines with protected geographical indication, physicochemical properties, potentiometric titration curves, absorption spectra, organic acids, graphic images of wines, metal cations.
92

Influence of vegetable and cereal additives on microbiological and organoleptic parameters of fish-vegetable semi-finished products during freezing

Zolotokopova S.V., Kasyanov G.I., Eremeeva S.V., Lebedeva E.Yu.
Annotation

Microbiological parameters of fish-vegetable semi-finished products were studied before freezing and after 10, 30, 60 and 90 days of storage at a temperature of –(18 ± 1)°C. The objects of the study were semi-finished products made from tilapia fillets with the addition of vegetable and cereal ingredients in various variations to improve the consistency, color and aroma of the fish- vegetable product. The control was a sample of semi-finished fish minced meat without additives. Organoleptic evaluation of products prepared from frozen semi-finished products stored from 10 to 90 days was carried out. It was found that the number of microorganisms when introducing vegetables and cereals into minced fish increases due to their specific microflora. After freezing, the number of mesophilic aerobic and facultative-anaerobic microorganisms index decreased in all samples of fish-vegetable semi-finished products: after 10 days – 2 times, after 30 days – almost 4 times, after 90 days – 10 times compared to the indicator before freezing. However organoleptic characteristics of all products prepared from them deteriorate when storing fish-vegetable semi-finished products for 90 days the. The samples containing 30% of vegetables and 15% of cereals showed the smallest decrease in the organoleptic assessment, the sample of semi-finished products containing only vegetable additives was the most unstable in terms of organoleptic properties. Thus, to preserve the organoleptic properties of the product during freezing, the optimal amount of adding vegetables to the recipe of fish-vegetable semi-finished products is 30%, cereals – 15%. The optimal shelf life of frozen fish-vegetable semi-finished products is 30 days.

Keywords: fish-growing semi-vegetable product, duration of storage during freezing, improvement of organoleptic parameters, preservation of organoleptic properties.
96

Research of quality indicators of finishing semi-finished products for flour confectionery products of reduced calories for dietary preventive purpose

Laptinova K.A., Doroshenko T.A., Tamova M.Yu., Franchenko E.S.
Annotation

The quality indicators of the finishing semi-finished products developed on the basis of the recipe of the cream «Charlott» with the addition of cocoa powder and without it for flour confectionery products of reduced caloric for dietary prophylactic purposes were investigated. The reduced caloric of finishing semi-finished products is due to the replacement of butter in the recipe of the cream «Charlott» with cream of 33% fat content. It is established that the investigated organoleptic indicators – appearance, color, smell, structure and taste of the developed finishing semi-finished products correspond to this type of products and differ insignificantly from similar indicators of the «Charlott» cream prepared according to the standard technology. According to microbiological indicators, the developed finishing semi-finished product after storage for 24 hours at a temperature of 4°C met the requirements of TR CU 021/2011. The shelf life of the developed low-calorie cream is set – for 24 hours at a temperature of 2 to 6°C. The cost of a unit of low-calorie products with the addition of cocoa powder and without it, respectively, by 50,4 rubles and by 37,4 rubles lower than the same indicator of products manufactured using standard technology. The profitability of the developed products increased by 20% and amounted to 60%, which indicates a positive economic effect from the introduction of low-calorie finishing semi-finished products into the production. The results of studies of quality indicators and industrial testing of finishing semi-finished products of reduced caloric allow us to recommend them for production at public catering enterprises when developing flour confectionery products of a dietary preventive orientation of reduced caloric.

Keywords: finishing semi-finished products, reduced calorie, dietary preventive products, microbiological indicators, economic efficiency.
99

Influence of biochemical indices on microbiological contamination of apples of summer and winter varieties districted in Krasnodar region during storage

Babakina M.V., Gorlov S.M., Tyagushcheva A.A., Olefir E.A., Kudinov P.I., Altunyan M.K.
Annotation

The influence of the biochemical composition of summer apples – Scarlet Sails, Piros and winter apples – Granny Smith, Ozark Gold varieties on the formation of the process of infestation of fruits with pathogenic microflora when stored at a temperature of (4 ± 1)°C within 30 days. The studied fruit samples were received from JSC “Sad-Gigant” (Krasnodar region) in 2019. It is established that there is a certain relationship between the nature of chemical transformations and the keeping quality, as well as the degree of resistance of fruits to microbial pathogens. The value of the correlation coefficient (CC) depends on the variety. A high degree of inverse relationship between the number of mesophilic aerobic and facultative anaerobic microorganisms, mold fungi and the content of dry soluble substances and polyphenolic compounds was established for apples of the Scarlet Sails variety, CC –1,000 and –0,952, respectively. For the Granny Smith variety, a high degree of direct dependence of the number of mold fungi on the content of fiber (1,000) and pectin (0,756) and a high degree of inverse dependence on the content of polyphenolic substances (–0,995) were established. For the Piros variety, there is a high degree of inverse dependence between the amount of MAFAnM and the content of fiber (–0,094) and dry soluble substances (–0,203); direct dependence of the amount of mold fungi on the content of vitamin C, sugars and pectin: 0,971; 0,927 and 0,747, respectively. In apples of the Ozark Gold variety, a high degree of inverse relationship is established between the amount of MAFAnM and the content of fiber, dry soluble substances, pectin: –0,994; –0,595; –0,665, respectively. This variety also has a high degree of inverse dependence of the number of mold fungi on the surface on the content of fiber (–0,994) and polyphenolic compounds (–0,754). The obtained data can be used for the development of apple storage technologies based on the prediction of keeping capacity depending on the biochemical parameters.

Keywords: fruit storage, apples, biochemical parameters, microbial contamination, prediction of keeping capacity.
103

Analysis of consumer motivations and preferences when choosing frozen desserts

Simonenko T.A., Shamkova N.T., Baranov A.S.
Annotation

The analysis of the existing recipes of frozen desserts is given and the national traditions of their production are described. The results of marketing research of preferences consumer for frozen desserts among 135 visitors of public catering enterprises in Krasnodar are presented. The majority of respondents – women 39% and men 48% aged 18 to 25 years consume frozen desserts, : several times a week 8, once a week 12, several times a month 42, once every two to three months 34; 0,4 do not consume ice cream at all. More than half of the respondents chose frozen desserts with natural fillers, while focusing on the price, type of product and manufacturer. A positive attitude to new products was noted in 63% of women and 59% of men. When choosing frozen desserts, the priority for consumers, women and men, respectively, is %: availability of products, including low cost 64 and 77; compliance of products with the requirements of healthy nutrition 50 and 40; high nutritional value 68 and 52; shelf life 93 and 69. The growth zone for the producers of this product group is shown – it is the development of recipes and technologies for low-calorie frozen desserts with high consumer characteristics.

Keywords: desserts, ice cream, assortment, marketing research, consumer preferences.

Economics of Food Industry

108

Resource deflector as a driver of economic growth in the production sphere of the food industry

Gubin V.A., Khandamova E.F., Shchepakin M.B.
Annotation

The importance of the state of the Russian economy and the food industry in solving the problems of the socio-economic well-being of citizens is indicated. The influence of resource decompensation in creating prerequisites for managing the competitiveness of the industrial complex is considered. The concept of marketing-behavioral myopathy has been introduced into scientific circulation, which denotes the process of violation of marketing and behavioral reactions of subjects as a result of modulation influences from subjects of the external environment and leading to an increase in the internal inertia of the labor resource in the development and implementation of innovative solutions and to the inhibition of economic growth in the production area of the food industry. Restructuring transformations on the basis of innovation in value chains can provide the subjects of the production sector in the industry segments of the regional economy with the strengthening of their competitive positions, even in an unstable economy and the presence of contradictions of various kinds. It is argued that the resource deflector has dichotomous properties inherent in it as a tool for resource management and as a catalyst for building rational communication interactions in the processes of restructuring transformations. The resource deflector as a driver of economic growth of business in the food industry is integrated into the proposed model of anti-crisis management of the competitiveness of the production complex, creating prerequisites for the effective implementation of innovative changes in its components.

Keywords: production sphere, food industry, marketing filler, innovative transformations, marketing and behavioral myopathy, resource deflector, marketing and behavioral adaptation, crisis management, competitiveness, economic growth of the production complex based on innovative changes in its components.
116

Conceptual approach to the formation of a competitive strategy of a food industry enterprise

Prokhorova V.V., Basyuk A.S.
Annotation

Based on the analysis of trends in the development of the Russian agro-industrial complex in recent years and taking into account changes in the growth of household income and the structure of consumption of basic food products, models for building competitive strategies for food industry enterprises are proposed. The classification of basic competitive strategies is presented; their features and advantages in various market situations are described. A conceptual approach to the formation of competitive strategies of the enterprise, based on the analysis of its possible development and the situation in the industry and involving the creation of long-term competitive advantages of the enterprise based on its positioning in the market, is proposed. The differentiation strategy and its features in comparison with other competitive strategies are considered. The possibilities of creating additional customer value of the product are presented. An algorithm for the development and implementation of the competitive strategy of the enterprise, which allows to systematize analytical data, minimize the gap between the planned and actual economic indicators of the enterprise and contributes to the timely adjustment of the chosen competitive strategy, is proposed.

Keywords: competitive strategy of the enterprise, competitive advantages, positioning of the enterprise in the market, product quality, the purchasing value of the product.
120

Development and implementation of elements of an integrated management system enterprise

Dvadnenko M.V., Marchenko A.G.
Annotation

Integration of management systems (IMS) allows to unify the management process and reduce costs, including the elimination of the consequences of erroneous management decisions. 12 successive stages of implementation of an effective quality management system in accordance with ISO 9001–2015 and ISO 14001–2016 have been formulated using the example of LLC «M» (Tuapse, Krasnodar region), whose activities are related to the provision of round-the-clock bunkering services in the port and in the roadstead. The sequence of execution of 12 stages of the IMS is presented. Calculated the total cost of work on the IMS for 12 months. Improving the quality management system will contribute to the further development of the company and strengthen its position in the domestic and foreign markets.

Keywords: integrated management systems, perspective development, stages, IMS elements, quality.
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